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The Importance of Physical Activity - ... Indication that declining levels of physical activity are contributing to obesity, adding the importance of targeted intervention and uncovering ways to encourage children to develop a healthy lifestyle from an early age. Achieving positive physical development, not only contributes to a child’s physical development, but furthermore improves children’s cognitive skills and impacts positively on their social-emotional ability and behavior. The relationship between regular physical activity and cognitive development is so clearly established that in today’s educational world, almost all schools have made physical education mandatory....   [tags: Child Development ]
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1547 words
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Developments in Middle Childhood - ...   The cognitive advances of this stage forms part of Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development.  This stage theory is compiled of 4 specific stages that relate to the cognitive development of children.  Middle Childhood build up to the third stage that is known as the Concrete Operations Stage.  This stage is marked by the greater understanding of grouping and an increased ability to focus on more than one aspect of a stimulus (Marsh, 2010).   Physical activity is crucial to children’s healthy growth and development....   [tags: Child Development ]
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1577 words
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The Benefits and Challenges of Developing Play and Leisure Activities in Play Therapy - ... In parallel to Freud; Gil (1994, p.7) suggests that “play allows the child to bring forward unconscious conflicts and confront his/her affect in a safe way, thereby integrating experiences that left intact could cause symptomatic or acting out behaviours”. Equally, Esman (1983 in Gil, 1994, p.7) outlines the view to why play is a vital aspect of a child’s psychological development, as “it allows the communication of wishes, fantasies’, and conflicts in the ways that child can tolerate affectively and express at the level of his or her cognitive capabilities”....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Middle Childhood and Adolescence - ... Children are completing the foundation blocks instilled in them while in early childhood and building upon them with new cognitive development. Children become rule based and listen when spoken to. School plays a large part in this since teacher educate kids to listen, sit down quietly and work in small , in the future will be vital for real life work in adulthood.("Stages of Growth Development," 1898-1987). In this stage of life Piaget’s cognitive theory comes into play. Children in this stage in life are more concrete operational, meaning that they deal with visible, tangible things....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Developmental Profile - ... According to Papalia et al., (2009) “Authoritative parenting provides the right balance. It offers warmth and acceptance, assertiveness with regard to rules, norms and rules, willingness to listen, explain and negotiate and encourages children to form their own opinions”(p.408). Jane being in the lowest percentile for weight meant that she approached puberty rather late. At the age of 15 most characteristics developed at puberty suggested by Papalia et al., (2009) had developed and at this time she began to show interest in the opposite sex....   [tags: Child Development ]
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The Benefits and Challenges of Developing Play/Leisure Activities - ... Promoting pleasure as well as physical activity, play forms the holistically development in a child’s existence, or to put it in another way using Brown (2003) abbreviation, know as SPICE, play represents the ‘social interaction’; ‘physical activity’; ‘intellectual stimulation’; creative achievement and emotional stability, (with the addition of “compound flexibility” ) of a child’s development. Compound flexibility is the idea that a child’s psychological development occurs using the relationship between his/her environment with the adaptability of the child himself....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Piaget - According to Piaget, from earliest infancy children actively build schemes as they manipulate and explore their world. By acting on the world during the sensorimotor stage, infants make strides in intentional behavior and understanding of object permanence. In the last of six substages, toddlers transfer their action-based schemes to a mental level, and representation appears. Recent research, especially in the areas of physical reasoning and problem solving, indicates that a variety of sensorimotor capacities emerge earlier than Piaget believed, raising questions about the accuracy of his account of sensorimotor development....   [tags: Child Development] 304 words
(0.9 pages)
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Social Capital in the Developing World - ... It involves creating and operating policies within the organization through a hierarchy of managers (Huges, 1998). Management in a summarized term is all about achieving goals and getting results. The main objective of management is result oriented, to monitor cost effectively, improve economic growth and maximizing productivity. This essay entails the study of social capital and its development process. In doing so, a comparative analysis, its development and its management will be taken into consideration....   [tags: International Development]
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Nourishing a Child - ... The understanding of a child’s development is based on many sources of knowledge such as theoretical models, empirical research, program evaluation and professional experience (Shankoff & Phillips, 2000). Years of models, research and experience have shown the devastating and often deadly effects of denying nourishment to the developing child. The effects can vary drastically depending on what the body is deprived. Protein Energy malnutrition is the most severe form of malnourishment and results in the most fatalities....   [tags: Child Development ]
