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Your search returned over 400 essays for "citric acid concentration affects calcium"
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Analyzing Citric Acid - The most widely used method for synthesizing citric acid was discovered by an American chemist named James Currie in 1917 in order to contend with the lack of citrus imports caused by the First World War. This method requires the fungus culture “Aspergillus niger”. This mould is fairly common in nature but special strains are used by the major citric acid producing companies to increase the fungus’s production of citric acid. This method involves substances that contain glucose such as simple sugar or molasses being fed to the fungus....   [tags: Chemistry]
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(4.9 pages)
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Investigating the Concentration of Citric Acid - Investigating the Concentration of Citric Acid Problem ------- I have been set the task of determining the concentration of a sample of citric acid, using only a 1.0 M solution of sodium hydroxide and any laboratory glassware that is required. I have also been given the RMM of citric acid as 210g and I have been told that one mole of citric acid will react with 3 moles of sodium hydroxide. My Experiment ------------- Using this information I have determined that the best way to conduct this experiment is to do a titration....   [tags: Papers] 1229 words
(3.5 pages)
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Investigating How the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Rate of Reaction with Calcium Carbonate - Investigating How the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Rate of Reaction with Calcium Carbonate Aim === Calcium Carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce carbon dioxide. The aim of this investigation is to find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with calcium carbonate. In my experiment, I will use an overall volume of 50 cm³ of 2moles of dilute hydrochloric acid and keep that constant throughout the entire experiment....   [tags: Papers] 2242 words
(6.4 pages)
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Investigating How Concentration of Acid Affects the Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid - Investigating How Concentration of Acid Affects the Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Introduction ============ According to the collision theory temperature, concentration, surface area and catalysts all affect rates of reaction as shown in the diagrams below. Increasing any of these should increase the number of collisions and so increase the reaction rate up to an optimum point. Increasing the temperature causes the particles to collide with more energy and more frequently, thereby increasing the reaction rate....   [tags: Papers] 3026 words
(8.6 pages)
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how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate (magnesium ribbon) - An investigation to find out how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate (magnesium ribbon) Planning -------- The aim of my investigation is to find out how changing the concentration of acid affects the rate of the reaction between CaCO3 and HCl. To make my experiments fair tests, I will only change one variable: the concentration of the acid. I will have to keep the volume of the acid, the mass and size of the marble chips and the temperature of the acid the same in all my experiments to insure a fair test, because by changing any of the above I will change the conditions and therefore the results will be inaccurate and the rate of reaction will be affected....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3452 words
(9.9 pages)
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An Investigation to see How the Concentration of Hydrochloric acid affects the Rate of Reaction with Calcium Carbonate - An Investigation to see How the Concentration of Hydrochloric acid affects the Rate of Reaction with Calcium Carbonate I am going to investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and indigestion tablets which contain mainly calcium carbonate. From my background knowledge from class work and books, (see references) I have found out that if you increase the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the rate of reaction will increase and the time of the reaction will decrease....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3036 words
(8.7 pages)
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An Investigation To Find Out How The Concentration Of Hydrochloric Acid Affects The Rate Of Reaction With Calcium Carbonate - An Investigation To Find Out How The Concentration Of Hydrochloric Acid Affects The Rate Of Reaction With Calcium Carbonate Background Knowledge I am doing this experiment to find out whether the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with calcium carbonate. In this experiment, when you add calcium carbonate (marble chips) to hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide is given off. EQUATION [IMAGE]CaCo₃ + 2HCl CaClâ‚‚ + Hâ‚‚O +C0â‚‚ [IMAGE]Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide....   [tags: Papers] 2165 words
(6.2 pages)
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Rate of Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid - Rate of Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Plan: In my experiment I will measure the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The rate of the reaction is the speed that the reaction takes place so by measuring the rate I will measure the amount of time the reaction takes. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid that is found in digestive juices in the stomach, it is also used for cleaning metals before they are coated. Calcium carbonate has a few forms including chalk and limestone the main use of these two materials is in the making of concrete, which is used for many things such as buildings....   [tags: Papers] 1786 words
(5.1 pages)
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The Effect of Concentration of Acid on the Rate of Reaction With Calcium Carbonate - The Effect of Concentration of Acid on the Rate of Reaction With Calcium Carbonate Calcium + Hydrochloric ð Calcium + Carbon + Water Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) ð CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l) Introduction I will be using the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid to see how the concentration of acid affects the rate of a reaction. By doing the above experiment I will prove that the higher the concentration of acid, the faster a reaction will occur....   [tags: Papers] 1229 words
(3.5 pages)
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Rate of Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid - Rate of Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Planning ======== The aim is too investigate what factors affect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The variable I am intending to use in the experiment is Hydrochloric Acid. I want to find out how different strengths of acid affect the speed of the rate of reaction. The variables that could affect the rate of reaction are: · Temperature · Concentration of Acid · Surface Area · Increase Pressure (this is not applicable in this experiment) · Catalyst (this is not applicable in this experiment) · Volume · Mass of Calcium Carbonate · Stirring the Solution....   [tags: Papers] 2664 words
