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Your search returned over 400 essays for "categorical"
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Kant's Categorical Imperative - Kant's Categorical Imperative Deontology is the ethical view that some actions are morally forbidden or permitted regardless of consequences. One of the most influential deontological philosophers in history is Immanuel Kant who developed the idea of the Categorical Imperative. Kant believed that the only thing of intrinsic moral worth is a good will. Kant says in his work Morality and Rationality “The good will is not good because of what it affects or accomplishes or because of it’s adequacy to achieve some proposed end; it is good only because of it’s willing, i.e., it is good of itself”....   [tags: Philosophy Categorical Imperative Kant Essays]
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1532 words
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analysis of Kant's Categorical Imperative - Analysis of Kant’s Categorical Imperative in Metaphysics Grounding for the metaphysics of morals is a foundation of Kant’s philosophy, in this book, Kant wants to build up a moral kingdom of metaphysical. At first, Kant extracted categorical imperative from the concepts of goodness, will and obligation and enacted some rational principles, then, he plans to map out moral metaphysic through categorical imperative. However, he failed to do so owing to that his theory is founded on purely idealism....   [tags: Philosophy] 2164 words
(6.2 pages)
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Three Formulations of the Categorical Imperative - In Kant’s book, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant talks about the three formulations of the categorical imperative. By these formulations, he describes his idea of organizing the moral principle for all rational beings. Kant also talks about the principles of humanity, rational ends, and the “realm of ends” which are constituted by the autonomous freedom of rational beings. The first formulation of the categorical imperative is “act only in a way the maxim of which can be consistently willed as a universal law of nature.” This formulation in principle has as its supreme law, “always act according to that maxim whose universality as a law you can at the same time will” and is th...   [tags: Philosophy]
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1530 words
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Categorical Approach to Diagnosis - `In the past, I worked in such a research setting, where if a person was found to meet criteria for opiate dependence they received treatment, however if even slightly short of DSM-IV criteria for the disorder they would have to look elsewhere. This was a continual concern for me, as the person who met criteria was not always the person with the most distress, and alternative treatments were not easy for people to find. Largely from this experience, I find the current categorical approach to classifying persons with psychopathology to be an imperfect system at best, with the primary advantage of being convenience when communicating with other professionals....   [tags: Psychology] 869 words
(2.5 pages)
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Categorical Imperative - Kant thinks that the basic moral principles of our society come from people’s rationality, and people must follow these principles unconditionally. These moral principles are the Categorical Imperative. Meanwhile, its common rules have different directions in society. To conclude these directions, it can be reflected from three different formulations. Among the three formulations, the first formulation of universal law has standout features in the maxim and the constraints about people’s behaviors....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1508 words
(4.3 pages)
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The Universal Law Formula of the Categorical Imperative - ... Since everyone is lying to get what they want, communication becomes unreliable because people will no longer believe one another. In order for the man to deceive someone and get what he wants, the one he is deceiving must assume that he is telling the truth. However, the man is willing a world where it is impossible to deceive anyone, and therefore, deception cannot get the man what he wants. This is an example of a contradiction in conception. The maxim of deceiving others to get what one wants cannot be acted upon successfully when the maxim is universalized....   [tags: contradiction in conception, maxim] 1053 words
(3 pages)
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Heidegger and the Logic of Categorical Syllogisms - Heidegger and the Logic of Categorical Syllogisms       According to traditional syllogistic logic, which has its roots in Aristotle, there are four types of propositions: the A proposition ("All S are P"), the E proposition ("No S are P"), the I proposition ("Some S are P"), and the O proposition ("Some S are not P"). These propositional types represent all of the possible combinations of the dichotomies of affirmative/negative and universal/particular. Each makes a claim that a certain essent (the particular I and O propositions) or an entire class of essents (the universal A and E propositions), the subject or subject-class, relates in some way (belongs or does not belong) to a class o...   [tags: Philosophy essays]
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1178 words
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Kant's Categorical Imperative in Grounding for the Metephysics of Morals - In Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant first introduces his concept of the categorical imperative (CI) as an unconditional moral law. In this paper I will argue that Kant’s categorical imperative succeeds in proving that lying and murder are immoral. First, I will explain moral law and the categorical imperative, and then I will outline Kant’s Formula of Universal Law. Finally, I will evaluate two maxims to determine if the violate the categorical imperative. First, I will address what Kant means by moral law when referring to the categorical imperative....   [tags: contradiction, universal, law]
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1184 words
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Kant and the Categorical Imperative - Kant and the Categorical Imperative Kant tried to develop a theory of ethics which relied on reason rather than emotion. While he was not anti-religious, he wanted an ethical system which was not clouded by religion, emotion or personal interpretation. He placed emphasis on motives behind an action rather than, like the Utilitarians, the consequences of an action. He believed that consequences were no guide to whether an action was moral or not. His theory is known as deontological, or duty-based, where ends can never justify the means.He believed that there were general rules which must be adhered to in every circumstance....   [tags: Papers] 913 words