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The Media's Grip on the Adolescent Psyche - ... The Children`s Television Act was passed by Congress almost 30 years ago as a way to use our media in a constructive way for our children`s development. The promise envisioned by Congress at that time of a quality children`s media environment remains just that: a promise (Calvert Para.8). “The article television use between African American and Latino child care providers in low-income households that are caring for children under the age of 5 years. Everyday experiences such as television viewing may impede or support healthy child development”( Shivers 39-45)....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Biological Aspect of Early Childhood - ... The simple identification of one object with another is Type IIA, which is the third level of symbolic play described by Piaget (Casby 2003). During the level of Type IIA a child may take an object and treat the object as if it represented another object. For example, a young child singing into the television remote control as if the remote control is a microphone. When a child pretends that they are a particular animal or a monster would be an example of the fourth level of Piaget’s observation of symbolic play, Type IIB....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Brain Based Early Learning Programs: Education, Society, and National Policy - ... Several of the best business minds, including Nobel Prize-winning University of Chicago economics Professor James Heckman, warn “America is falling behind the rest of the industrialized world because workforce quality is declining” (ECCIC). The military must compete in the open market for employees, and that is a major concern to America’s military leaders. In 2009, a military study found that 75% of young people seventeen to twenty-four did not qualify to serve because they lacked a high school diploma, could not pass required basic knowledge tests, failed in overall physical fitness, or had police and/or drug records (ECCIC)....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Theoretical Practices - ... The second stage states that parents that allow children to explore and give them choices would help them to become independent. Whereas the parents that are overprotective and controlling will instil a sense of doubt and shame. The third stage also stated that parents who support the child in a safe supportive manner would encourage their children to be more initiative whereas parents who are unsupportive and critical of the child will instil guilt in their child. The fourth stage suggested that parents and education professionals should make the child’s efforts engaging and worthwhile as without this the child may feel worthless and inferior....   [tags: Child Development ] 1123 words
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The Macrosystem: From Child to Adult - ... Understanding a person’s development across their lifespan sheds a lot of insight on what maybe the issues the client is facing. The society and culture in which children are raised is the underlying influence to all systems and this is the macrosystem. Understanding the interactions of these systems is the key in understanding how a child develops and what factors lead to the failure. The breakdown of a child’s microsystem leaves a child with no tools to explore other parts of his environment....   [tags: Childhood Development]
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Child Care Services - ... Over a period of time with the influence of advancement in social science as well as in pure science, the dimensions and approaches of child care change to a wider extend and a stream of researches on services related to child care identified the fact that all the service components are quite interdependent and interrelated. It is impossible to distinguish services like child fostering to child development or child development to pre-schooling. These services are interrelated and overlapping in nature....   [tags: Child Development ] 1522 words
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Middle Childhood to Adolescents - ... In the twenty-first century transitional risk factories for middle age children include: poverty, violence, mental and physical challenges and family disruption. The social skills learned through peer and family relationships, and the child's increasingly ability to participate in meaningful interpersonal communication, offer a necessary foundation for the challenges in other life transitions. Children in this stage enter into a social arena known as “school” where best friends are formed and become an important asset in providing the building blocks for healthy relationships....   [tags: Child Development]
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How Does the Brain Work? - ... Piaget also believed that children in the early stages of development need to get hands on experiences for them to learn; hence some curricula in Australia and new Zealand have started to put this in practice (Krauss, Bochner, Duchesne, Mcmaugh, 2007). Certainly when I studied to become a trained child caregiver fifteen years ago, we were encouraged to follow Piaget’s theory in order to provide developmentally appropriate experiences for the children. I constantly made notes on each Childs development, and made sure the child fit into the age appropriate developmental area; from there the individual experiences were planned....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Proper Nutrition During a Baby's First Year - ... How a child was nurtured at birth has a direct bearing on his or her future. One of the most famous experiments on attachment was Harlow’s monkey experiments. After watching a video of the monkey experiments the conclusion is that nurturing is directly related to an infant’s attachment. Harlow was trying to discover how attachment develops. He placed baby monkeys into a room with some unfamiliar objects. When left in the room with these objects the monkeys became very scared and agitated. When a cloth like figure was placed in the room the babies would cling to the mother like figure, and then they would gradually begin exploring the room....   [tags: Child Development ]
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844 words
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The Nature of Play - ... The notion of play allows a child to take on an ‘inventive role in constructing new ideas and setting their own goals’ as described by Smidth (2002:8) thus allowing them to build on their creative and thinking skills. ‘As children are playing they are free to create meaning which derives from internal sources rather than external models ’( Hoorn, Nourot, Scales & Alward, 1993) this allows them to make meaningful links which will support their brain development and help broaden their overview....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Three Categories of Discipline - ... The success of power-assertion is dependent on the child’s continuation of fear of the authoritarian parent. This fear tactic has very powerful effects on children, and can result in immediate behavioral changes. This “fast cure” makes changing to a different discipline seem unnecessary. However, due to habituation and maturity, children begin to question authority, leading frequently to an escalation in the tactics used by the parent to maintain this absolute power. In addition, continuing use of power-assertion has been linked to unjustified aggressive behavior and moral immaturity in children (Hoffman, 2000)....   [tags: Child Development]
