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Coal - Coal Coal, a product of decay from plants older than 350 million years, is an integral part of energy production in the United States. Coal provides 56.9% of electricity generation in the United States.[1] With many different types of coal found in different states, the U.S. remains second to Russia in the number of estimated worldwide coal reserves.[2] Between the years of 1885-1950, coal was the most important fuel. One half ton of coal produced as much energy as two tons of wood and at half the cost.[3] Even today, there is, on a Btu basis, about one hundred times as much energy in the coal reserves of the United States as there is in either the oil or natural gas reserves.[4] But coal is also a rather variable energy substance as the different ranks, or measure of degree of change from the peat stage, affects the heating value and sulfur content of the coal....   [tags: Coal Environment Economy Economics Essays]
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654 words
(1.9 pages)
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Coal Fires - Coal Fires I’ve long been familiar with the concept of coal mines, but a common occurrence I was unfamiliar with previous to this class was the concept of coal mine fires, but it is a huge problem, both economically and environmentally. Perhaps the most infamous American example of a coal mine fire is Centralia, a town in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania. Centralia was like any other coal town until one fateful day in 1962, when a heap of burning trash in a dump that doubled as a mine stripping pit quickly spread to other parts of the mine....   [tags: Fire Coal Mining Essays]
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718 words
(2.1 pages)
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Dangers Of Coal Mining - What comes to mind when you think of coal mining. If you're like me, coal mining means living in darkness and a cold hearted industry. Other words that come to mind are poverty and oppression. Coal mining is not a job that you dream about or get a degree for. People who are coal miners do not chose a life full of danger and repression, they get stuck with it. There are many dangers that come along with coal mining, not only for the workers, but for the environment. Coal mining and the coal industry have caused irreversible damage to our environment and has killed innocent miners....   [tags: Profession Coal Coal Mining Mines] 907 words
(2.6 pages)
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Coal Mining and Its Impacts - Coal Mining and Its Impacts Coal is a hard, black colored rock-like substance. It is made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and varying amount of sulphur. Coal was form as decomposition took place in the absence of oxygen and much of the hydrogen content of the matter was eroded away, leaving a material rich in carbon. The material was compressed over the years by sand and dirt, leaving the form of a carbon known as coal. The different types of coals are Anthracite, bituminous, lignite, peat, coke, and charcoal....   [tags: Coal Dangers Mines Essays Papers]
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978 words
(2.8 pages)
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Clean Coal and Its Potential - Clean Coal and Its Potential With the United States' increasing addiction for petroleum and imported energy, many organizations have begun to pressure government agencies to consider cleaner methods for fuel. As evident from recent government spending, the current administration favors the generation of electricity through a fossil fuel abundant in the United States; coal. Though coal is widely seen as a cheap source of energy, it contains many drawbacks: it’s emissions. Clean coal alternatives are available and they appear to have a promising future in the world of non-renewable energy....   [tags: Energy Coal Fuel Essays Papers]
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1011 words
(2.9 pages)
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Coal: A Human History by Barbara Freese - Coal: A Human History was written by Barbara Freese to focus on the history of coal and how mankind has used it as part of their lifestyle. Ever since the times when early nomads used the slash-and-burn method, coal has been around acting as jewelry for the Romans and as fuel for peasants and the noble class in Britain. Coal was in such high demand that many inventions were utilized for the convenience of retrieving it from intolerable conditions such as vacuums and the construction of more efficient underground tunnels....   [tags: Coal Natural Resource History] 1707 words
(4.9 pages)
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Double-Consciousness in Audre Lorde’s Coal - Double-Consciousness in Audre Lorde’s “Coal” There is a double-consciousness, according to W.E Burghardt Du Bois, in which we view ourselves through a veil. Underneath of this veil is the true self. The person that we are in our purest state. The veil itself, however, is how society sees us and our realization of that projection. Looking in a mirror, both layers can be seen. However, the true self is still covered, muddled, unclear beneath the sheer outer shell of expectation. In her poem “Coal”, Audre Lorde alludes to this concept through the dual image of a piece of coal and a diamond....   [tags: Audre Lorde Coal Essays] 1639 words
(4.7 pages)
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Coal - Coal As the granddaughter of an Irish immigrant coal miner, I thought I knew everything there was to know about coal. I was wrong. After learning about coal rank, and the different types of coal mines, I gained a much deeper appreciation for the work of my grandfather. Being from Tamaqua, I knew what anthracite coal was as soon as I could understand my Pappy’s ramblings. Among the Top 20 Signs You’re from the Coal Region, included “You think only God has the proper resume to take over after Joe Paterno leaves Penn State” (Top Ten)....   [tags: Research Essays]
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420 words
(1.2 pages)
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Coal - Coal In the world today, Coal is one of the most used Fossil Fuels in America. The black gold, which I like to call it, affects America in so many different ways. Have no worries coal is no where from becoming extinct or replaced. "Coal will be popular big time, in 2005," says Jim Thompson, who edits the weekly report U.S. Coal Review out of Knoxville, Tenn. "There will be more test bums than ever." In Wyoming alone they shipped out over four hundred million tons. I can’t even imagine how large that quantity is....   [tags: Energy Resources Fossil Fuels Essays]
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675 words
(1.9 pages)
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Got Coal? - Got Coal. In this essay, I hope to inform the reader about the variations in Pennsylvania’s coals, explain the differing methods of coal mining, and provide insights into the use of coal. Although Pennsylvania’s coal reserves have dwindled, coal is still one of the major energy forms used for electric power generation. Widespread use of alternative energy forms have not yet taken place, although this is an area that needs to develop further, if we don’t want to exhaust our current reserves of fossil fuels....   [tags: Research Essays] 790 words