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Kant´s Theory: Categorical Imperative and its Rules - “Morality is not the doctrine of how we may make ourselves happy, but how we may make ourselves worthy of happiness”. Two things that are not compatible are what an individual should do and what the individual wants to do. When an individual does what they want to do they end up in a road that will lead them into immediate happiness but will not benefit them in the long run. On the other hand when the individual is doing what they should do it will bring them a feeling of discomfort and unhappiness but will benefit them at the end....   [tags: Philosophy, Choices, Morality] 836 words
(2.4 pages)
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Kants categorical Imperitave applied - Kant describes the categorical imperative as “expressed by an ought and thereby indicate the relation of an objective law of reason to a will that is not necessarily determined by this law because of its subjective constitution.” In other words, a categorical impetrative is a command of morality that applies everywhere at all times no matter what, without exception. Kant describes two forms of imperatives, hypothetical and categorical. Kant defines the hypothetical imperative as “an action is good for some purpose, either possible or actual.” The hypothetical imperative that Kant describes is a situation that prescribes an action as a means to get a particular end....   [tags: essays research papers] 552 words
(1.6 pages)
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Transracial Adoption: It's Multi-Categorical Controversies in Society - Transracial Adoption: It's Multi-Categorical Controversies in Society There are many people in this world who have been adopted and there has always been controversy as to the ethnicity of the family adopting and the adoptee and what exactly should be done about the process of picking out a family for the young child. Many people argue that as long as the child is being adopted into a loving, caring, nurturing home that ethnicity should have no contributing factor while choosing families. However, I believe the exact opposite....   [tags: sociology, psychology]
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1059 words
(3 pages)
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Kant’s Categorical Imperatives - In order to evaluate whether one’s actions are moral, we use many moral dilemmas. One of them is Kant’s categorical imperative. This essay presents Kant’s project of categorical imperative. Then, I will explain that rulers should appeal to Kant’s categorical imperative when making foreign policy decision. In order to support my point of view, I will give importance to the reasons of why rulers appeal to categorical imperative when making foreign policy, so I have two reasons for this. One of them is that states depend on each other in economically and politically....   [tags: Kant's Moral Philosophy] 975 words
(2.8 pages)
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Kant's Categorical Argument - Kant's Categorical Argument Emanuel Kant was a German Philosopher who lived in the late 18th century and was arguably one of the greatest thinkers of all time. He came up with a guide to morals in direct opposition to the ontological theory. Many people use his ethics as a guide to living a moral life. The topic I shall be discussing is Kant's categorical imperative and the utilitarian's greatest happiness idea. There are significant problems with both ideas. It is apparent however, that alternatives to these two conflicting schools of thought have been offered....   [tags: Papers] 1063 words
(3 pages)
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The Deontological Views of Capital Punishment Through the Works of Kant’s Categorical Imperative - Capital Punishment has been used in the United States justice system for many years now, yet one must question whether or not it should be used at all. This paper will look at the Deontological views of capital punishment through the works of Kant’s categorical imperative. Arguments such as the unethical misuse of medical practice by physicians, who swear an oath to do everything in their power to save the lives of the people they care for, while using their expertise on an individual for an execution....   [tags: Capital Punishment]
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2080 words
(5.9 pages)
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The Categorical Imperative Of Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy - The Categorical Imperative Of Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy What would you do if you saw a little old lady with a cane walking slowly across a busy street without remembering to look both ways. Most people would answer that they would run out into the street to save her. However, why would these people do this. The rescuer may have not had any relation whatsoever to the little old lady, yet they still decide to risk their life for her. Was it because of basic, natural instinct. Did the rescuer just instantly react to what he/she saw and just let his reaction take over his body....   [tags: essays research papers] 1606 words
(4.6 pages)
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The Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant - In Immanuel Kant’s Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, he discusses his fundamental principle of morality. This is also known as his “categorical imperative”. His principle of morality basically states that all actions are moral and “good” if they are performed as a duty. Such an idea is exemplified when he says, “I should never act except in such a way that I can also will that my maxim should become a universal law” (Kant 14). Kant also seeks to apply his principal to suicide, as well has helping others in distress....   [tags: philosophy, categorical imperative] 674 words
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Kant's Moral Theory and Utilitarism Comparison - ... There is only one outcome for every maxim, because a maxim cannot be a universal law in some cases and fail to become a universal law in other cases. One flaw with this case lies within how straight forward the categorical imperative is. There is no flexibility, so there is always one option. This can lead to a problem, if an individual is in a scenario in which the individual needs to lie for to save the life of oneself or the life of another individual. Utilitarianism is a moral theory using the greatest happiness principle as its’ basis....   [tags: slavery, categorical imperative] 1176 words
(3.4 pages)