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The Basics of Toilet Training - ... There are many emotional issues that can greatly affect toilet training that include a eagerness for independence, a child’s need for control, testing of rules and limits, desire to win parents’ approval, and fears of toilet use. If a child resists the idea of using the toilet when mentioned he may be experiencing an emotional issue and the parent should wait for a better time to follow through with the process. If the child is continually repeating signs of resistance a parent may want to rethink if it is too soon to begin the process and understand that the child may be going through a major change in the his life that is creating stress....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Intelligence - ... In this way, twin studies give psychologists greater insight into the role of genes in intelligence. Critics of twin studies suggest that twin similarities may be a result of chance rather than evidence of heredity at work. Also, because adopted twin children tend to be placed in similar settings, critics suggest that the trait similarities may be a matter of comparable experience rather than one of heredity. Adoption studies allow psychologists to decide on the influence of genetics and environment on human development by determining whether adopted children are more like their biological parents, who provide their genetic makeup, or their adoptive parents, who provide the environmental influences....   [tags: Child Development]
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Developmental Physical Education - ... Finally, movement performed through general space entails pathways: straight, curving, or zigzagging”(Pica, 33). One of the games that can be associated with this level is called Slice the Pizza. All the students make a circle and every individual is given a number. The teacher will call out two or more numbers and then, the student will stand with their arms spread out, symbolizing that they are pizza cutters. The student will then make a sliding motion to the other side of the circle, symbolizing that they sliced the pizza....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Urie Bronfenbrenner and his Ecological Systems Theory - ... For instance: the connection between the child’s neighborhood and church or between their parents and teacher. III. Exosystem: Is made up of the larger societal system, the places and things which influences the child, yet the child doesn’t directly affect them. It is the larger social scheme wherein the child has no direct functionality. These are the structures that interact with some part of the child’s microsystem layer, impacting the child’s development. For example: the Parent schedule for work, or resources from the community that the parent may receive....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Erikson's Psychosocial Theory - ... One way a parent could do this would be give their toddler a choice in what they wear between several outfits, or a choice of activities. Parents could ask their 3 year old "do you want to go to the pool or do you want to go to the park today?" This would allow their toddler to act on their own and develop a sense of autonomy without relinquishing too much control to them. Once a sense of autonomy has been developed, the next stage in the psychosocial theory is initiative versus guilt. This stage is from about age three to age six and children focus on whether or not they can "carry out [their] plans successfully" (Sigelman, C....   [tags: Psychology, Development] 2227 words
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Self-Recognition in Toddlers - ... Sally attends an English day care five days a week, and her sister attends afterschool care at the same facility. Materials The materials needed to complete the observations were a tube of red lipstick, a full-length mirror and small doll that was attached to the end of a broom handle with fishing line. Procedures The testing took place at the child’s home in the living room. Only the child, the mother and the experimenter were present at the time the observations took place. The experimenter arrived at the child’s house with the mother at approximately five o’clock in the evening on Friday October 21, 2011....   [tags: Child Development]
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Child’s Play is Serious Business - ... Too much influence and forcing young children to learn may weaken curiosity and lessen excitement of learning. “This stage can be summarized by saying that a preschooler with initiative expresses who they are, whereas a preschooler with guilt does not (Nursing Resource Admin, 2010, p. 2).” Jean Piaget, another theorist, had four periods of life that he labeled key to human cognitive development. Piaget believed that through language and their relationships with their environments, people mentally develop (Berk, 2010, p....   [tags: Child Development ]
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The Influence of Nature Vs Nurture Debate and how it affects Twin Studies and Adoption - ... The National Mental Research Health Organisation, 2009 states that some of these factors include: pre-pregnancy factors, pregnancy stress, other prenatal factors, social stress, family stress or environmental factors that they experience during their childhood, teen or early adult years. (National Mental Research Health Organisation, 2009 p. 1) According to Picker, 2005, “no one factor appears to be most significant in the genesis of schizophrenia. This is evident despite the very significant resources that have been expended in the search to understand the patho-etiology of schizophrenia....   [tags: Child Development]
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Autism Spectrum Disorders - ... People with autism frequently have repetitive motor mannerisms including hand flapping, finger flicking, and tiptoe walking. Repetitive behavior often appears in the form of obsessively learning about certain subjects like vacuum cleaners, train schedules, or coins. Often times they have a great interest in numbers, symbols, or science topics. Children with autism do not realize that other people feel differently and have different priorities than them. They have a very difficult time understanding social cues....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Measuring Mecury Levels in Mothers and Newborns - ... They had higher significantly blood mercury than non-eaters (3.02µg/l versus 2.99µg/l respectively). There is a sufficient literature to support the premise that increased maternal fish intake increases fetal exposure to mercury in particular; methylmercury (Mahaffey et al., 2004, Oken et al., 2005; Fok et al., 2007; Unuvar et al., 2007; Hsu et al., 2006). Other sources of mercury exposure may be dental amalgam and/or skin-lightening creams. Future studies are needed to examine the potential toxicity of mercury particularly in heavy consumers of fish....   [tags: Child Development] 845 words