(2.3 pages)
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Coal Legislation - Coal Coal is a fossil fuel- hydrocarbon containing natural resource, much like petroleum or natural gas. It is extracted from the Earth by strip mining or underground mining. It is a readily combustible black sedimentary rock, which is one of the three main rock categories. Coal is composed of carbon and hydrocarbons, in coordination with other elements. It is the leading source of electricity the world over. It is estimated that half of the world’s electricity is powered by coal. Coal mining in the United States is recorded to have first occurred in Virginia when 50 tons were purged from the earth in 1748 (coaleducation.org)....   [tags: essays research papers] 1257 words
(3.6 pages)
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Coal Mining - Coal Mining Coal, a mineral I have discussed previously, is necessary to our everyday lives. Coal is an incredible source of energy; it heats our houses and buildings, and also fuels stoves. You may often wonder where this extremely useful mineral comes from. Coal does not just appear; it needs to be mined through a process which results in our being able to utilize it. Coal mining is fairly inexpensive, is carried out on a large scale and can be mined in either underground or surface mines. Surface mining is the coal mining process that accounts for around 60% of the United States’ coal....   [tags: Economy Economics Energy Resources Essays] 612 words
(1.7 pages)
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Tennessee Coal Sludge Disaster - ... The Environmental Protection Agency found another 431 units at 162 different facilities that managed wet or slurried coal combustion residue. Of the 431 units, 49 units were assigned a High Hazard Risk. The National Inventory of Dams assesses risk on the potential loss of life. The Tennessee Valley Authority manages five of the high-risk dams. While progress has been made to make the disposal of coal combustion residue follow stricter guidelines, it is still not considered a hazardous material, and therefore have their own special set of guidelines....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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1915 words
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Nuclear, Coal, and Alternative Energy - ... Finally the entire reactor is housed in a reactor containment building a steal reinforced building with wall four feet thick, and reinforced steel bars, this is to ensure the buildings integrity in case of a reactor accident. Coal mining does however have a very adverse effect on the environment. There are two main mining types’ surface mining and underground mining. Both can contaminate water supplies, and there have been very strict federal regulations put in place to attempt to control the water leaving a mine....   [tags: Energy Sources]
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862 words
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Coal Seam Gas - ... High concentrations of sodium were found in product water in Wyoming in the United States (CSIRO, 2006: Hanson, B., Grattun, S.R. and Fulton, A, 1993). These excess sodium levels in soils can cause soils to harden on the surface, preventing infiltration and increasing runoff leading to erosion (Sessoms, et al., 2002). Black alluvial soils which are ideal for farmland are commonly found in Dalby and Chinchilla in Southern Queensland, where coal seam methane production has already begun (Australian Government, 2012)....   [tags: Environment ]
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1886 words
(5.4 pages)
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Working in a Coal Mine - ... On the one hand, ‘New Wave’ seeks androgyny; on the other, female country artists are not afraid to be seductively feminine. The presentations of ‘Working in a Coal Mine’ by both Devo and the Judd’s clearly demonstrate gender-influenced presentations of this classic R&B hit. “We’ll I’ve been working in a coal mine going down and down. Working in a coal mine going down and down; oops my body slipped down.” (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WRjgv62Ayc) With machine precision, Devo begins a rendition that expresses what would be extremely typical of the ‘New Wave’ invasion (as it was then called)....   [tags: Music] 986 words
(2.8 pages)
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Coal Mining: Benefits from Making Coal Production Cleaner - Coal Mining: Can Clean Be The New Green. When trying to choose a topic for my Response Paper, I came across the article on the SEED Magazine website titled “The Lesser Evil: Nuclear or Coal?” Because I not only live in a coal mining town, but also in a county that would no longer exist without the coal industry, I wanted to not only see what exactly was so “evil” about coal, but also how it could be made safer. With global warming, acid rain and other issues coming into view in the present, I have mostly focused on the effect that coal mining has on the environment....   [tags: energy, environment] 943 words
(2.7 pages)
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Coal as a source of economic growth versus the adverse nature of burning coal - ... Concurrently, several people from multiple ethnicities, were shown knocked down on the floor. The narration began as the referee started to count, and the anchor went on to announce “Our economy, our work force, we have all been taking big hits, but this is America” (ACCE, 2011). Suddenly, movements of those knocked down occurred as the announcer said “but this is America”. Unexpectedly, all participants started to energetically bounce around showing a desire to fight. Simultaneously, the announcer went on to say: “With more energy from coal, the fuel that supplies nearly half of our electricity, affordably, we will keep energy cost in check, jobs in America, and together, we will power the next come back, clean coal, that is America’s power” (ACCE, 2011) The ad was paid for by the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity....   [tags: Environmental Ethics] 953 words
(2.7 pages)
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Coal and Natural Gas Power Plants - ... The main focus to try to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is to reduce the amount that is released from coal-fired power plants. Greenhouse gas emissions that involve the productions of electricity come from natural gas production and coal-fired power plant operations. Natural gas production accounts for twenty-four percent and coal-fired power plant operations accounts for seventy-five percent, while the other one percent is caused by other electricity generation operations....   [tags: Energy ]
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1323 words
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Energy Vs. Beauty in Coal Mining - ... Runoff from these sites can often cause water contamination that taps into the water systems of houses and can cause people to become sick. Drinking contaminated water can lead to many health problems including: Diarrhea, kidney stones, tooth loss, and certain types of cancer (Holzman). These heath issues have been known to be the most popular in areas that are inhabited by coal and blasts sites. Sludge impoundment is usually placed on the tops of the mountain near the mine sites. This sludge is filled with dangerous metals and chemicals that can leak out and affect the mountain and communities below....   [tags: Environment, Energy]