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The Impracticality of Kant's Discussion of Will: Consequences of Actions - In this paper, I will argue that Kant’s discussion of the will is not always practical because it is the consequences that actually matter, especially in certain situations. The main reason in support of this claim is that everyone is eventually caught in a situation where they have to choose between the lesser of two evils, which means that people should carefully think about all possible outcomes before making decisions. I. Kant and the Categorical Imperative: It is generally understood that society would tear itself apart if people suddenly stopped following a few fundamental laws; such as, arson, theft, and murder....   [tags: Categorical Imperative, Analytical Evaluation]
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2091 words
(6 pages)
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The Effect of Different Types of Organized Lists on Word Recall - The present study aimed to measure the effect of different types of organized lists on recall. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups and was presented with either a list of words organized Alphabetically (N=10) under the words corresponding letters or words organized in a Schedule (N=11), categorized under ellipses labeled with parts of a day-"Morning", "Afternoon", and "Evening" . Each list contained the same 90 words sans the organization of the list. Participants in both groups studied their respective list and recalled as many words as they could remember by writing them down afterwards in both trials under a restricted period of time....   [tags: categorical, alphabetical list, organization]
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2488 words
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The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals - Can suicide be justified as morally correct. This is one of the many questions Immanuel Kant answers in, “The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals”. Kant discusses many questions with arguable answers, which explains why he is one of the most controversial philosophers still today. Throughout Kant’s work, multiple ideas are considered, but the Categorical Imperative is one of the most prevalent. Though this concept is extremely dense, the Categorical Imperative is the law of freedom that grounds pure ethics of the metaphysics of ethics....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, Categorical Imperative, morality]
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1055 words
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Law and Emotion and Lacan: Should We Let Our Emotions Control Us? - Law and Emotion and Lacan Should we let our emotions control us. Should we base our decisions on how we are feeling at a specific time. Perhaps emotion shouldn’t factor at all into our decisions. Some of the characters we have studied exhibit both sides of this question. Luther and Alice from the show Luther fall on opposite sides of the spectrum while Billy Budd takes a hybrid approach. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher who is considered to be a major figure of modern philosophy, developed the idea of the “pathological object.” This idea, when put up against the “categorical imperative,” is what can lead a person to make a certain decision....   [tags: kant, categorical imperatives, pathological object]
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1557 words
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Philosophy: Immanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant, like his predecessors John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, believed morality was based on standards of rationality. His influential work, The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, argues for the existence of a “foundational principle of a metaphysics of morals”. 1 Such a principle, he asserts, must account for three propositions of morality: only actions done from duty have genuine moral worth, moral value arises from the maxim its action involves, not from the purpose that is to be achieved through it, and that a duty is an obligation to act in a specific manner out of respect for the law.2 Kant names this foundational principle the categorical imperative....   [tags: Morality, Categorical Imperative]
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1083 words
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Kant and Morality - Kant had a different ethical system which was based on reason. According to Kant reason was the fundamental authority in determining morality. All humans possess the ability to reason, and out of this ability comes two basic commands: the hypothetical imperative and the categorical imperative. In focusing on the categorical imperative, in this essay I will reveal the underlying relationship between reason and duty. The categorical imperative suggests that a course of action must be followed because of its rightness and necessity....   [tags: the categorical imperative] 580 words
(1.7 pages)
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Business Ethics: Adelphia Scandal - As the turn of the 21st Century evolved, it appeared as if Adelphia Communications Corporation was on a direct path of success; unbeknownst to their investors and the public, they were in reality on a direct path of destruction instead. Unfortunately, Adelphia is not the first major company in the history of the United States’ business world to lose the trust of the American public, but it is certainly one of the most notable ones to do so. As the events surrounding the Adelphia scandal unfolded in full view of the public eye, a multitude of media outlets were there to broadcast the destruction and distrust to the masses leaving many wondering if the term “business ethics” was actually nothi...   [tags: Immanuel Kant, Categorical Imperative, deontology]
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1461 words
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Kantian Philosophy - Applying Kant’s Categorical Imperative, acting “on the maxim whereby thou canst at the same time will it should become universal law,” to Larry and Rhonda’s scenario, the right thing to do is for Rhonda to take responsibility for her actions. To illustrate, if Rhonda were to ask Larry to take the blame so that she may avoid trouble for herself, the maxim in this case, she should imagine a world where everyone asks a friend to cover for them when faced with unfortunate circumstances. The idea of a world like this is ridiculous....   [tags: Categorical Imperative, Moral Pluralism] 865 words
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In Housekeeping by Marilynne Robinso, Categorical Confines: Societal Boundaries in Opposition of Happiness - ... “She walked up the bank, and stood looking across the bridge for a moment, and then she began carefully, tie by tie, out onto it. Slowly she walked on and on, until she was perhaps fifty feet out over the water… ‘I’ve always wondered what it would be like.’” (81-82) Sylvie knows that the only way to live unrestricted is to die, much the way Helen did. In reality, however, society even places restrictions death. While the decedent may not be sentient and aware of such things, the categories of natural death, accidental death, and suicide are all seen within Housekeeping, and are a way of defining the lives of those who die after their deaths....   [tags: boundaries, suicide, happiness] 1166 words