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Motivating High Risk Youth’s in the Community - ... Generation Out is a program that PLEA runs that allows youth who are lesbian gay transgender bisexual or question to come into weekly meetings. At these meetings the youth are given cupcakes that are donated from Bug City Cupcakes, chips, and high sugar juices. Then frequently the youth eat as much junk food as they want and are full and they feel sick after binge eating on high sugar food items one can sense the pain the youth is in due to the junk food they ate. Then the youth workers wonder why the youth never engage in conversations about the activity they are currently doing....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Observation Project: The Garden Preschool - ... Lizzy yelped, and Addison pulled her hand back quickly, her mouth twitched to one side, and her eyebrows knitted together. During these few minutes, Addison demonstrated some of the cognitive, emotional and social challenges typical to people in her developmental stage. For example, Addison had trouble inhibiting her impulses to move and talk to other children during story time. However, Addison did make an effort to inhibit these urges, an ability made possible by the growth of her cerebral cortex (Berk, 2008)....   [tags: Child Development ]
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The Mozart Effect - ... It claims to have substantial benefits on the well-being of premature babies. “While neuroscientists have largely dismissed the "Mozart effect" myth that listening to music enhances mental skills, practicing and performing musical compositions does seem to elevate certain cognitive capabilities”. The article explains how we are able to benefit from music, and how it enhances our brain and reasoning. Music therapy does appear to help alleviate several brain maladies. Mozart’s music is beneficial not only for mothers and their unborn children but also for adults [Siegfried]....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Preventing Obesity Within Schools - ... Priest, Swinburn & Waters (2010, p. 40) discusses a human rights approach to childhood obesity in order to tackle health inequalities. It is also noted, that there are three sets of human rights relating to childhood obesity: “UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCROC), the right to adequate food, and the right to health” (p. 40). In 1990, the Australian Government signed the UNCROC. In assessing the governments’ commitment to upholding these rights, it is reported in the 2007 – 2008 National Health Survey (Department of Health & Ageing, 2010) that the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was 49.8%....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Working Memory and Time Keeping - ... Also, there was groups of 12 children with a mean age of 14.3 years, which was added to the study. All children spoke Swedish as their primary language and live with a normal behavioral and education condition. Measure Working memory updating Participants completed two updating tasks, which were the word-based n-back task and the visuospatial matrix-monitoring task. These two tasks were somewhat similar in both experiments, but the difficulty of both tasks was increased in the second experiment to avoid ceiling effects....   [tags: Cognitive Research]
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Raising Children in a Female Homosexual Household - ... A baby will use it senses to be aware of their environment, such as how an object is shaped and feel. Psychologically, Children raised in lesbian households are no worse than children reared in traditional nuclear families. Homosexual families tend to face a lot of discrimination in their communities due to their family arrangement. In many schools children are reporting more about being teased by their peers for having a non-traditional family. There are some tips that homosexual parents can do that can be very helpful in regards to helping children cope with these everyday issues like allowing for an open line of communication that are age appropriate and also by helping them handle questions and comments about their family....   [tags: Child Development, argumentative, persuasive ]
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Raising Children in a Homosexual Household Does it affect them? - ... Children raised by gays go through the same development stages as stated by Piaget’s theory. A baby will use it senses to be aware of their environment, such as how an object is shaped and feel and adolescents will begin to develop abstract thinking and use logic to solve everyday problems. It does not matter which family household that each child grew up in, whether it is gay, single parented, or a heterosexual household these children will go through the same stages of development that Jean Piaget stated above....   [tags: Child Development, argumentative, persuasive ]
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Can Deaf Children Be Taught to Think Philosophically? - Can Deaf Children Be Taught to Think Philosophically. ABSTRACT: Researchers have found that development of what is called the "mature theory of mind" normally occurs between the ages of 3 and 5. Astington, de Villiers, Peterson, and Siegel point to age 4 as the critical age for syntactic development involving embedding sentences associated with the use of mental verbs, such as "think", "know", and "feel". These verbs are necessary for the representation of mental states such as knowledge, belief, and pretense....   [tags: Neurological Philosophy Development Essays]
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Nature Vs. Nurture - ... This phenomenon is due to the release of hormones in the individual’s body, be it earlier or later. Theories Piaget proposes that there are four distinct, increasingly sophisticated stages of mental representation that children pass through on their way to an adult level of intelligence. The four stages are roughly correlates with age. First, the sensorimotor period (years 0 to 2) whereby the infant increasingly senses stimuli (sensory reaction) and responds by moving muscles (motoric reaction)....   [tags: Child Development, Psychology]
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The Effect of Domestic Violence on Children - ... Children’s ability to control emotional expression and maintain organized behavior in the presence of strong emotions is expanding during the preschool years, but these children depend largely on their caregiver to help them in their emotion regulation. When witnessing domestic violence, preschoolers experience overwhelming emotions, including fear for their own safety and their parents’ safety, but they cannot rely on their parents for assistance because the parents are involved in their own experience and are unaware of their children’s needs (Johnson & Lieberman)....   [tags: Family Studies, Child Development]