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1523 words
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Film Review for Coal Miner's Daughter - The Coal Miner’s Daughter, an influential film, first shown in 1980, was voted an Academy Award Winning Motion Picture. This film depicts a young girl’s life who lived in a coal mining town, had a journeying life, and become a famous country singer. This motion picture was not produced purposing pure societal entertainment, but rather the accurate portrayal of Loretta Lynn’s personal life. The film Coal Miner’s Daughter, illustrates Loretta Lynn’s life’s obstacles of family struggles, influential friends, and emotional tactics of life’s exertion....   [tags: Film Review]
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1131 words
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The Fossil Fuel Coal - Coal, an amazing fossil fuel Abstract Coal has had a tremendous effect on the world. It produces the most electricity when compared to other fuels. The US generates more than half of their electricity from coal. This black or brownish‐black fossil fuel, formed by the energy in plants hundreds of millions of years ago, is made up of mostly carbon, hydrogen, and small traces of other elements like sulfur. Coal has four main types of categories. Mining is the method used to extract coal from underneath the ground....   [tags: Energy Power Natural Resources] 1903 words
(5.4 pages)
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Clean Coal Technology - Clean Coal Technology The Sun is one of the most valuable resources to us as human beings and we would not exist without it. It has provided the earth with energy since the beginning of the universe. One way that the power of the sun is utilized by us is through the use of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are essentially energy stored by the sun from milllions of years ago. One of our most valuable fossil fuels is coal. We have been using it for decades, but are just now learning all of the negative drawbacks that come with burning coal....   [tags: Energy Environment Environmental]
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460 words
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Energy Research Essay - Coal - Energy Research Essay - Coal First of all, coal can be classified in many different classes. One way is known as coal rank. Coal rank is a measure of degree of change (metamorphosis) from the peat stage. The ranks range from low rank to high rank. These are called lignite, subituminous, bituminous, and anthracite. Heating value and sulfur content reach maximum values at the bituminous coal rank. This stage contains very important environmental implications. Low ranking coal (eg lignite) releases a smoky flame when ignited....   [tags: Energy Research Essays] 470 words
(1.3 pages)
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How Coal Is Formed - How Coal Is Formed Coal is a very important fossil fuel. Without coal, steel would never have been invented and could have changed my life dramatically. The reason for this is because I am from Pittsburgh. At one point in time Pittsburgh was the leading producer of steel, and even had the nickname “The Steel City.” During the early 1900’s, steel factories were the main source of an income for people living in Pittsburgh. Working in these steel factories has been a part of my family’s past, since three generations of my family have been part of the steel industry....   [tags: Research Essays]
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685 words
(2 pages)
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Coal Usage in the Victorian Era - Coal Usage in the Victorian Era Coal was an essential of life, especially concerning warmth and food preparation, for Victorians. The use of coal has a longer history than many suspect; predates the Victorian Era by hundred of years. The Victorians spent a great deal of time not just using various coal products, but also spent a long time thinking and disagreeing about a wide range of issues that concerned such an essential product for their way of life. The Victorians used various different kinds of this product, plant products buried underground in deposits of sedentary rock for millions of years....   [tags: Victorian Era]
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703 words
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Coal Extraction and Black Lung - Coal Extraction and Black Lung Coal is an indispensable fossil fuel that is very important to today’s society. With out coal, one would have to live without many of the luxuries we have today. There would be no lights to light a house, no movie cinemas, no electrical heaters, and no televisions or phones. “Coal has many important uses, but most significancy in electricity generation, steel and cement manufacture, and industrial process heating. Coal provides over 23% of global primary energy need and generates about 39% of the world’s electricity” (Source 1)....   [tags: Environment Energy Essays]
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508 words
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The Development of the Coal Industry - The Development of the Coal Industry 1) Light As a beginning, workers had problems of lighting their work. Several methods were used, none of them were particularly attractive. It was not safe to light in a mine. They first used rotten fish, which gave off a phosphorescent glow (besides the dreadful smell). Candles, which exploded the methane flint mills, which produced sparks of light but could also ignite the methane. After 1815, the Davy lamp was available, but it cost money and employers were reluctant to buy them....   [tags: Papers] 538 words
(1.5 pages)
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The Coal War, by upton sinclair - THE COAL WAR Book 1, The Social Chasm By: Upton Sinclair Upton Sinclair wrote The Coal War in 1976 being published by Colorado Associated University Press. Book One; "The Social Chasm," contained 69 pages while the entirety of The Coal War had 399 pages with two other Books. "The Social Chasm" was easy to follow and had an intriguing beginning. The Coal War portrays many situations common to the people of the coal fields and those making an effort to improve its conditions....   [tags: essays research papers] 764 words
(2.2 pages)
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Coal Harbor Real Estate – A Good Investment Option - Coal harbor is a small section situated between Canada’s downtown peninsula (Vancouver) and Brockton Peninsula of Stanley Park. It derived its name when coal was discovered in 1862 in the harbor. Vancouver Harbor Water Aerodrome can be found in this place. Coal Harbor real estate is very interesting. The northwestern section of land contains a community center, boating and rowing clubs, private marinas and parkland while in the southeast and Georgia Street, the neighborhood comprises of apartments and high rise buildings....   [tags: Real Estate]