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Kant's Many Formulations of the Categorial Imperative - Kant's Many Formulations of the Categorial Imperative “The ordinary man needs philosophy because the claims of pleasure tempt him to become a self-deceiver and to argue sophistically against what appear to be the harsh demands of morality. This gives rise to what Kant calls a natural dialectic—a tendency to indulge in plausible arguments which contradict one another, and in this way to undermine the claims of duty. This may be disastrous to morality in practice, so disastrous that in the end ordinary human reason is to be found only in philosophy, and in particular in a critique of practical reason, which will trace our moral principle to its source in reason itself.” “A reviewer who wan...   [tags: Papers] 2450 words
(7 pages)
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America Is A Nation of Immigrants - For over 300 years, various ethnic, cultural, and social groups have come to this country to seek economic opportunity, reunite with family members, and find a place where they can be free from political and religious persecution. I suspect a majority of American-born citizens believe that immigration is a bad thing in this country that is harmful. Those particular Americans believe that this country is being infested by foreigners who cannot even speak our own language. However, if one were to look at the truth behind these fallacies, he/she would see that immigration is beneficial to our country and should not be abandoned....   [tags: Ethics of Immigration, Categorical Imperative]
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Kants Fundamental Principles Of The Metaphysics Of Moral - Kant's Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Moral The central concept of Kant's Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals is the categorical imperative. “The conception of an objective principle, in so far as it is obligatory for a will, is called a command (of reason), and the formula of the command is called an Imperative.” (Abbott, 30) An imperative is something that a will ought or shall do because the will is obligated to act in the manner in which it conforms with moral law....   [tags: essays research papers] 800 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Ethics of Torture - The institution of torture has been in existence for quite sometime; however, it was not always seen as an ethical question. In antiquity, the Romans employed something known as “the cat-of-nine-tails,” which was a flogging instrument with nine sharp ends. However, the use of torture was not confined to the West, the Chinese utilized “bamboo sticks to beat people.” During antiquity, torture was used as a punishment, but during the Spanish Inquisition, this notion of torture evolved to a means to extract withheld information....   [tags: Ethical Torture] 1203 words
(3.4 pages)
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The Rules of Islamic Laws - ... So this defines that how Allah gives options to the mankind in the performance of their duties or behaviors. Categorization of Hukm-e-Shari and Categorical Demands: Firstly in this article we will discuss that what demand is. Demand is when Allah categorically or specifically gives commands for omission or commission. Means Allah specifically tells us to do something or not to do something. These commands create an Obligation which is known as Wajib in Arabic. Wajib is defined by the jurists as a thing which has been proved by an allegorical evidence and it’s status will be equal to that of Fard .However the Hanfi Consider Fard a thing without which one may be left outside the mode of Is...   [tags: Prohibition, Approvals or Disapprovals] 1091 words
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Immanuel Kant and the Moral Law - Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher from the 18th century, widely known for his various achievements and works such as Critique of Pure Reason and Foundations of Metaphysics of Morals. Kant developed a theory of ethics that depends on reason rather than emotion called The Moral Law. Kant was not anti-religious but he wanted an ethical system that was not obscured by religion, emotion or personal interpretation. According to Kant, morality is a function of reason, based on our consciousness of necessary and universal laws....   [tags: law, duty, theory of ethics] 774 words
(2.2 pages)
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Morality via Kant and Hegel - 1. Introduction Human beings have moral inclinations that affect our actions. Few would deny as a fact of human life a perpe-tual strive to do right and good concordant with one’s particular moral beliefs (while concomitantly judging others by them). For most, this strive is accompanied by a questioning of the very nature of the moral: Is there an impartial criterion that enables us to know objectively what one ought to do, or do our moral intuitions rest solely on subjective, arbitrary grounds....   [tags: Philosophy] 1718 words
(4.9 pages)
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The Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant - ... Categorical imperatives, however, are ends in of itself. He says that actions are only good if they are carried out "just because," which would be a categorical imperative. However, he argues that actions are usually not assumed for the sake of duty alone but because of some self-interest, which forces them to act out that action where they wouldn't have otherwise. This is evident when Kant states that "in fact, there is absolutely no possibility by means of experience to make out with complete certainty a single case in which the maxim of an action that may in other respects conform with duty has rested solely on moral grounds" (Kant, 19)....   [tags: philosophy, actions, moral values]
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1151 words
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Analysis of Immanuel Kant´s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals - Immanuel Kant is a popular modern day philosopher. He was a modest and humble man of his time. He never left his hometown, never married and never strayed from his schedule. Kant may come off as boring, while he was an introvert but he had a great amount to offer. His thoughts and concepts from the 1700s are still observed today. His most recognized work is from the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Here Kant expresses his idea of ‘The Good Will’ and the ‘Categorical Imperative’. The concept Kant is displaying in his work is the universal maxim....   [tags: Will, Actions, Morality]