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The Piagetian Theory and Early Childhood Education - ... It is through their active involvement in their physical world that helps them develop their intelligence, their sense of knowing. The different stages of Piagetion Theory begin at birth and follow children through many years. The first stage, sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years), is based on motor activities and senses. The second stage, preoperational stage (2 – 7 years), is based on concrete materials and what they represent. The third stage, concrete stage (7 – 12 years), is based on conservation....   [tags: Elementary Education, child development]
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The Developing Toddler - The Developing toddler The purpose of this essay was to observe the everyday experiences a child has and how it is an illustration of theories and concepts of child development. To also have a better understanding of how these theories and concepts take important role in the child’s life. The observation took place in the child development classroom. The children observed were, Joshua at fourteen months old, Roman at twenty-one months old, Elizabeth at twelve months old, and Jayden at twenty-eight months old....   [tags: child observation, child development] 1868 words
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The Language Gap - ... Scientists refer to these first words as holophrases because " a single word often conveys an entire sentence's worth of meaning" (Sigelman, C. & Rider, E., 2009, pg. 279). In the beginning, language acquisition is a slower process, and words are gained one at a time. It may take 3 or 4 months before a child has a vocabulary of 10 or so words. However, this soon speeds up after about 18 months old and the rate of word learning doubles so that at 20 months they are producing an average of 150 words (Sigelman, C....   [tags: Language Development, Mastering Language] 1521 words
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Observation of the Early Childhood - Observation of the Early Childhood An observation was held in the children'"s wing of Tarrant County Junior College. A variety of children between the ages of two to six were observed in activities ranging from physical and motor to social and cognitive development. Specifically I mean that whether it was leadership skills or lack of, running, climbing and jumping, drawing and writing, or anything that could fall between, it has been seen, done and accounted for in the following observation. First let's start with the physical and motor development....   [tags: Development Psychology Behavior Essays] 1524 words
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Cooperative Learning: Improving Social Skills in the Classroom - ... So with this large task at hand where does an educator begin. First, the student must see a need for the social skills and understand when to use them. Like any skill, it must be practiced over and over again. The teacher should be verbalizing the social skill the students are performing. Finally, students should be reflective on how the skill improved their learning experience (Johnson, D. & Johnson, R., 1989; Goodwin, 1999). One strategy that seems to be considered often when discussing social skills is cooperative learning....   [tags: Education, child development]
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Middle Childhood - ... The input of adding new information and learning from the new information is a gradual (Lightfoot, pg 405), when a child is tagged other children learn not to be so easily trapped, learning from other mistake while forming a new strategy to outwit the person who is “it”. While directing their attention to the direction and movement of the people who are “frozen”, trying to help them while still being aware of the movement around them indicates spatial awareness (Lightfoot, pg 417). Short term would occur during the rapid game, for instance what decision they made, the thoughts that are processed when making decisions....   [tags: Child Development, Early Childhood] 2484 words
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The Role of Socialization of Children in War - For over 20 years, the Lord's Resistance Army has been at war with the government of Uganda, causing a civil war. The Army's Rebel Groups, have attacked small villages, resulting in thousands of innocent deaths, and the abduction of children to fight with the rebels. In order to maintain these organizations, the Rebel Groups are faced with the difficult task of recruiting individuals. With limited available resources, the Rebel Groups cannot offer any appealing incentives to their recruits, but require complete loyalty (Vermeij, 2009)....   [tags: Socialization, Child development, War, ] 1317 words
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Teaching Techniques: Developmental Characteristics and Learning Abilities of Children Ages 10-13 - Children aged 10 to 13 are far more independent than their younger counterparts. They already possess this special ability for abstract thinking, which distinguishes them from other groups of learners and also is an additional strength. Harmer (2001) says that the age is a crucial aspect of how and what to teach to higher primary school learners. He also says that learners of different ages have different needs, competences and cognitive skills. According to Harmer, it is broadly believed that children learn a second language faster than adults....   [tags: teacher, primary education, child development] 1996 words
(5.7 pages)
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The Effects of Homelessness on Children - ... “They include disease and illness, maternal stress, lack of sanitation, lack of refrigeration, and lack of sterilization of formula” (4-5). Also emotional scars are made on these children with the lack of pivotal maternal-child bonding occurring due to the housing situation they are placed in (5). Mental disorders can very easily form and remain with the child for his or her lifetime. These disorders are due to lack of health care and the data that shows that “one-third of homeless infants are lacking essential immunizations.” Detection of these disorders however is very difficult and may be encountered too late (5)....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Child Learning Through Play - ... Vygotsky argues that a useful way to help a student who is having difficulties is to direct their attention to the key features of the task and prompt them in ways that will facilitate their understanding. Bruner has used the metaphor of scaffolding to refer to Vygotsky’s view of this kind of teacher support (Smith and Cowie, 1991). For very young children this type of structured play is not always the best method of learning. This is where Julie Fishers’ statement of children ‘being active’ is useful....   [tags: Child Development ]