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570 words
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Coal and West Virginia: Where Do I Stand? - ... The flying debris endangers lives while the constant noise and construction drives residents away. In addition, another step, the dumping of waste, pollutes water with “arsenic, mercury, lead, copper, and chromium” (Randolph, 2010). The final undertaking is called reclamation, where the waste is smoothed out and steep slopes are created. The problem with reclamation efforts, however, is that, “even with chemical treatments, vegetation has a hard time growing on the infertile and highly acidic soil” (Gibson, 2010)....   [tags: Energy ]
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1078 words
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Miners Strike 1984 - Throughout the century British coal had become increasingly costly and difficult to mine.Nationalisation in 1948 had not altered this. Indeed, there was a case for saying that lack of government investment since that date had added to the problem. For some time Britain had been importing coal from abroad. With the exception of few pits producing particular types of coal, British mines by the 1970s were running at loss. When Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister the first thing she wanted to do was limit union power....   [tags: British Coal] 517 words
(1.5 pages)
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Coal and Iron and the Unification of Germany in 1871 - Coal and Iron and the Unification of Germany in 1871 In 1862, Bismarck said that ‘the great questions of the day will be settled by blood and iron.’ Although there is undoubtedly some degree of accuracy in this statement, the most important reason for the unification of Germany, which ended ‘the great questions of the day,’ was ‘coal and iron.’ This is a quote from British economist John Maynard Keynes, who argued that the industrial and economic preparation before the wars, which united Germany, were more important....   [tags: Blood and Iron ] 1511 words
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The Use of Coal as an Energy Source in the United States - Energy from Coal: The Nation’s Dirty Secret Abstract While technology has led the world into such an advanced setting with intelligent machinery and automated devices, coal has remained a loyal contributor of the energy needed by these various types of equipment to function properly. Almost half of the electricity in the United States is produced in coal plants where coal is burnt to produce this energy [1]. Both beneficial and detrimental factors come with this alternative source of energy, known by the world for centuries....   [tags: Energy Power Fossil Fuel Natural Resource]
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1398 words
(4 pages)
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Impact of Coal vs Uranium Power Plants - Impact of Coal vs Uranium Power Plants Currently our country, and especially California, is confronting a serious energy crisis. Newspaper headlines warn of blackouts and tremendous rate increases. The cost of all we buy will increase in an effort to cover the added expenses. They only way to control this shortage of fuel are to produce more, conserve and control the amount of energy we use or a combination of conserving and increasing production. In the United States two major sources of energy are coal and nuclear power....   [tags: Papers] 1928 words
(5.5 pages)
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Coal, Strip Mining, and its Environmental Effects - Coal, Strip Mining, and its Environmental Effects Going to a school like Penn State entitles you to many advantages that smaller schools don’t have, such as diversity, world renowned professors, and several different majors to choose from. All of these things I knew before going to Penn State. However, one thing I was not aware of was the enormous amount of coal that the state of Pennsylvania has, and the power that its coal gives to the rest of the United States. Northeastern Pennsylvania, after all, has the only commercial deposits of anthracite coal, the premium coal for domestic use (Lecture 2/11/02)....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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655 words
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The Rise and Fall of the Nova Scotia Coal Industry - The Rise and Fall of the Nova Scotia Coal Industry Coal mining has always been an important component of Nova Scotia's economy, landscape and culture. Together with cod fishing it was the primary export and employer for the regions population. With both industries now failing, the poor economic climate will no doubt have an effect on the population. This paper attempts to examine the economic conditions, market forces, and political maneuvering that gave rise to the coal industry in Nova Scotia as well as those contributing to its demise....   [tags: Papers] 2562 words
(7.3 pages)
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The Coal Miners in France During the Second Empire - The Coal Miners in France During the Second Empire In this paper I will explain why revolt by the labor against capital in Second Empire France failed. To explain the situation, I will use Marx's theory of capital accumulation as he presents it in {Capital}. Also important in the theoretical description of this phenomena is the role of tradition and the way its restraints deviate from those of the economy in this French society. Based on this description I will discuss how the function of management is enforced by the economy and traditions inherent in a society....   [tags: World History Economy Economics Essays] 1990 words
(5.7 pages)
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Examining Efficiency in UK Electricity - ... In this regard, there was widespread concern at this time about the vulnerability of the public monopoly coal producer, British Coal (BC) to cheap coal imports. Compared with the strength of concern about coal imports, very little attention was given to gas turbine technology at that time. It was generally thought that CCGTs would continue to occupy a marginal role after privatisation, in the form of small and medium-sized industrial plants (2002). According to Winskel (2002), during the late 1980s, concerns about acid rain and global warming made pollution abatement an urgent political issue in Europe....   [tags: Energy, British Coal] 571 words
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Best Places in Kazakhstan to Build Wind Systems - ... Wind systems have a number of positive effects. One of the substantial advantages over coal, oil or gas plants is that wind farms do not emit hazardous gases in the atmosphere. According to the Committee on environmental impacts of wind energy projects in the USA (2007), adoption of wind plants entails atmospheric emissions reduction, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitro-gen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter. The environment agency in the UK (2011) states that sulfur dioxide is “produced by burning coal and oil” and contributes to the formation of acid rains, which are harmful for wildlife and vegetation....   [tags: Environment, Energy, Coal Mines] 1925 words