(7.6 pages)
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Rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate - Rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid to form carbon dioxide gas. One way of following the rate of reaction at which it reacts is to measure the volume of carbon dioxide produced at certain time intervals during the reaction. CaCO + 2HCl CaCl + H O + CO =========================== Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide Equipment --------- Delivery tube Conical flask Hydrochloric acid Calcium carbonate chips Burette Beaker Electric scales Measuring cylinder Tub Water Electric timer Goggles Retort stand The different factors that can affect my experiment are the temperature, the concentration of my reactants and the surface area, also adding a catalyst....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3115 words
(8.9 pages)
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the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid - I am going to investigate the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. I will look at the various factors affecting the reaction and select one variable to change, while the others keep constant in order to carry out a deta... Investigating Rate of Reaction Aim I am going to investigate the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. I will look at the various factors affecting the reaction and select one variable to change, while the others keep constant in order to carry out a detailed investigation....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2893 words
(8.3 pages)
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The Effects of Acid Rain on Statues - The Effects of Acid Rain on Statues Introduction ------------ During this investigation, I will use dilute hydrochloric acid as the acid rain and crushed calcium carbonate as the chemical of the statues. Then I will time how long it takes for the limestone powder to react until there is no more left when the acid is added to it. Rain contains acid naturally as it collects carbon dioxide from the air and makes carbonic acid. Rain normally has a pH of about 5.5 – it is slightly acidic due to the carbon dioxide dissolved in it....   [tags: Acid Rain Chemical Reactions Essays] 2232 words
(6.4 pages)
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Carbon Dioxide produced by Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate - Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of carbon dioxide produced by a reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips (calcium carbonate). Chemistry Coursework To investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of carbon dioxide produced by a reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips (calcium carbonate) Planning experimental procedures Aim In this coursework I will be investigating to see how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction with marble chips....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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2527 words
(7.2 pages)
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Experiment is to investigate the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate - Experiment is to investigate the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate Hydrochloric acid + Calcium Carbonate Þ Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide 2HCl (aq) CaCo3 (s) CaCl2(s) H2O (aq) CO2 (g) There are a number of variables in this experiment and these are listed below as input variables and outcome variables. The input variables are the ones that I can change in order to affect the experiment and the outcome variables are the ones I will measure to see how the input variable has affected it....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2155 words
(6.2 pages)
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The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate - The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate Hydrochloric Acid + Calcium Carbonate à Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water 2HCl + CaCO3 à CaCl3 + CO2 + H2O Aim. To find out how the temperature of acid effects the rate of the reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate. I will do this by changing the temperature of the Hydrochoric acid and keeping the Calcuim Carbonate the same. Theory. By starting at a low temperature, the particles do not collide with much energy giving a slow reaction....   [tags: Papers] 1166 words
(3.3 pages)
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The Midwife’s Role in Informing Pregnant Women of the Importance of Folic Acid - ... Providing early and comprehensive antenatal care is the cornerstone in improving maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Women who book for antenatal care at an early period create the best opportunity for health education and antenatal screening (Ó Lúanaigh & Carlson, 2005). Antenatal care given in the later stages of pregnancy or little if none at all increases the risk of undetected complications and can result in maternal and fetal morbidity. Preconceptional health care and advice from a community midwife offers an important opportunity for a woman’s health status....   [tags: Importance of Folic Acid]
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1933 words
(5.5 pages)
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Finding the Concentration of Calcium Hydroxide by Titration with Hydrochloric Acid. - Finding the Concentration of Calcium Hydroxide by Titration with Hydrochloric Acid. The Problem Perform a titration upon Calcium Hydroxide to find the concentration by using Hydrochloric Acid of 3 different concentrations as following 2 molar, 0.5 molar and 0.1 molar. In order to calculate the results must be within 0.05cm3 of each other. Apparatus Burette Volumetric Pipette Beakers Conical Flasks Volumetric Flasks Funnel Clamp Stand White Tile Fair Test For a fair test I will have to make sure that I change the equipment for each test so that the residue of the last test doesn't alter my results and also I must use the same amounts measured as accurately as possible....   [tags: Papers] 581 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Rate of Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid - The Rate of Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Planning. CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) ---- CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 The rate of reaction depends on how hard and how often the reacting particles collide with each other. A rate of reaction is how fast a reaction takes place. The main variables that can change a rate of reaction are; 1. Temperature. 2. Concentration. 3. Surface area (of a solid). 4. A catalyst. 5. Pressure. 1. When the temperature is increased all the particles move quicker, therefore there are more collisions....   [tags: Papers] 508 words
(1.5 pages)
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The Importance of a Calcium Rich Diet - The Importance of a Calcium Rich Diet      Calcium is essential to normal functioning in a healthy individual; this only leaves the question of where to get it. There are many sources available to meet daily requirements, two of which are dairy products and supplemental vitamins. Both of these options have qualities that make them appealing, so choosing might be difficult or even come to a middle ground. Some of the considerations to be made are: what calcium is, the types of calcium in each source, how much should be ingested daily, the body’s ability to absorb and tolerate calcium from the chosen source, and the interactions that might occur with other medicines and required daily nutrients....   [tags: Health Nutrition Diet Exercise Essays] 1309 words