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The Difference Between Men and Women - The Difference Between Men and Women The fact that men and women are different is well known. Some of these differences are constant and some are not; some have changed in the past and some are about to change in the future. While some physical differences are obvious, some of them are controversial; in addition, psychological and cognitive differences are always divisive. Men are considered to be physically stronger than women. First, the physical duties of a household always seem to be a job for the man of the house....   [tags: Gender Difference Human Development Essays] 666 words
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Piaget's Learning Theory in Elementary Education - ... 241). According to Piaget, assimilation occurs when knowledge matches children’s schemas and accommodation occurs when children change their schemas to fit new knowledge. Educational Implications of Piaget’s Theory. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is well-known and provides a basic understanding of the cognitive process and how children change with time. Most notably, developmental psychologists debate whether children actually go through four stages of cognitive development in the way that Piaget proposed....   [tags: Education]
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Paideia and the Matter of Mind - Paideia and the "Matter of Mind" ABSTRACT: Paideia refers to a particular sort of education which has historically been concerned with learning for the sake of learning, i.e., for the development of mind. As such, paideia is distinguished from specialized learning, training and learning for extrinsic purposes. Paideia is embodied in the traditional notion of Liberal Education which holds that such an education is the development of mind through the achievement of worthwhile knowledge and understanding....   [tags: Education Learning Philosophy Essays]
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The Relationship Between Language and Worldview - ... Everett therefore believes that cognitive development is the fundamental stage within which culture is founded. Communities would therefore possess different cultural interpretations and worldviews, if there is a problem in the cognitive development stages. Everett identifies language as the main issue that sidelines some communities from getting into civilization. Language barriers are also important as communication among different communities influences the perceptions and the interpretations of world matters....   [tags: linguistics, cultural studies]
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Theories of Teaching and Learning - ... Each stage is based broadly on the age of the child and affords a deeper understanding and greater development than the previous stage (Marsh, 2010b). Jerome Bruner (1915- ), in contrast to the thoughts of Piaget, developed his discovery learning theory based on the importance of understanding that children learn through studying and categorising their environment. He suggested that children categorise their environment into ‘meaningful units’ which encode their experiences (Marsh, 2010c). Bruner contended that his three stages of cognitive growth were not fixed but individual to each child as they meet that developmental stage....   [tags: Education]
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Psychology of Altruism and Morality - Psychology of Altruism and Morality The two competing theoretical frameworks that attempt to explain the development of morality are cognitive-behavioral and cognitive-developmental. The cognitive-behavioral approach is taken by Liebert, and the cognitive-developmental approach is taken by Kohlberg. Both sides have strong arguments that support their own theories and try to tear apart the opposing theory. The cognitive-developmental approach has been studied extensively by Lawrence Kohlberg. Through his studies using moral dilemmas, Kohlberg developed his six stages of moral development....   [tags: essays papers] 732 words
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The Effects of Day Care - The Effects of Day Care As more and more mothers are entering or returning to the workforce, the demand for good quality crèches, nurseries and childminders is growing rapidly. This section considers the effect that day care has on the children's cognitive and social development. Important: It is very difficult to generalise the effects of day care because the quality and types vary so widely and research studies only sample a small section of this variation. Generalisation is also difficult because most of the research is carried out in the USA, which means that the findings may not be relevant in other cultures....   [tags: Papers] 575 words
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Sociocultural Constructivism Theory - ... He work made his know as the founder of cognitive development, providing a new lenses for the “what, when, and how” of children’s cognitive development (Flavell, 1996; p. 200). Cognitive constructivism was influenced directly on Piaget’s findings. Piaget felt that “humans cannot be given information, which they immediately understand and use; instead, humans must construct their own knowledge” (Piaget, 1953). He used the word “schemas” which meant the categories children construct through incorporation and shared meaning....   [tags: Sociology, Piaget] 1959 words
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The No Child Left Behind Act - Introduction to this Paper The No Child Left Behind Act has stacked the deck against schools with special needs. At this point in time with the 2004 elections right around the corner, it seems that this Act is taking a lot of criticism for it’s rigid approach to the educational progress of our children today. No Child Left Behind has some wonderful goals and aspirations: to “close the student achievement gap, make public schools accountable, set standards of excellence for every child, and put a qualified teacher in every classroom”....   [tags: essays research papers] 2545 words
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Piagets and Vygotsky's Theories in the Classroom - ... Both psychologists believed that children learn and develop through action but in different ways; Piaget felt it was through personal, self action while Vygotsky felt is was through social interaction, internalization and vocalization. Vygotsky and Piaget realized that social factors play a part in cognitive development but in different ways; According Piaget, self processing within a child leads to social processing while Vygotsky felt the opposite- social processing leads to self processing....   [tags: Education]
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The Use of Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory in Education - ... Therefore, the more experiences children encounter the more knowledgeable they become, and the greater developmental advancements they achieve. “Learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function” (Mahn, 1999, p.341). Although Vygotsky’s argument placed greater emphasis on social interaction and cognitive development, he reminds us that knowledge differs culture to culture. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory recognizes and emphases several important aspects; language, mediation, scaffolding, and the Zone of Proximal Development....   [tags: culture, education]