(5.5 pages)
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Technology and Society - Technology and Society There is a town in eastern Pennsylvania called Centralia. It was a mining town fairly typical of Pennsylvania in the 1880’s. Today it is virtually a ghost town. Interestingly, it has not been degraded due to the decline in the demand for coal. The decline in population in Centralia is due to a mine fire that was started in 1962 and has still not been extinguished today. Many discussions these days of coal energy and society would include such topics as the pervasiveness of coal as an energy source in the world as well as the environmental impacts of using coal for energy....   [tags: Coal Mining Technologies Essays]
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2568 words
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Fossil Fuels - Part One - Introduction       Fossil Fuels are the most important energy sources in our world today. The overwhelming majority of the energy used in the world comes from the burning of three major fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are a non-renewable source of energy. They are formed over a very long period of time; the fossil fuels on earth today were formed from plants and animals that lived up to 300 million years ago. These fossil fuels are found in deposits deep beneath the earth....   [tags: Coal Petroleum Natural Gas]
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2177 words
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Mountaintop Removal - ... Many coal companies are relinquished of these duties because of waivers given by the agencies that monitor mining (“Learn More” 3). West Virginia, Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee are all states where mountaintop removal is occurring (“Learn More” 2). Mountaintop removal negatively affects communities and people by increasing health risks, causing flooding, decreasing jobs, and sometimes leading to death. It has been shown that in areas near surface mining there is an increase in the amount of airborne dust that can cause medical concerns....   [tags: Environmental Issues, Coal Mining, Social Issues] 1393 words
(4 pages)
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Matewan - Matewan Ignorance promotes fear. The Stone Mountain Coal Company exploits the ignorance of its employees to maintain power in Matewan. Keeping Matewan’s residents fearful of their future, fearful of change and fearful for their lives, the Stone Mountain Coal Company retains absolute control over the town of Matewan. Controlling all four social and cultural processes at work in Matewan, the company is able to extract the fear, work, and “loyalty” they desire out of their workers. They are maintaining a feudal environment over their employees, binding them through debt peonage to serve only the Stone Mountain Coal Company, denying them the freedom to search for other employers....   [tags: Stone Mountain Coal Company Mining Essays] 1293 words
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The Feudal Society of Matewan - The Feudal Society of Matewan The Stone Mountain Coal Company wielded monopoly control over the town of Matewan through a feudal system of economic, cultural, political, and environmental processes. Every person in the town of Matewan came under the power of the company in one way or another. The employees of Stone Mountain were under a bondage contract with the company. Once they came to the company it was impossible to leave and at the same time maintain a basic standard of living. They could not leave also because once they signed on with the company they owed the company a large sum of money for everything ranging from the ticket for the train that brought them to Matewan to the equipment they needed to work there....   [tags: Stone Mountain Coal Company Economics Essays] 998 words
(2.9 pages)
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Mountaintop Removal Mining - Appalachia, a vast, beautiful panoply of lush green mountains. At least, most of the thin line of peaks that make up the Appalachian Mountains used to be that way. Currently, the continued spread of a method of coal extraction known as mountaintop removal mining has plagued areas of the eastern United States, mainly including the state of West Virginia. Throughout its increasing stages of implementation, mountaintop removal mining has caused numerous hampering effects, including causing serious harm to nearby residents, and polluting a once-pure environment....   [tags: Mining]
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1273 words
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Strip Mining Laws and The Broad Form Deed - ... It wasn’t until 1988 that Kentucky changed its constitution, limiting the control of mining companies and making it mandatory for the terms of the broad form deeds to be clearly explained (Squillace). It takes an unreasonable amount of time for many laws regarding strip mining and mountaintop removal to be considered and passed. Even after they are passed, many times the laws are not enforced and regulated properly. This is because mining companies give sizable contributions to political candidates in order to fund their election campaigns....   [tags: Mining]
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1151 words
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Case Study Based on Q R Holdings Ltd - ... This may encourage its competitors to take advantage of the situation by producing merchandize of high quality with the intention of stealing its customers. Opportunities The opportunity that Q R limited could utilize to its fullest is its recent investment in locomotives, wagons and rail infrastructure. Due to the increasing demand for coal and other minerals in Asia and other regions, the company has increased its wagons and locomotives to meet the growing transportation demand. The new locomotives and wagons are expected to increase the supply and profits generated by the company (QR National 2011)....   [tags: Case Study]
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1371 words
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Basic Public Speaking - Introduction: I. Attention Getter: When cruising down the highway, watch out. What was that. A bird, a plane, no it was a big boulder of coal falling from the coal truck onto the highway. What next. There went my headlight, and my quarter panel. Look out. Close the sunroof. II. Thesis: My pet peeve coal truck drivers, they are everywhere. It’s not safe to drive on the roads anymore. III. Preview: Every person in this room had to drive or is driven to get here. Did you pay attention to how many coal trucks you passed....   [tags: essays research papers] 475 words
(1.4 pages)
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Fossil Fuels and Alternative Energy Sources - Fossil fuels are an important part of life. When you turn on the lights, watch TV, or take a shower, the electricity that you are using is being generated by fossil fuels. The three types of fossil fuels are coal, crude oil, and natural gas. They all take millions of years to form, so they are considered to be “non-renewable”- eventually, the fossil fuels will all be used up. One dangerous biological effect of using fossil fuels is ocean acidification. Extracting and transporting fossil fuels can also be very dangerous....   [tags: Energy] 2001 words