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926 words
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The Concept of Intelligence - The Concept of Intelligence ABSTRACT: Gilbert Ryle’s dispositional analysis of the concept of intelligence makes the error of assimilating intelligence to the category of dispositional or semi-dispositional concepts. Far from being a dispositional concept, intelligence is an episodic concept that refers neither to dispositions nor to ‘knowing how,’ but to a fashion or style of proceeding whose significance is adverbial. Being derivative from the function of the adverb ‘intelligently,’ the concept of intelligence does not have essential reference to specific verbs but rather to the manner or style of proceeding of nearly any verb that is descriptive of the proceedings of an agent....   [tags: Intelligence Ryle Essays] 3430 words
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Analysis of Immanuel Kant's Arguements in The Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals” - ... In the first section he calls attention to common sense morals. Characteristics such as wit or intelligence can help make rational decisions which bring about best result; however, the action can be only ethical if it was based on a good will alone because duty alone is not enough to judge an action as immoral or moral. In the second section Kant shifts point of view from moral philosophy to a metaphysical study of morals. In this section alone to him, human nature of reason helps people recognize the morality of actions....   [tags: philosophy, common sense, reasoning]
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Metaphysics of Morals - Through his discussion of morals in the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant explores the question of whether a human being is capable of acting solely out of pure duty and if our actions hold true moral value. In passage 407, page 19, Kant proposes that if one were to look at past experiences, one cannot be certain that his or her rationalization for performing an action that conforms with duty could rest solely on moral grounds. In order to fully explain the core principle of moral theory, Kant distinguishes between key notions such as a priori and a posteriori, and hypothetical imperative vs....   [tags: Emanuel Kant, philosophy]
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1153 words
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Philosophy: Kant´s Maxim - Kant's Maxim "Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, always as an end and never as a means only." There are two opposing maxims that relate directly to Kant's point, and they both come to mind simultaneously. The first is that "the end justifies the means," and "the end never justifies the means that made it possible." We will examine both of these viewpoints in relation to Kant's maxim, and discuss them in terms of the issues of assisted suicide, euthanasia, capital punishment, and using people for our own purposes....   [tags: the end, capital punishment] 825 words
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Eichmann in Jerusalem by Hannah Arendt - In the book Eichmann Jerusalem by Hannah Arendt, we are shown a man that is seemingly normal and a common type of man. As the the trial goes on, we begin to see deep inside the mind of this banal, monstrous man. Evil does not always have a “look”, sometimes evil is found in the most ordinary of men with a cliche lifestyle and a stamp of approval from half-a-dozen psychiatrists. Eichmann was a simple man that thought of himself as always being the law-abiding citizen. Eichmann stated in court that he had always tried to abide by Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative (Arendt,135)....   [tags: kantian principles, emmanuel Kant]
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1296 words
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Duty and Morality in Kant’s Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals - This selection is only the first section of Immanuel Kant’s Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. I am only going to discuss duty and morality. Kant gives three propositions regarding duty (p.107). Kant argues that the will that acts from reason is the will guided by duty. The first proposition helps us distinguish which actions have moral worth by differentiating acts that are motivated because of duty and acts that are not. Kant shows the differences using a few examples, the first is a salesman who does not overcharge a customer even if he knows they are inexperienced, but the salesman’s reasoning behind this is that he doesn’t want to tarnish his reputation if he were to get caught ov...   [tags: Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals]
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406 words
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Short Answer Questions on Assessments and Treatments of Mental Disorders - ... Include the difference between categorical information and dimensional information and provide an example of each. Before answering the question we need to understand what DSM-5 is it is shortened from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of mental Disorders and the five shows how much it has changed over the years. This classification wouldn’t be possible without Emil Krapelin who developed the first modern classification system for abnormal behavior which helped form the first DSM. The DSM-5 list approximately 400 mental disorders each one explains the criteria for diagnosing the disorder and key clinical features and sometimes describes features that are often times not related to the di...   [tags: diagnosis, classification, psychotherapy] 1243 words
(3.6 pages)
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An Exposition of Kant’s, Arendt’s, and Mill’s Moral Philosophy - An Exposition of Kant’s, Arendt’s, and Mill’s Moral Philosophy Immanuel Kant adheres to Deontological ethics. His theory offers a view of morality based on the principle of good will and duty. According to him, people can perform good actions solely by good intentions without any considerations to consequences. In addition, one must follow the laws and the categorical imperative in order to act in accordance with and from duty. Several other philosophers such as Hannah Arendt discuss Kant’s moral philosophy....   [tags: Deontological Ethics, Good Will] 2793 words
(8 pages)
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Mill and Kant's Efforts to Solve an Ethical Dilemma - It is natural for human beings to subscribe to particular moral ideologies and to apply them to their day-to-day lives since we all live in societies that have norms and values. For many centuries, philosophers have tried to formulate frameworks upon which these moral principles can be based and measured. This paper tries to apply the moral theories of John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant is solving an ethical dilemma. John Stuart Mill opens his utilitarian postulation by asserting that ethical statements cannot be subjected to scientific or mathematical provability (West 23)....   [tags: utilitarianism, happiness, morals]