(3.7 pages)
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Finding Out the Effect of Hydrochloric Acid on Its Reaction Time with Calcium Carbonate - Finding Out the Effect of Hydrochloric Acid on Its Reaction Time with Calcium Carbonate Aim: To Find out if the concentration of Hydrochloric acid effects its reaction time with calcium carbonate Hypothesis:The reaction I am going to be investigating is [IMAGE]Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water [IMAGE]CaCO3(S) + 2HCL(aq) CaCl2(AQ) + CO2(g) + H2O I predict that an increase in the concentration of Hydrochloric acid will result in an increase in the speed of the rate of reaction it has with Calcium Carbonate....   [tags: Papers] 1129 words
(3.2 pages)
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Investigating How the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Speed of the Reaction with Marble Chips - Investigating How the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Speed of the Reaction with Marble Chips Introduction ============ There are many factors that will affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. Some of them are as follows: * Temperature - If the temperature is higher, then the molecules in the solution have more energy, causing them to move around more which would mean they would react faster. * The surface area of the calcium carbonate - If the calcium carbonate is in a sphere shape, then there is not as much surface area than there would be if it was in a flat cuboid shape or perhaps in several different chips....   [tags: Papers] 719 words
(2.1 pages)
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Investigate the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid at different concentrations - Investigate the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid at different concentrations Aim: To Investigate the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid at different concentrations. Background Knowledge: I know from my knowledge of science, that by adding together a carbonate and an acid, that a salt, water and Carbon Dioxide are produced. Therefore in order to measure the rate of reaction, one of these products needs to be measured, and the rate at which it is produced can be used to define the rate of the reaction....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1070 words
(3.1 pages)
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Investigate how the concentration of hydrochloric acid effects the rate at which it reacts with calcium carbonate - Investigate how the concentration of hydrochloric acid effects the rate at which it reacts with calcium carbonate Investigation Plan Aim === Investigate how increasing the concentration of the solution hydrochloric acid effects and alters the rate at which it reacts with marble chip, calcium carbonate. Rate of reaction is affected by six main factors * Temperature * Surface area of a solid * Concentration of a solution * Pressure of a gas * By using catalysts * Using biological catalysts called Enzymes As outlined above the rate of a reaction increases when temperature increases, the concentration of dissolved reactants increases, the pressure of gases increases, solid reactants are in smaller pieces and of greater surface area and also if a catalyst is used....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2892 words
(8.3 pages)
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Investigating How Varying the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Decomposition of Marble Chips - Investigating How Varying the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Decomposition of Marble Chips My aim for this experiment is to discover how varying the concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) affects the decomposition of marble chips (calcium carbonate). The equation for this reaction is: [IMAGE] CaCO 3 +2HCl CaCl 2 +H 2 O+CO 2 Background knowledge ( Found via the internet and 'Key Science Chemistry' by Eileen Ramsden) What is limestone....   [tags: Papers] 1672 words
(4.8 pages)
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Investigating the Rate of Reaction Between Acid and Calcium Carbonate Chips - Investigating the Rate of Reaction Between Acid and Calcium Carbonate Chips Introduction ============ The rate of reaction is a measure of a change that happens in a unit of time. [IMAGE] My aim is to measure the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate chips by using different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. The equation for this experiment is [IMAGE] I plan to measure the amount of carbon dioxide gas given off every five seconds....   [tags: Papers] 2299 words
(6.6 pages)
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How the concentration of an acid affects the rate of reaction on marble chips - How the concentration of an acid affects the rate of reaction on marble chips Background: These different speeds of reaction are referred to as their rates. The rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. Particles have to collide in order to react, and the have to collide hard enough as well. This is called the collision theory. When the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker. If they are moving quicker then they are going to have more collisions....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1986 words
(5.7 pages)
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The Effects of Acid Deposition on Humans and the Environment - Acid Deposition One of the biggest environmental problems that needs dealing with in society today is acid deposition. It is largely caused by humans, and causes much pollution to the environment and harms people and buildings as well. Although there are minimal positive sides to this issue, the negatives far outweigh it and call people around the world to take action to reduce and even solve this problem. Coming in both wet and dry forms, acid deposition consists of acidic pollutants including nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides that have been deposited from the atmosphere to the surface of the earth....   [tags: Environmental Ecology Essays Pollution Acid Rain]
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1283 words
(3.7 pages)
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Acid Rain - Acid Rain Acid rain has become an environmental concern of global importance within the last decade. With the increasing environmental awareness of the "unhealthy" condition of our planet earth the concern about acid rain has not lessened. In brief, acid rain is rain with pH values of less than 5.6. When dealing with acid rain one must study and understand the process of making Sulfuric acid. In this project we will take an in depth look into the production of sulfuric acid, some of its uses and the effects of it as a pollutant in our environment....   [tags: Acid Rain Environmental Nature Essays]
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3205 words
(9.2 pages)