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Investigating What happened in the Red Square - Investigating What happened in the Red Square The building, which is outlined in the Red Square, is our site called "The Glasshouse pit", Scotch horn, Nailsea. I am investigating what happened at this site and what certain features were used for at the site, by using various sources provided. I had to split up the following statement and answer it in separate bits. "There are no problems explaining the Glasshouse pit. It was a 19th century Coal mine with a steam driven pumping house, a horse gin for winding and 2 shafts, all in use at the same time"....   [tags: Papers] 2214 words
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Mountaintop Mining and Environmental and Energy Policy - ... For example, the EPA cares about emissions so they increase air quality standards through MATS, which in turn forces mines to shut down (reduces the coal industries’ profits) and people at those mines will lose their jobs.1 A major obstacle to resolving mountaintop mining is that the two sides want essentially the opposite thing. The coal industry wants to continue their low-cost mining operations without increased regulations and they want to be able to expand the industry and open new mines....   [tags: Mining ]
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Mountaintop Removal: A Public Discussion - About 60 people gathered at the Winter Sun Hall on Thursday evening for a presentation and public discussion on the environmental impact and health effects of mountaintop removal mining. Following a potluck on the Dogtown Roadhouse porch, local organizer Theresa Gigante greeted attendees and thanked local businesses who made donations in support of the event. Seven guest panelists representing citizen action groups, including Mountain Justice, Climate Ground Zero, and The Southern Appalachian Mountain Stewards explained the practice of strip mining, a technique that began in the 1970’s that uses explosives and large earth moving machinery to extract coal from the ground....   [tags: Local Government] 1071 words
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John Sayles Movie, Matewan - John Sayles' Movie, Matewan Writer and Director John Sayles movie Matewan, portrays the town of Matewan, West Virginia during their historic struggle out of feudalism in the 1920's. Because a single large company owned everything in Matewan, it was nearly impossible to rise out of the feudal relationship, especially since preaching the ideals of capitalism could easily result in losing all of one's property and material possessions. While feudalism can easily be written off as a economic and social structure of the past, this notion is easily proven false in Matewan; the people of Mingo County had no choice but to follow the orders of The Stone Mountain Coal Company....   [tags: Films Movies Essays] 437 words
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Arizona Needs to MIne Black Mesa - Arizona Needs to MIne Black Mesa Missing Works Cited To the northeastern part of Arizona lay a debacle between the Native American citizens and a coal mining company known as Peabody Coal. In the seemingly unending conflict between the two groups, the problem began in 1968 when the Hopi and Navajo tribes both signed leases to Peabody Coal for mining. The contract included paying both tribes more than $1000 per acre-foot of natural aquifer water each year (Peabody Energy Online par 4). As time drew on, many indigenous people were alarmed that the water was carelessly being depleted from their land....   [tags: Counter Argument] 1253 words
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Child Labor - ... With the emergence of the steam engine in factories and other places, the demand for coal increased dramatically. The coal was used to power these machines, which were used in the factories, and were heavily sought after. Before the new machinery was invented, people could only access coal from the surface of the ground. This was a problem for many years, until the revolution brought forth a solution. With new inventions being created, digging deeper into the ground was not a problem. The machines led to more coal mines which led to more jobs for children to be forced into....   [tags: Human Rights]
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Effects of Strip Mining on the Appalachian Environment - ... Army Corps of Engineers in 2009 (United). Specifically addressing mines in West Virginia and Kentucky, the EPA expressed serious concerns over water pollution from strip mining (“EPA”). The rupture of an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority’s Kingston Fossil Plant in Roane County, TN on December 22, 2008 granted credibility to the EPA’s concerns. In an article published by in Environmental Health Perspectives, Rhitu Chatterjee comments on the poisonous substances contained in ash produced from processing coal, listing heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, selenium, lithium, and boron as major components (Chatterjee)....   [tags: Environment ]
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Mercury Emissions - ... The effectiveness of these technologies for mercury removal varies, depending on characteristics of the coal and the configuration of the power plant. In general, two approaches can be adapted to reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers: pollution prevention and post combustion pollution control. Pollution prevention, in some cases, involves commercially available technologies, which do not require capital investment. Many of the conventional post combustion control technologies used on coal-fired power plants to control SO2, and PM have the co-benefit of reducing Hg emissions....   [tags: Environment, Pollution] 870 words
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Matewan and Norma Rae - Matewan and Norma Rae Theoretically, the characters of both Matewan, and Norma Rae take part in a capitalistic society. In both situations the people are partaking in a form of labor market, where they are selling their time and energy. However, the town of Matewan, governed by the Stone Mountain Coal Companies' monopoly on the land and businesses, and isolated by distance and limited technology, as fallen into a feudalistic condition. Despite the fact that Norma Rae's small hometown of Alabama bears a great resemblance to the town of Matewan, their economic situation remains a form of capitalism....   [tags: Capitalism Feudalism Economics Essays] 917 words
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Sustainable Energy Sources - Sustainable Energy Sources Energy is life. Life on this planet depends upon a fixed amount of energy. The modern industrialized energy sources such as coal and petroleum were originally utilized for their seeming promiscuity and high energies yielded per unit volume. The world has now become painfully aware of how finite petroleum reserves are, not to mention the political complications associated with being dependent upon foreign countries for an energy supply. To add insult to injury, the limitedness of petroleum resources is not the most pressing problem, their polluting byproducts are....   [tags: Environmental Energy Solar Power Essays]