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831 words
(2.4 pages)
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Questioning the Effectiveness of Affirmative Action Policies - This essay will analyze and thoroughly examine the ethics of affirmative action. At first, a short explanation of the issue under discussion will be given as to help the reader understand what is this essay all about. Along with this explanation, the relevance to the business world will be stated. Furthermore, the essay will approach the ethical problem both from a consequentialist and a non-consequentialist standpoint. These two perspectives will be interpreted by taking Mill's utilitarianism as an example of the former and Kant's categorical imperative as an example of the latter....   [tags: ethical dilemas]
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1945 words
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Different Points of View on Abortion - Abortion is the act to remove the embryo or the fetus from the mother's womb in order to end pregnancy. It is practiced by two techniques, medical abortion and surgical abortion. Medical abortion is the process of taking pills, and surgical abortion implies a surgery to remove the foetus (1). In the past, the availability of abortion would have never been guessed. Now, in Canada, abortion has been legalized since January 28th in 1988. The Supreme Court of Canada passed a law which states that abortion is possible during the nine months of pregnancy....   [tags: ethical and utilitarian perspectives] 1300 words
(3.7 pages)
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Book Report on Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals by Kant - Book Report on Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals by Kant Kant states (38,) "act as if the maxim of thy action were to become by thy will a universal law of nature". This "categorical imperative" forms the basis of his book, Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals. Though at times his writing is confusing Kant lays out his logic as to what a categorical imperative is. Kant divides the book into three sections. The first explains the transition from everyday moral beliefs to the philosophy of those morals....   [tags: Papers] 600 words
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Argument Against Moral Relativism - Argument against moral relativism This paper will debate advantages and disadvantages of both moral relativism and deontology. I will argue against moral relativism by showing that deontology gives a better account of our moral intuitions than moral relativism. I will use examples from the film The Ballad of Narayam, and James Rachels’ “The Challenge of Cultural Relativism” to illustrate why moral relativism should be rejected, and deontology should be accepted. Moral Relativism Moral relativism takes the position that moral and/or ethical propositions do not reflect universal moral standards....   [tags: deontology, ethics, morality] 1570 words
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Philippa Foot's Hypothetical Imperatives - Philippa Foot's Hypothetical Imperatives Philippa Foot finds trouble with the arguments of Kant, who said that it was necessary to distinguish moral judgments from hypothetical imperatives. Although this may have become an unquestionable truth, Foot says that this is a misunderstanding. Kant defined a hypothetical imperative as an action that addresses what "should" or "ought" to be done. He believed that the necessity of performing a certain action was based on other desires. This particular action would only be important if it was beneficial for another reason....   [tags: Ethics Kant Philosophy Philosophical Essays] 1264 words
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Kants Formalism Theory - Kant's Formalism Theory The theories of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, have had an impact on the formulation and shaping of ethics today. Immanuel Kant graced this earth from 1724 to 1804. During his eighty year life time, he formulated many interesting ideas regarding ethical conduct and motivation. Kant is strictly a non-consequentialist philosopher, which means that he believes that a person's choices should have nothing to do with the desired outcome, but instead mankind simply goes about doing good because it is morally correct....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Ones Who Walked Away from Omelas by Ursula Le Guin - The Ones Who Walked Away from Omelas The Ones Who Walked Away from Omelas is a short story written by Ursula Le Guin. In her story, Le Guin creates a model Utilitarian society in which the majority of its citizens are devoid of suffering; allowing them to become an expressive, artistic population. Le Guin’s unrelenting pursuit of making the reader imagine a rich, happy and festival abundant society mushrooms and ultimately climaxes with the introduction of the outlet for all of Omelas’ avoided misfortune....   [tags: utilitarian society, kant, welfare]
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Kant Vs Mill on the Issue of Lying - Firstly, by looking at the first patient, whether she gets a kidney from her father or a “cadaver kidney” , there will be no difference because she needs a kidney nonetheless. The second patient however, cannot agree to give his kidney away because one of the main reasons is that he’s scared and lacks “the courage to make this donation”9. So right at this point, it can be seen that it would be better if the father didn’t give his kidney away because it wouldn’t cause him any happiness, whereas the daughter has two options to gIn everyday life, whether on a personal base or on a professional base, difficult scenarios, or also known as moral dilemmas, are present....   [tags: Philosophy, Ethics]
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The Bundle Theory by David Hume - The mystery of consciousness has puzzled humans for thousands of years. We feel pain, hunger, and countless other perceived emotions that we know to be true. We are all aware that we are conscious; however, nobody has discovered whether or not the human body is organized in a specific way that leads to consciousness. The fact is that the existence of consciousness, the very essence of knowledge, is undeniable, regardless of the lack of a concrete systematic organization of facts to explain it....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]