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How Acid Rain Affects the Aquatic Ecosystem - How Acid Rain Affects the Aquatic Ecosystem Abstract This paper shows that acid rain is a reality. It is destroying our freshwater ecosystems and must be stopped in order to save them. If the problem is not fixed soon the aquatic ecosystems will be destroyed. Table of Contents 1. What is acid rain. 2. Acidification of Freshwater 3. Effects of Freshwater Acidification 4. Where is Affected the most. 5. What is being done to fix it. 6. Conclusion 7. References What is acid rain. Acid rain is polluted rain, snow, or fog....   [tags: Geology]
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1383 words
(4 pages)
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How the Concentration of an Acid Affects the Rate of Reaction - How the Concentration of an Acid Affects the Rate of Reaction Prediction ========== For a reaction to take place there must be enough energy for the particles to collide & react. So as the concentration increases so will the rate of reaction because there are more acid particles in the solution for the magnesium to collide & react with. Therefore I think the rate of reaction will speed up as the concentration gets higher, for instance 1M will react twice as fast as 0.5m....   [tags: Papers] 898 words
(2.6 pages)
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Acid Rain - Missing Works Cited The world we live in today has become a nest for pollution, toxic waste and environmental deterioration. In order to improve our planet, acid rain is a main factor to be considered and must be controlled before the damage worsens. In order to understand what acid rain is, we must first understand the term “acidity”....   [tags: Environmental Science, Informative] 2147 words
(6.1 pages)
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Valproic Acid - ... The drug can also be sprinkled onto food or taken as a liquid. Valproic acid is normally taken two or more times a day except for the extended release capsule which is normally taken once a day and taken approximately the same time with food each day to ensure a consistent amount of drug in the body. If the extended release tablets are taken, whole tablets must be consumed and avoid chewing or crushing of the tablets. The liquid version of the drug cannot be mixed with carbonated beverage, which would produce unwanted side reactions....   [tags: Breakdown, Usage, Effects]
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565 words
(1.6 pages)
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My aim for this experiment is to find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction, when marble chips reacts with hydrochloric acid. - My aim for this experiment is to find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction, when marble chips reacts with hydrochloric acid. Mansoor Khan An investigation to see how concentration affects the 1 rate of reaction. Introduction My aim for this experiment is to find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction, when marble chips reacts with hydrochloric acid. I am going to use calcium carbonate (marble chips) to react with hydrochloric acid that will produce carbon dioxide gas. The equation for this reaction is: Word equation: Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water Symbol equation: CaCO 2HCl CaCl CO H O For my experiment, I will be experimenting on different concentrations of acid on marble chips....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2866 words
(8.2 pages)
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How concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate - How concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate Chemistry Coursework How Concentration Affects a Reaction Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate. Introduction: This experiment will be carried out by drawing a cross on a piece of paper and mixing hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate together to see if the cross disappears. The concentration of hydrochloric acid would change every reaction to show that concentration effects a reaction....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1294 words
(3.7 pages)
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Investigating What Affects the Rate of Reaction Between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid - Investigating What Affects the Rate of Reaction Between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid Aim To investigate what variables influence the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. The specific variable we will be examining will be the amount of acid. Background Information Table of Variables Variables How it will influence my reaction How I will control the variable Temperature When you raise the temperature of a solution, the molecules collide more frequently due to the fact that they have more energy....   [tags: Papers] 910 words
(2.6 pages)
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How the change of Hydrochloric Acid concentration affects the rate of reaction with Marble Chips - How the change of Hydrochloric Acid concentration affects the rate of reaction with Marble Chips Aim To find if changing the concentration of an acid will increase or decrease the rate of the reaction when marble is dissolved in hydrochloric acid. With the equation CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 +H2O + CO2. The rate of the reaction affects how quickly the CO2 is produced. Background Knowledge ==================== The rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2292 words
(6.5 pages)
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Investigation of How Temperature Affects the Rate of Reaction of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid - Investigation of How Temperature Affects the Rate of Reaction of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid I am going to investigate how temperature affects the rate of the reaction of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. WORD EQUATION Sodium thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid [IMAGE] Sodium chloride (salt) + Sulphur + Water + Sulphur dioxide CHEMICAL EQUATION Na2S2O3 + 2HCl [IMAGE] 2NaCl + S + H2O + SO2 The temperature of the sodium thiosulphate will be changed by heating the solution to a known temperature....   [tags: Papers] 891 words
(2.5 pages)
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Determination of the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide - Determination of the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide Apparatus 250 cm3 volumetric flask 25cm3 pipette Pipette pump Burette 250cm3 conical flask Small funnel Rubber bung White ceramic tile Burette clamp G clamp Lab stand Quantities to be used 25cm3 Hydrochloric acid solution @ 0.3moldm-3 225cm3 Distilled Water Excess Methyl Orange indicator Excess Calcium Hydroxide solution @ 0.015moldm-3 Excess distilled water (for washing glassware) Making the Hydrochloric acid solution The hydrochloric solution provided is of a very high concentration compared to the concentration of the calcium hydroxide....   [tags: Papers] 1223 words
(3.5 pages)
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How Temperature Affects the Rate of Reaction in the Reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid - How Temperature Affects the Rate of Reaction in the Reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Aim === I am trying to find out what affect heat has on the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium. Introduction ============ There are a number of things that affect rates of reaction, such as temperature, concentration of acid, catalysts, agitation, surface area, and pressure in experiments. I have chosen to investigate temperature, which will be the only variable that I will change....   [tags: Papers] 1518 words