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The Critique of Piaget's Theories - The Critique of Piaget's Theories Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) was a constructivist theorist. He saw children as constructing their own world, playing an active part in their own development. Piaget’s insight opened up a new window into the inner working of the mind and as a result he carried out some remarkable studies on children that had a powerful influence on theories of child thought. This essay is going to explain the main features and principles of the Piagetian theory and then provide criticism against this theory....   [tags: Papers] 1634 words
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Educational Technology Theories and Theorists - ... Constructivist learning focuses on real problems, creative solutions, transfer, and problem solving. Educators function as guides or facilitators that assist students as they generate solutions and explore in complex and rich environments. Constructivism as a theory will be forced into play within our school by emerging technologies. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Learning Jean Piaget is renowned for constructing a highly influential model of child development and learning. Piaget’s cognitive learning theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or her environment....   [tags: Educational Technology ]
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Teaching Styles - Teaching Styles The type of teaching style adopted by the teacher or coach can affect the learning environment considerably. Teachers have different styles for different situations, their style is developed by many different factors: - Ø Their personality Ø Present experience/training/skill Ø Knowledge of the activity Ø Textbooks/research Mosston and Ashworth (1886) developed their spectrum of teaching styles in looking at the decisions to be made over what when and how to teach and learn....   [tags: Papers] 435 words
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The Theories of Jean Piaget - The Theories of Jean Piaget This essay is about Jean Piaget's theory. Piaget's theory has two main strands: first, an account of the mechanisms by which cognitive development takes place; and second, an account of the four main stages of cognitive development through which children pass. Piaget suggested that there are four main stages in the cognitive development of children. In the first two years, children pass through a sensory-motor stage during which they progress from cognitive structures dominated by instinctual drives and undifferentiated emotions to more organized systems of concrete concepts, differentiated emotions, and their first external affective fixations....   [tags: Papers] 764 words
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Risk Taking Behaviour in Adolescence - ... The progression from studying animal subject to human subjects has only been made in recent times, but when examining the two there are many similarities among adolescence of all species (Casey, 2008). With advances in technology we can study human subjects through a series of methods that have advanced our comprehension of the neurobiological foundation and development of reward or incentive behaviour comparative to goal directed behaviour (Casey, 2008). The methods used include Magnetic resonance imaging methods (MRI), which can either be structural or functional....   [tags: Psychology]
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Constructivism - ... The only agreement about what it is seems to be is that constructivism involves children constructing their own knowledge” (Maddux & Cummings, 1999, p.17). The Theorists Behind Constructivism The theorists who are closely linked to the development of constructivism are Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Piaget is responsible for the development of cognitive constructivism referring to the individual process of constructing knowledge. Piaget states his theory of cognitive development in his book, The Orgin Of Intelligence in the Child stating, “that humans cannot be given information that they instantly understand; instead humans must build their own knowledge about the information that was presented to them.”(Powell & Kallina, 2009, p.242) Piaget based his theory of cognitive constructivism on the idea that “children’s schemas are constructed through the process of assimilation and accommodations as they go through the four stages of development” (Powell & Kalina, 2009, p.242)....   [tags: Philosophy, Piaget, Vygotsky] 2310 words
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How Psychologists Attempt to Explain the Origins of Prejudice - How Psychologists Attempt to Explain the Origins of Prejudice Ethnocentrism is the tendency to assume that one's culture or way of life is superior to all others. Prejudice is a negative attitude toward an entire category of individuals. Discrimination is behaviour that excludes all members of a group from certain rights, opportunities or privileges. A range of international events have recently focused attention on the issue of prejudice; increasing ethno-nationalistic tensions in former Eastern block countries, racial conflict in the Middle East, Africa and intergroup conflict related to " race debates " in Europe, The U.S.A and Australia....   [tags: Papers] 1190 words
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Children's Comprehension of Television Messages - Children's Comprehension of Television Messages The literature surveyed so far regarding children's attention to television has relied on observation of visual attention by the child viewers. Measures of visual attention alone do not provide an indication of what aspects of the message children are extracting from the television screen. In order to acquire indications of this, researchers have relied on post-viewing measures of children's recognition and recall of information from the program....   [tags: Children Television Media Essays] 9804 words
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Lee Vygotsky's Theory of Learning - ... The emphasis on social interaction influencing cognitive development impacts on how students are taught. Class room environments need to allow social interaction as a key part of learning activities. This social interaction permits students to learn from both the teacher and their peers through collaborative activities. Teachers that encourage discussion will lead students to think critically and this will assist in providing meaning to new information. (Powell & Kalina, 2009 p245) Language has a significant impact on cognitive development as according to Vygotsky language precedes thinking....   [tags: Educational Theory]