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Bernard Williams' Paper The Makropulos Case - ... Pushing the idea further, it does appear that immortality is a positive thing when an individual can pursue new and ever evolving categorical desires as their life continues. This idea will reemerge as we discuss avoiding boredom over infinity. Building upon the accumulation of categorical desires, Williams asserts that as we approach temporal infinity all those desires have been satisfied. The satisfaction of these desires is not by means of “just enough” fulfillment, but by a “more than enough” sense of fulfillment....   [tags: reflections on the tedium of immortality]
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Philosophy: Emmanuel Kant - Kantian Duty Immanuel Kant has a several "duty based" ethics. Another word for his belief in "duty based" is Deontological ethics. Other two theories are teleological ethics, and consequential ethics. Kant believes teleology is wrong, which put's Kant into the category of a Deontological ethicist. This is apprehensive to specifically what people do, and totally disregard the consequence of the person's actions. Some specific "duty based ethic's are , Do the right thing, do it because it's the right thing to do, don't do the wrong thing, especially avoid the wrong things because "they are wrong"....   [tags: deontological ethics, capital punishment] 945 words
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Kantianism Theory versus Eudaimonia Theory - In Aristotelian ethics, the end game for an individual is to achieve eudaimonia, the highest form of morality in which one has achieved true happiness, by completely actualizing their potential and living a virtuous life. n I found the concept of eudaimonia interesting, and I noticed that many moral theories focused on happiness as a measure of morality yet Kantianism did not so I wanted to take a deeper look at the fundamental differences between the two theories and determine if there was a superior theorist....   [tags: virtue, happiness, morality] 1308 words
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Kant and Mill's Theories - Kant and Mill's Theories In July of 1994, Paul J. Hill, a former Presbyterian minister and later a pro-life activist, was prosecuted for killing Dr. John Britton, an abortion performing doctor, and James Barrett, a volunteer, outside a clinic in Pensacola, Florida. Prior to this, Hill commented on the murder of Dr. David Gunn, another abortion performing doctor, stating that it was a “biblically justified homicide (P. 215).” This statement shows how strong Hill’s beliefs were and leads one to assume that he did not regret killing Britton and Barrett....   [tags: social issues] 2141 words
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Jihad and the World - On the eleventh of September of 2001, 2993 people lost their lives in the destruction of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. Both buildings collapsed within two hours of the initial events, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others. Al Qaida claimed responsibility of the attacks, declaring Jihad against the United States of America. Jihad is a religious duty of Muslims, the word Jihad means “struggle”. There are two general understanding of Jihad that can be found in the Quran....   [tags: jihad, 9/11, september 11, Al Qaida,]
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Kant´s Philosophy of Ethics - In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant proposes his philosophy of ethics. In order to accurately approach this topic and present fluent deduction he begins by defining philosophy into three fields. There is “Physics” of which studies the physical world, there is “Ethics” of which is the study of morality and finally there is logic of which serves to study logical principles. Kant then divides the studying into two parts as well, separating it as either “empirical” (serving to study experiences) or “pure” (serving to study concepts)....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, physics, ethics, logic]
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What is Kanatianism Theory? - Kantianism is a philosophical theory that was created by a man named Immanuel Kant. According to Immanuel Kant or Kantianism, his theory emphasizes the contemporary positions dealing with the philosophy of the mind, epistemology, and ethics. For example, Kant believes that people should not be treated as an end and never as a means to an end as it’s considered unethical for a person to use other people for their own personal gain simply because – according to Immanuel Kant – people possess value....   [tags: Philosophical Theory, Immanuel Kant]
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Immanuel Kant's Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals - Immanuel Kant's Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals In his publication, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant supplies his readers with a thesis that claims morality can be derived from the principle of the categorical imperative. The strongest argument to support his thesis is the difference between actions in accordance with duty and actions in accordance from duty. To setup his thesis, Kant first draws a distinction between empirical and “a priori” concepts. Empirical concepts are ideas we reach from our experiences in the world....   [tags: Kant Philosophy Metaphysics Essays] 1572 words
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Freedom and Reason In Kant - Freedom and Reason in Kant Morality, Kant says, cannot be regarded as a set of rules which prescribe the means necessary to the achievement of a given end; its rules must be obeyed without consideration of the consequences that will follow from doing so or not. A principle that presupposes a desired object as the determinant of the will cannot give rise to a moral law; that is, the morality of an act of will cannot be determined by the matter or content of the will for when the will is materially determined the question of its morality does not arise....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays] 1555 words
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Colleges Should Make it Mandatory for Students to Study Abroad for Specific Major's - Millions of students across the world every year graduate and during this time realize that seeking a job is very arduous.In a few years we(I) will be in the same situation and will also experience the difficulties of finding a job. Today’s job market for graduating students is prodigiously competitive since these graduates are not only competing for jobs with student’s from their universities or country, but with students from across the world. 97% of students who have accomplished their academic studies abroad have found a secure employment within 12 months (Stone)....   [tags: increasing academic yields and employment]