(4.3 pages)
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How the Concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate Affects the Rate of Reaction with Hydrochloric Acid - How the Concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate Affects the Rate of Reaction with Hydrochloric Acid Plan We will set up a conical flask on top a cross. We will vary the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate by putting different amounts of Sodium Thiosulphate and water bye keeping the same total volume of 50cm³. We will then add 5cm³ of hydrochloric acid. We will time how long it takes for the cross to completely disappear from site after the reaction has completely finished....   [tags: Papers] 805 words
(2.3 pages)
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How Temperature Affects the Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid - How Temperature Affects the Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid Aim I am going to investigate the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. The main aim is to find out how temperature affects the reaction; if it speeds it up, slows it down or changes it in any way. I will test the effects of temperature by timing how long it takes for a black cross to become non-visible underneath a beaker containing the reactants. I will consider what effect the temperature has on the number of collisions and explain my findings....   [tags: Papers] 1007 words
(2.9 pages)
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The Determination of the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide - The Determination of the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide I have to plan an experiment to find the solubility of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, in water. I have to make up a solution of calcium hydroxide and carry out a titration using hydrochloric acid solution of the chosen concentration. The equipment need is as below: · Solid calcium hydroxide · Methyl orange indicator · Volumetric flask (250cm3) · Clamp and boss · Clamp stand · Burette (50cm3) · Conical flask · Pipette (25cm3) · Pipette filler · Distilled water · White spotting tile · Hydrochloric acid of chosen concentration · Beaker x2 · Rubber bung · Funnel x2 · Electronic scale ‘The maximum mass of calcium hydroxide needed to produce 1dm3 of saturated solution at room temperature is 1.5g.’ I only want 250cm3 as I am using a 250cm3 volumetric flask....   [tags: Papers] 1109 words
(3.2 pages)
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Acid Deposition - Acid Deposition Acid deposition is a huge problem in our world today. It contaminates our waters causing the deaths of plants, trees, and fish as well as other animals. This is not a problem that only affects wildlife, as humans, we depend on this wildlife for our own sources of food and shelter. It is a problem we must face together in order to solve it. However, acid rain by itself is not the biggest problem. It causes many other deadly problems such as aluminum poisoning. What is acid deposition....   [tags: Papers] 1503 words
(4.3 pages)
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Acid Rain - Acid rain is a problem that has plagued earth for years. It is poisoning our waters, animals, plants, soil, and more. It is a problem that can not be ignored or it might have catastrophic results on our environment. Acid rain is caused by air pollution, which is due to man-made actions. Scientists have discovered that air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels is the major cause of acid rain. Power plants and factories burn coal and oil, which is used to produce the electricity we need to heat and light our homes and to run our electric appliances....   [tags: essays research papers] 1576 words
(4.5 pages)
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Determine the Concentration of Calcium Hydroxide - Determine the Concentration of Calcium Hydroxide 2HCl (aq) + Ca (OH)2(aq) [IMAGE] 2H20(l) + CaCl2(s) In this experiment I need to find out the concentration of calcium hydroxide. I am provided with 250cm3 of limewater, which has been made such that it contains 1g dm-3 of calcium hydroxide. To increase the accuracy of the results it would be helpful if the volume of the alkali equalled the volume of the acid used, and I know that the concentration of the alkali is approximately 1gmdm-3 which is roughly equal to 0.013mol by using the equation Mole = Mass / Mass of one mole =[IMAGE] =0.013 moldm-3 Also I am provided with hydrochloric acid, which has a concentration of exactly 2.00 moldm-3....   [tags: Papers] 459 words
(1.3 pages)
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Acid Rain - There is a considerable problem today in our world, and its effects are astronomical. This problem is acid rain. Acid rain is any precipitation; rain, snow, or fog that contains acids such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. These chemicals are byproducts of industrial processes and or burning of fossil fuels. The United States pumped a disgusting 16.8 tons of SO2 into the atmosphere in 1995 (Alm 349.) Nitrogen oxide emissions come mainly from the combustion engines, that operate our vehicles, furnaces, industrial and electrical utility boilers and engines....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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(1.8 pages)
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Acid Rain - ACID RAIN - DEFINITION Scientists have discovered that air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels is the major cause of acid rain. The main chemicals in air pollution that create acid rain are sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Acid rain usually forms high in the clouds where sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water, oxygen, and oxidants. This mixture forms a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions....   [tags: Geology] 1341 words
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Acid Rain - Acid rain is a very big pollution problem in the world. It has killed fish and other aquatic life in many lakes and streams. It harms human health, disfigures monuments and erodes buildings, and, along with other pollutants, threatens forests. The story of acid rain can be compared to the plot of a science fiction movie. In the 1950s an invisible force begins to destroy lakes and rivers, killing trout and salmon. By the 1960s it is harming the waters of eastern Canada and the northeastern United States....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Affects of Different Yeast on the Rate of Fermentation - AIM: To see how different yeast affect and influence the rate of fermentation, how much alcohol is being produced and how this affects the overall quality of wine produced. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Alcohol, is mostly thought of as ethanol which is the alcohol which is found in alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer. But there are many different varieties of alcohol such as methanol, propanol and butanol. In chemistry terms “alcohol” is a compound of a hydroxyl group which is covalently bonded to a carbon chain which can be seen in figure 1....   [tags: Chemistry ] 1156 words