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We Must Stop Corporal Punishment Now! - We Must Stop Corporal Punishment Now.        There was an old woman who lived in a shoe She had so many children she didn't know what to do She gave them some broth, Without any bread Whipped them all soundly, and sent them to bed (Mother Goose).   All across American households, adults whip, spank, paddle, and swat children as a form of acceptable punishment and as deterrent to unwanted behaviors. These actions are considered corporal punishment, and can be defined numerous ways. The American Public Health Association defines corporal punishment as "the infliction of bodily pain as a penalty for behavior disapproved by the punisher"(American Public Health Association)....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics]
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Theories of Teaching and Learning and their Impact on the Classroom Environment - ...   Incorporating all of this information leads to the zone of proximal development and scaffolding. Vygotsky (as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) describes scaffolding as an instruction that allows teachers to support their students to complete the task (at hand) successfully. Scaffolding is used as an aid when the zone of proximal development has been identified and is the action of assistance.   In the classroom environment, understanding the functions of the brain in regards to cognitive development, recognising the zone of proximal development and scaffolding can help students comprehend knowledge with the use of prompts and cues, modelling, questioning instructional material and thinking aloud....   [tags: Education]
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Jean Piaget - Jean Piaget Introduction Now known as one of the trailblazers of developmental psychology, Jean Piaget initially worked in a wide range of fields. Early in his career Piaget studied the human biological processes. These processes intrigued Piaget so much that he began to study the realm of human knowledge. From this study he was determined to uncover the secrets of cognitive growth in humans. Jean Piaget’s research on the growth of the human mind eventually lead to the formation of the cognitive development theory which consists of three main components: schemes, assimilation and accommodation, and the stage model....   [tags: Essays Papers] 2039 words
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The Life-Span Developmental Approach to Counseling - The life-span development approach addresses the basic nature versus nurture debate by allowing for both. Just as our physicals selves are determined by both genetics and lifestyle, so are our emotional selves. As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I plan to consider life-span development to specialize in counseling a specific type of person with hopes of becoming well-versed, and therefore more helpful, in the types of experiences that group faces. “Personality can be better understood if it is examined developmentally” (Santrock, 2006, p....   [tags: essays research papers] 991 words
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Theories of Crime - ... Gottfredson and Hirschi do not believe that their general theory of crime is the only answer to the question of why we commit crime; it’s merely a piece of the puzzle. The basic premise behind their general theory of crime is that low self-control puts us more at risk of committing crime. It doesn’t necessarily mean that we will, just that we stand a greater chance. We want to maximize our pleasure so if an opportunity presents itself and we have low self-control we will be more likely to act on our impulse....   [tags: Crime]
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Why Do Children Talk To Themselves? - Why Do Children Talk To Themselves. Whether you are a parent, teacher, child care giver, or a child observer you may have noticed that many children talk to themselves. Laura Berk reports that, “private speech can account for 20-60 percent of the remarks a child younger than 10 years makes” (78). Why do children do this. Does it benefit the child as Vygotsky would say, or is it just that the child is making egocentric remarks that play no positive role in normal cognitive development as Piaget would claim....   [tags: Psychology Psychological Papers]
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Developmental Theories - ... Finally stage five is the Genital Stage, this is when the source of sexual pleasures becomes someone outside the family, and occurs for puberty onward. Freud believed that people develop in these five psychosexual stages, and that if any one stage is over or under gratifying a person would become fixated at that stage in development (Santrock). For example during the anal stage the primary focus is learning to control the bladder and bowel movements, thus giving a child a since of independence....   [tags: Psychology]
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Fields Of Psychology - Psychology (Ph.D. Code: PSY) Fields of study: Clinical, cognitive, and social psychology; neuroscience and behavior; visual perception. The program offers doctoral study for students who intend to become psychological scientists or scientist-practitioners. Students who plan to terminate their studies with the master's degree are not encouraged to apply. Admission is not limited to students with undergraduate backgrounds in psychology. Theory, method, and research experience in a number of areas of psychological science are emphasized....   [tags: essays research papers] 653 words
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What's Your Excuse? - ... Cognitive development relies heavily on the children’s environment suggesting inclusive classrooms as promoting higher order thinking and challenges for disabled children (Marotz, 2009). Cognitive theorist’s Piaget and Vygotsky both talk about how important the social influences around children are when it comes to cognitive development; Piaget claims that it is due to the interactions and co-operation of peers interacting with other peers that makes children evolve through cognitive stages (Dockett & Fleer, 1999)....   [tags: Education ]
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The Theories of Piaget and Kohlberg - Assignment 2: The Theories of Piaget and Kohlberg Many researchers have written about child development, but none are quite as well known as Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg. Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory and Lawrence Kohlberg’s moral development theory have been essential for researchers to gain a better understanding of child development. While these theories are unique in explaining different types of child development, they have many similarities and differences as well. Jean Piaget’s cognitive theory states that a child goes through many set stages in his or her cognitive development....   [tags: essays research papers] 1064 words
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