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Uses of Petroleum - Petroleum products are used widely in our everyday lives. They are used to power automobiles produce containers and to keep us warm. Petroleum, or crude oil is liquid composed of various organic chemicals. It is found in large quantities below the surface of Earth and is used as a fuel and as a raw material in the chemical industry. The word petroleum comes from the two Latin words “petro” and “leum” “petro” meaning rock and “leum” meaning oil. The chemical composition of all petroleum is principally hydrocarbons which are a family of organic compounds, composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen....   [tags: essays research papers] 1655 words
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Week Three Discussion Forum - Week Three Discussion Forum This week, I have two discussion forum questions for your response. Please post your response to each question separately: 1. The federal government had extensive control over the development of hydroelectric power, encouraged the development of this energy source by public entities, and FDR used this public development as an opportunity to provide work relief to the unemployed during the Great Depression. Since that time, there has been little support for government control of any industry to that extent....   [tags: Energy] 731 words
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Nuclear Power: Dangerous Nemesis or Trusted Ally - ... However, the 1979, nuclear disaster at the Three Mile Island plant in Pennsylvania was the incident that began to raise concerns in the U.S. In addition with the Arab oil embargo of 1973 in the past, and the return of cheap oil, people in the U.S. Could not see the need for additional Nuclear power plants, or any other forms of alternative energy (Boyer). While nuclear energy is clean, and reasonably secure method of providing abundant amounts of energy; many communities still have concerns over the safety of this technology, this anxiety has brought the construction of new nuclear power stations to a virtual standstill in the U.S Next came the 1986 Chernobyl accident in the former U.S.S.R....   [tags: Energy ]
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Effects of Strip Mining on Appalachian Environment - ... The Environmental Protection Agency, the governmental regulatory agency created in 1970 to manage the enforcement of environmental policy, states its concerns in its letter to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2009 (EPA). Specifically addressing mines in West Virginia and Kentucky, the EPA expressed concerns over water pollution from strip mining. The rupture of an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority’s Kingston Fossil Plant in Roane County, TN on December 22, 2008 granted credibility to the EPA’s concerns....   [tags: Environment ]
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Sydney Tar Ponds - ... Donald. The job of this commission was to launch a inquiry into the Cape Breton coal industry. They recommended that a federal crown corporation be set up to buy and manage the coal operations to slowly decrease Sydney’s economic dependence on coal. This plan went into fruition on July 7th, 1967 when the Cape Breton Development Corporation or DEVCO was created to phase out the mines and create economic opportunities in the Sydney area. Later that year on December 1st the Sydney Steel Corporation or SYSCO was created by the provincial government to run the mill until they could sell it to another private enterprise....   [tags: Environmental Disaster ]
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Saving Black Mesa - Saving Black Mesa Works Cited Missing To the northeast part of Arizona lay a conflict between two indigenous groups from the surrounding area and the world’s largest coal company formerly known as Peabody Coal (now Peabody Energy). The Hopi and Navajo reservations surround a region known as Black Mesa. Black Mesa is located on both the Navajo and Hopi Reservations which is a target source for underground water called the N-aquifer. The N-aquifer contains a great amount of pristine Ice Age water....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Papers] 1808 words
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DUST CAPTURE PERFORMANCE OF A WATER EXHAUST CONDITIONER FOR ROOF BOLTING MACHINES - DUST CAPTURE PERFORMANCE OF A WATER EXHAUST CONDITIONER FOR ROOF BOLTING MACHINES BOB BOB BOB Abstract Roof bolter occupations in underground coal mines continue to experience overexposure to respirable dust. One potential source of dust in roof bolting operations is the exhaust from the roof bolter dust collection system. A wet exhaust conditioner (“water box”) has been developed to reduce dust emissions from the exhaust of the vacuum dust collection system on roof bolting machines. The exhaust conditioner consists of a muffler chamber and a water chamber with four internal partitions to direct airflow over the surface of the water....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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Environmentally Friendly Energy Future in Australia - ... 6), there is four IGCC power plants have established successfully worldwide such as two IGCC power plants are running in the United States with 250 Megawatt capacities respectively. In general, as pointed out by Klaes (2010, p. 3), the expected carbon capture cost would be 5 to 10 times higher than underground geological carbon storage. Therefore, further research on the carbon capture technology would be necessary to cut down the price of electricity. Nuclear Energy It is true that using nuclear energy is very controversial issue because of the potential hazards of reactor meltdowns that can cause huge catastrophic ecological and social impacts....   [tags: Energy ]
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Salem Power Plant - The Salem Harbor power plant is a serious threat to the public health – and it may only get worse. There is a severe concern about toxic air emissions from the prior waste disposal practices. That is why Bush’s energy plan doesn’t quite work. In the Salem Evening News it says that, “The Bush plan only pays lip service to the threat of global warming, the greatest environmental danger of our time.” (Kert Davies) The Bush plan may of solved the threat of global warming, but in reality Pollution from oil- and coal-burning power plants kills more people in Massachusetts every year than homicides and drunken driving combined....   [tags: essays research papers] 586 words
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Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Future - Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Future Abstract In order to move toward a more sustainable Colorado Springs we must address the system of conventional energy production that fuels the city. Colorado Springs experiences an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The increase in population from year to year results in an increase in the demand for affordable energy. This growing demand in turn places considerable stress on the finite resources that produce this affordable energy. There is a daunting amount of scientific evidence warning people about the environmental and health effects associated with coal-fired power plants, coal mining, and the combustion of natural gas....   [tags: Science Research Term Papers]