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Glycolic Acid - Glycolic acid is a group of chemicals known as alpha hydroxyl acids or fruit acids. It is mainly derived from sugar cane, and hence it is a natural product. The citric acid found in oranges and other citrus fruits also come under the same division as glycolic acids. The glycolic acid acne treatment can be effectively used to treat some cases of acne. Glycolic acid is mostly used in cosmetic forms rather than industrial. It is usually used as a skin exfoliant and a moisturizer. Some proponents of glycolic acid state that the products which contain less than 10% concentration of glycolic acid is rendered useless....   [tags: Health ] 908 words
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Acid Rain - INTRODUCTION The term acid rain refers to the process of deposition or precipitation of hydrogen ions with a pH value below 5.0, in the atmosphere. These acidic substances are produced by the pollutants on the earth that are airborne. These acidic precipitates will pour down as water droplets along with normal rain water whose pH lie between 5.0 and 5.6 creating hazardous effects on the living organisms of earth. HISTORY The cause of acid rain is mainly due to industrial pollutants. Acid rain was first reported during the Industrial Revolution in England in 1852.A Scottish chemist by name Robert Angus Smith discovered the same....   [tags: Environmental Science]
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Acid Rain - Don’t you always wish to taste the fresh rain in April. Nowadays, you may want to think twice before doing something like that. The rain might turn out to be acid rain. You may be wondering what acid rain is. Acid rain looks, feels, and tastes exactly like normal rain, but it is very different and very dangerous. Acid rain is caused by a chemical reaction in certain substances. These substances originate from many pollution sources. The most abundant chemicals in pollution are sulfur dioxide and various nitrogen oxides....   [tags: pollution, informative, Environment] 770 words
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Acid Rain - Not many things have the ability to kill fish, destroy economies, and deteriorate buildings, but acid rain can do all of that. This lethal precipitation originates from both natural causes and those made by man. It has the potential to destroy ecosystems, including aquatic life and forest life. In addition to harming nature, it can also cause economic problems. However, efforts are being made to minimize the negative effects of acid rain, and they’re working. Any form of wet or dry deposition from the atmosphere with nitric and sulfuric acid levels higher than normal is considered acid rain....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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What Affects the Rate of Reaction? - What Affects the Rate of Reaction. Hypothesis To form a reaction the particles must collide in high speed. The faster the particles collide the more kinetic energy is produced. This produces a bigger reaction. There are five key variables that affect the rate of a reaction (in this case with a solid and a solution): * Change in temperature An increase in heat energy within the particles leads to more kinetic energy. Therefore there is more collision of particles and it increases the rate of the reaction....   [tags: Reaction Rates Energy Science Essays] 2334 words
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Pollutants from the Necessities - The Pueblo Viejo Mine in the Dominican Republic is bleeding acid straight into the locals’ source of water (Viert). The Yanacocha Gold Mine in Peru is releasing heavy metals and inflicting harm on natives of the area (Hecht). The Rosebud Mine in Montana, USA is emitting fugitive dust in very large quantities, enough to start affecting the health of those living near the mine (Viert). Even with all this evidence some people say that pollution from mining is not an issue. Pollution resulting from mining activity that is caused by mining in general, the burning of coal, and the emission of fugitive dust, often results in the release of heavy metals, creation of acidic water, and generation of health problems....   [tags: Environment, Pollution, Acid Rain, Mining]
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Determination of the Relative Atomic Mass of Calcium - Determination of the Relative Atomic Mass of Calcium In this experiment, I will determine the relative atomic mass of calcium by two different methods. v By measuring the volume of hydrogen produced. v By titrating the lithium hydroxide produced. Method 1 -------- [IMAGE] v 0.10g of calcium used. v 100cm3 of distilled water used. Results Method 1 Mass of Calcium (g) Total volume of gas produced (cm3) 0.10 37 v Starting point of water in cylinder = 238cm3 v Ending point, after reaction complete, of water in cylinder= 201cm3 v (238 - 201 = 37) Deduction of 37cm3, therefore 37cm3 of hydrogen gas produced....   [tags: Papers] 986 words
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The Enthalpy Values for the Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Oxide with Hydrogen Chloride - The Enthalpy Values for the Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Oxide with Hydrogen Chloride [IMAGE] H3 [IMAGE]CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 [IMAGE] [IMAGE] H1 HCl H2 HCl CaCl2 (aq) Results ======= Variables of CaCO3 ================== Mass of CaCO3 + weighing bottle 3.302 g Mass of empty weighing bottle 0.831 g Mass of CaC03 used 2.471 g Temperature of acid initially 18 C Temperature of solution after mixing 21 C Temperature change during reaction 3 C Variables of Temperature Mass of CaO + weighing bottle 2.362 g Mass of empty weighing bottle 0.936 g Mass of CaO used 1.426 g Temperature of acid initially 17 C Temperature of solution after mixing 27 C Temperature change during reaction 10 C Calculations ------------ v Heat Capacity x Temperature Change x Volume 1000 v Mass of Reactant Moles Ar v [IMAGE] H1 for the reaction between CaCO3 + HCl 4.2 x 3 x 50 630_ 0.63 1000 1000 2.471 0.025 Ca ® 40 x 1 = 40 100 C ® 12 x 1 = 12 O ® 16 x 3 = 48 = 100 0.63_ 25.2 0.025 [IMAGE] H1 = -25.2 Kj mol [IMAGE] H2 for the reaction between CaO + HCl 4.2 x 10 50 1890 2.1 1000 1000 1.426 0.025 Ca ® 40 x 1 = 40 56 O ® 16 x 1 = 16 ® = 56 2.1 _ 84 0.025 [IMAGE] H2 = -84 Kj mol [IMAGE] Due to the fact that I am using Hess’ Law in order to calculate a value for the enthalpy change of the reaction by an indirect method, the H2 must be reversed so the result is changed to a positive number as shown below....   [tags: Papers] 587 words
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Investigating How Changing the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Rate of Reaction with Sodium Thiosulphate Solution - Investigating How Changing the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Rate of Reaction with Sodium Thiosulphate Solution Aim I aim to investigate how changing the concentration of Hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with Sodium Thiosulphate solution. [IMAGE]Sodium + Hydrochloric Sodium + Water + Sulphur + Sulphur Thiosulphate Acid Chloride Dioxide (aq) (aq) (aq) (l) (g) (s) The reaction makes the solution go a yellow cloudy colour and a gas is given off....   [tags: Papers] 670 words
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The Effects of Acid Rain - The Effects of Acid Rain Acid rain looks, feels, and tastes just like clean rain, but there is a difference that is found on the pH scale. Acid rain is formed by one of three processes. In some cases hydrochloric acid can be directly let off into the atmosphere. Mostly nitrogen oxides or sulfuric dioxides are released into the atmosphere in the form of gases. After being released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide settle on the land and come in contact with dew that is also known as acid rain....   [tags: Papers] 515 words
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My aim is to see how concentration affects the rate of reaction.Sodium Thisulphate + Hydrochloric acid sodium chloride - Science Coursework Plan I have been set a task to investigate the rates of reaction. Before I carry out my experiments I will have to draw up a plan to ensure that the experiments are carried out properly. Aim: my aim is to see how concentration affects the rate of reaction. Sodium Thisulphate + Hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + sulphur dioxide (Na2S2O3) Sulphur + water Control variable: I must make sure the temperature stays same. Independent variable: the concentration of sodium thisulphate....   [tags: Papers] 811 words
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The Human's Impact on Acid Rain - The Human's Impact on Acid Rain Acid rain is any precipitation that is acidic in nature. Rain is already slightly acidic in nature because as it falls, it dissolves some of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and falls as very dilute carbonic acid. This is not significantly harmful to the environment Even though the concentration of Nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides (which are the main causes of acid rain), are much less than the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the former gases are much more soluble and therefore have a much greater effect on the acidity of the precipitation....   [tags: Papers] 1212 words
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Investigation into the solubility of Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2 - Investigation into the solubility of Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2 Planning ======== Calcium Hydroxide is a strong base which is alkaline in water. Lime water containing approximately 0.015 mol dm-3 will be used for the titration. HCl will be used also, and has a concentration of 0.3 mol dm-3 . Aim: The aim of the investigation is to determine the solubility of Calcium Hydroxide by calculating the concentration by means of a titration. Plan: Clamp stand Burette [IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE]Titration equipment will be used to carry out this experiment....   [tags: Papers] 919 words
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Investigation: How does the concentration of acid affect the rate of reaction? - Investigation: How does the concentration of acid affect the rate of reaction. The aim of this investigation is to test how concentration affects the rate of reaction. My prediction for my investigation is that the higher the concentration, the faster the reaction will be. My reason behind my prediction is: · The higher the concentration, the more particles there are which will collide with enough energy to overcome activation energy, which is explained as the collision theory. Collision theory explains how chemical reactions occur and why rates of reaction differ....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1397 words
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Acid Rain - Acid Rain Acid rain is polluted rain. The pollutants go up to the atmosphere and when it rains it brings the pollution down with it. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are the gases that form the acid rain. When these gases mix with moisture it can make rain, snow, hail, or even fog. The scientific term for acid rain is acid deposition which means when the acid is taken from the air and is deposited on the earth. Major industries, coal burning factories, power plants and automoble engines are the main sources of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide which caues acid rain....   [tags: essays research papers] 1519 words
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The Enthalpy Change of the Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate - The Enthalpy Change of the Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate Results: For CaCO3: T1 = 17 T2 = 19 DT= 02 using 2.57g of CaCO3 For CaO: T1 = 18 T2 = 27 DT= 09 using 1.39g of CaO Analysis: In order to determine the enthalpy change for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate, we must work out the enthalpy changes for both the reactions of calcium carbonate and calcium oxide with hydrochloric acid. For CaCO3: Temperature change = 2ºC To find the enthalpy change of a reaction, we must first work out the amount of energy taken in by the reaction....   [tags: Papers] 1196 words
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Investigating the Rate of Reaction of Calcium Carbonate Chips - Investigating the Rate of Reaction of Calcium Carbonate Chips Introduction: ------------- In the reaction between calcium carbonate (marble chips) and hydrochloric acid a reaction occurs and the gas carbon dioxide escapes. In this experiment we are aiming to investigate how the rates of reaction of small and large marble chips change. We will be looking at both surface area and concentration. The experiment is done by reacting the CaCO3 with hydrochloric acid whilst a balance records any change in mass during the set amount of time....   [tags: Papers] 1632 words
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Investigating Factors Which Affect The Reaction Between Chalk and An Acid - Investigating Factors Which Affect The Reaction Between Chalk and An Acid Introduction: Chalk is just one of many forms that calcium carbonate can take. It is made of the mineral remains of sea creatures from millions of years ago. It is quite soft, but solid. It reacts with hydrochloric acid like this 2 CaCO3 + 2 HCl → CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O producing Carbon Dioxide, which is what we measure in the experiment. There are different factors affecting the rate of this reaction, such as: * Temperature * Concentration of acid * Surface area of chalk * Pressure * Light intensity (this is a very small affect so it doesn't really count and I won't take it into account) * Whether a catalyst is present (in this experiment there isn't one anyway) (Note these factors affect the rate of the reaction, but not the final amount of carbon dioxide produced.) Why these factors affect it: higher temperature makes atoms move more so they are more likely to bump into each other and react....   [tags: Papers] 856 words
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Investigating Factors that Affect the Rate of Reaction Between marble and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid - Investigating Factors that Affect the Rate of Reaction Between marble and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid The local Council are concerned about the effect of acid rain on the marble statues in the local park. Investigate a factor that affects the rate of reaction between marble (calcium carbonate) and dilute hydrochloric acid. There are three main factors that affect the rate of reaction. These are: Particle size Concentration Temperature With investigating any of these, there are slight problems which make them not as reliable as they could be....   [tags: Papers] 1226 words