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Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuels - Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuels Besides food, fossil fuels are our most important resource. According to www.bydesign.com, there are three major resources. These resources are coal, oil and natural gas. The environmental impact of fossil fuel usage affects us greatly as individuals and as a global community. Coal causes much damage to our environment. Coal extraction is a serious cause of water pollution. Coal is used primarily to produce electricity. Coal releases nitrous oxide when it is burned....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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The General Strike of 1926 - The General Strike of 1926 In 1926 the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) called out workers throughout the country on a general strike for nine days in an attempt to force the government to act to prevent the wages and conditions of coal miners being lowered. There is no one reason why the General Strike of 1926 took place, instead a large number of long and short term causes led towards the event, which was finally set off by a trigger cause. An example of a long term cause would be the history of bad relations between mine owners and their workers, a short term cause would be the Samuel Report and a trigger the Daily Mail article....   [tags: Papers] 1836 words
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What would happen if the World Runs out of Oil and Gas - Oil is hydrocarbons that grew up in the earth when source rock full of organic inclusions sank to just the right depth not too little and not too much and got cooked over the ages. It took hundreds of millions of years for the world's supply of oil to be created. The oil is used to make gasoline obviously, but also home heating oil, diesel fuel but also 90 percent of all the organic chemicals that we use. That includes pharmaceuticals, agricultural products, plastics, fabrics and so on. They are petrochemicals, meaning they originate as oil....   [tags: essays research papers] 591 words
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Cardiff Bay Redevelopment Investigation - Cardiff Bay Redevelopment Investigation Cardiff is a city steeped in history and has undergone many changes and influences over 1500 years; initially with the settlements of the Celts in 500BC, and over many years Cardiff became a Roman Fort and Norman stronghold. In 1810 Cardiff was just a growing village of less than 2000 inhabitants surrounded by heavily tidal marshland and fed by two rivers, the Taff and the Ely. Laying closely to the south was Butetown, located in the Parish of Saint Mary's....   [tags: Papers] 2129 words
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Alternative Power Solutions - Alternative Power Solutions Our society has become reliant upon technology and continues to increase with time. Computers and many other electronic devices are used in the houses and educational applications. These technologies depend on the energy companies to function. The quality of power that the consumer receives is determined by the area that they live. There are many different ways that these companies go about providing energy. The largest form of energy in the United States is coal. Coal is a general term for a wide variety of solid materials that are high in carbon content....   [tags: Technology Electricity Essays] 2524 words
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We Need Nuclear Energy - We Need Nuclear Energy        "Minutes ago, the lights flickered, went out briefly, snapped on again. It was a warning. The electricity would last only a few moments longer, and then we would be plunged into three hours of darkness. . . . For the third time today, by official edict, we are taking our turn without electricity. A miners' strike has reduced coal stocks almost to the vanishing point, and most of Britain's electricity comes from coal" (Weaver, "The Search . . .", 652). This could become a common occurrence if the United States doesn't use other energy sources besides fossil fuels....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics]
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Wind Power: The Cheap, Effective and Reliable Energy Source - Wind Power: The Cheap, Effective and Reliable Energy Source In 1996, the Moores were faced with a disturbing problem. A nearby mine owned by Arch Coal had removed the top of a mountain near the town of Blair to access the coal seam beneath. Most residents chose to move out to avoid the "blast rock," or chunks of rock that came raining down after the massive blasts, and the thick chocking dust that filled the town. The Moores, however, stayed. According to Victoria Moore, the conditions were atrocious....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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John Sayles' Matewan: Forming a Communist Society - John Sayles' Matewan: Forming a Communist Society John Sayles' movie Matewan offers an alternative to the norm when thinking about the development of class and economic systems in the modern world. Upon first glance, it seems as though the coal miners in the town of Matewan were the subjects of a cruel feudal system, sentenced to spending their lives slaving away for a company who cared very little for them. A classic example of the type of economy Karl Marx spent his life opposing. However, it becomes apparent that this is not at all the case, for the people of Matewan eventually tired of having the fruits of their labor become more and more a burden on their shoulders....   [tags: John Sayles Matewan] 788 words
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Reasons for the General Strike of 1926 - Reasons for the General Strike of 1926 The General Strike took place as a result of short and long-term problems. Long term factors such as the increase in Trade Union members, the change of ownership in the mines, and the threat of Communism were all starting points. The price of coal fluctuating along with economic instability in Britain, the US and Germany and the adherence to the Gold Standard also contributed to the timing of the General Strike. The growth of the Labour Party and the threat of nationalisation made private mine owners feel insecure....   [tags: Papers] 923 words
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Whats Power Worth? - What’s Power Worth. When we think about air pollution and its sources we generally call to mind the things we see and smell daily. We recall the stench of diesel fumes, the plumes of automobile exhaust, or maybe the belching smoke from factories. Instead of these common culprits, maybe we should instead think about the light switch, the computer, the television, or maybe our air conditioners. We use these items everyday without a thought to the possible ramifications. These familiar household items contribute more to air pollution in our community than all of the aforementioned polluters combined....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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