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Acid Rain - Acid Rain If it was possible to peer into the future and see the environmental consequences of mankind’s actions, humans’ harmful contributions to the highly acidic rain levels would be apparent. Seeing the possibility of a tragic environment in the future would change the ways we treat our environment today and forever. The environment receives its main punishments from a variety of sources, ranging from car smog to industrial smog and waste. Acid rain, fog, sleet and snow all have severely harmful affects on our environment....   [tags: Environment Ecology Nature Essays Papers] 709 words
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Acid Rain - Acid Rain Characterized as containing harmful levels of sulphur dioxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater that 7 are considered alkaline, and anything measured below 5.6 is considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England. acid rain How acid rain is formed in industrial areas and distributed over long distances, where it can kill trees and damage buildings and statues "Acid rain" is a broad term used to describe several ways that acids fall out of the atmosphere....   [tags: Papers] 2426 words
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Acid Rain - Acid Rain The Problem of Acid Rain Acid rain is a well-known phrase that is being heard more and more often during the past few decades. We all know that it exists but many do not understand what it is. [IMAGE]Acid rain is formed when several gases dissolve in rainwater to form acids. The most common natural acid forming gases are carbon dioxide and chlorine (from salt), which dissolve to form carbonic acid and hydrochloric acid. Carbonic acid is very weak, and little hydrochloric acid is formed, as chlorine is quite rare....   [tags: Papers] 376 words
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Acid Rain - Acid Rain "I am for, the reduction of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, emissions, by 90% by the year 2010. We need to take drastic action because the effects on us are all very serious. We must protect ourselves and safeguard our future." Acid rain is the term used to describe one of the worst effects of nature. Acid rain is a mixture of sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, which are gasses being emitted into our atmosphere. These gases combine with water droplets in the atmosphere, to produce acid rain....   [tags: Papers] 1119 words
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Acid Rain - Acid Rain "I am For the reduction of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission by 80%by the year 2010.We need to take drastic action because the effects on us all are very serious. We must protect ourselves and safeguard our future" Acid rain, it is dangerous and destructive. The main culprits for producing acid rain are the very industrialized countries; the UK and U.S.A are the two main countries that cause acid rain. These two countries have many coal mines, working factories, power stations and oil refineries all these places produce huge amounts of sulphur dioxide....   [tags: Papers] 757 words
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The Relative Formula Mass of an Unknown Acid - The Relative Formula Mass of an Unknown Acid Table of contents 1.1 Aim of the experiment 2 1.2 Introduction 2 1.3 Equipments and apparatus 2 1.4 Safety precautions 2 2.1 Procedure 3 2.2 Apparatus setup 3 2.3 Analysis 4 3.1 Implementing 5 3.2 Analyzing 6 4.1 Evaluation 8 4.2 Comparison between experimental Mr with value 8 of likeliest acid 4.3 Conclusion 8 The Relative Formula Mass of an Unknown Acid 1.1 Aim of the experiment The aim of the experiment is to find the relative formula mass of an unknown acid in an acid solution that I was provided....   [tags: Papers] 1456 words
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Acid Test - 1) Title of Book: The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test 2) Author: Tom Wolfe 3) The grounds on which Thomas Wolfe created this documentation of the Merry Pranksters is that he attempts to re-create both the mental and physical atmosphere of their adventure and exploration across America. 4) Specific evidence in supporting the aforementioned thesis can be found in the “Author’s Note” section of the book but also in the writing style used to develop this masterpiece. Writing in a basic journal style, Wolfe documented the extraordinary life style lived by the Pranksters through personal experiences with them as well as transcribing their adventures that were captured on both film and tape....   [tags: essays research papers] 643 words
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Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium - Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium Introduction In the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium, the hydrochloric acid will dissolve the magnesium and produce hydrogen gas. All chemical reactions involve reactants which when mixed may cause a chemical reaction which will make products. In my case the reactants are hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. The chemical reaction takes place when the magnesium ribbon is dropped into the hydrochloric acid....   [tags: Papers] 1914 words
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Acid/Base Chemistry - Yeast produce beverages that Americans twenty-one or older enjoy, they make drinks like beer, wine, and etc. One of the most widely seen genus and species is Saccharomycescerevisiae (winemakermag.com). There are many different strands of this organism. But this particular yest genus is so useful that one company seems that they only work with it, Vinters Harvest provides these organisms to home brewers and theirmain yeast is this one. Yeast ferment sugars in order to produce energy and alcohol an unintended byproduct....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Exploring Factors That Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction Involving Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid - What factors affect the rate of this chemical reaction: Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid  Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq)  MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) Prediction I think that my results will show that the hydrochloric acid with a molarity of 2 will finish reacting the quickest because it is the strongest hydrochloric acid and I predict that the slowest experiment to finish reacting will be the 0.4 molar strength of hydrochloric acid. I think that the results will go slower and slower the nearer they are to the 0.4 strength of hydrochloric acid....   [tags: chemistry, chemistry experiment, lab report] 1528 words
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Does The Temperature Of Hydrochloric Acid Affect The Rate Of The - Does The Temperature Of Hydrochloric Acid Affect The Rate Of The Chemical Reaction Between Hydrolic Acid And Magnesium. Analysis Temperature of Time taken for Seconds hydrochloric acid 0c magnesium to react 14 141 20 80 27 73 39 55 50 52 60 51 Hydrochloric acid + magnesium magnesium chloride + hydrogen 2 Hcl MG MGCL2 H2 From my results I can conclude that the hotter the hydrochloric acid the quicker the reaction time between the acid and magnesium....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1028 words
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