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Kant: Moral Theories - Kant's moral theory According to Timmons, the field of philosophy is not complete without the mention of Kant whose contributions were major (205). This, he adds, was influenced by his originality, subtle approach and the difficulty of his works. Timmons cites that moral requirements are a requirement of reason, which is the ideology of Kant’s Moral theory; hence, immoral act is an act against reason. Consequently, speaking on the terminologies of Kant we visualize moral requirements as Categorical Imperatives (CI) grounded on reason and can, therefore, get derived from a supreme moral principle....   [tags: philosophy, happiness, wellfare]
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Reasoning According to Kant - Reasoning According to Kant Kant believes that, reason thinks of all cognition as belonging to a unified and organized system. Reason is our faculty of making inferences and of identifying the grounds behind every truth. It allows us to move from the particular and contingent to the global and universal. Each cause, and each cause's cause, and each additional ascending cause must itself have a cause. Reason generates this hierarchy that combines to provide the mind with a conception of a whole system of nature....   [tags: Kant Philosophy Reasoning Essays] 725 words
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Homosexuality in the Film Latter Days and in Sexual Perversion by Nagel - From the assigned readings and film, I felt that I have gained a better understanding on one of the most controversial types of relationships, homosexuality. The topic of homosexuality isn’t easy to openly talk about but it is important as philosophy students, to have an open-mind about topics that we don’t partake in. Doing so allows us to promote new ways of thinking about the world around us and see them in a whole new light. In this personal response paper, I will discuss homosexuality in connection with the film Latter Days to determine why a homosexual relationship can meet Kant’s criteria for acceptable love as mentioned in Ruse’s essay, “Is Homosexuality Bad Sexuality?”, as well as w...   [tags: Homosexuality]
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The Scope of Free Speech: Categoricalism versus The Balancing Approach - “Fag burns.” “DIE.” These slurs were scrawled outside the GLBT office at N.C. State last October. Should the instigator be indicted for hate speech in addition to vandalism. Was this expression an act of hate speech. Or was it free speech. Is the message he conveyed protected under the First Amendment. Two and a half centuries ago, the nation’s forefathers drafted the Constitution of the United States. The aim of the Constitution is to protect the values that this nation was built upon. This document, arguably one of the nation’s most important, encompasses values such as democracy, equality, religious tolerance, as well as the freedom of speech....   [tags: Constitutional Rights, Crime] 1014 words
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Machiavellian and Kantian Analysis of Buddy Fletcher and SEC - Machiavellian Analysis Buddy Fletcher was able to use his financial success and philanthropy to win respect and power. His high esteem combined with his ability to deliver strong profits lead to blind deference. As Machiavelli wrote, “he who is highly esteemed is not easily conspired against”11 (Ch. 19). In the beginning of his career, Fletcher embodies the spirit of a Machiavellian leader by commanding influence through his success. However, in the spirit of Kant, he seems to adhere to strong moral principles, such as not lying and using others as merely means to his end....   [tags: SEC need for expansion]
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The Golden Rule in Kant and Mill's Ethical Theories - ... 2005, p.79) Moral Laws are a system of guidelines for controlling human behaviour; like society laws. The Ten Commandments set by Moses are moral laws with the commands of a divine being, moral laws can be a set of universal rules that everyone should abide by. Kant argues that: “The moral law cannot be hypothetical in nature, cannot be of the form, ‘if you want such and such, do so and so.’ Wants and consequences cannot figure into what is morally right. Instead, the law itself must be categorical, of the form, ‘Do this’ or ‘Don’t do that’.” (Stumpf, S.E....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 1333 words
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Analysis of Kant´s the Critique of Practical Reason - Each epoch gives a birth to its' own heroes. Beginning from the times of the glory of ancient Greece and Roman Empire with Aristotle, Heracles and Aleksander the Great, passing the Dark Ages, when Saint Thomas and Roger Bacon created the eternity and concluding with the creators of modern times – Eddisson and Enshtein, the humankind created idealistic images of their best representatives. Formally, Kant was the ideological opposer of Newton, the rational genius, who made the knowledge and the mind to exist on the level of the God....   [tags: stars, planets, position, morality] 2352 words
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Kant's Perspective on Crime, Punishment, and Justice - Punishment is the suffering, pain, or loss that serves at retribution. Others also say it is “the authoritative imposition of something unpleasant on a person in response to a behavior deemed to be wrong by an individual or group” (Hugo & McAnany, 2010). Some question when and why we should punish. Though easy to state, this question is difficult to answer and has lead to a variety of models of punishment. In Kant’s article Metaphysics of Morals, he discusses the importance of punishment and its correspondence to crime, the right to punish, and when to grant clemency....   [tags: Psychology ] 1829 words
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Kant vs. Mill: Human Rights and Utilitarianism - Introduction One of the main reasons why human rights have been put in place is to protect the public life and public space of every individual being. One fundamental characteristic of human rights is that they are equal rights; they are aimed at providing protection to every person in an equal way. These rights have been entrenched through laws that are passed by states and international conventions. Human rights laws have evolved over time, and have been shaped by several factors, including philosophical theories in the past....   [tags: Consensual Morality, Philosophy]
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The Intentions and Consequences of an Action - I. Kant and the Categorical Imperative: It is generally understood that society would tear itself apart if people suddenly stopped following a few fundamental laws; such as, crimes that deal with arson, theft, and murder. In addition to these basic guidelines, most people tend to follow a simple set of moral ‘rules.’ Now, these rules basically involve things like respect, honour, and dignity considering society is not only filled with law-abiding citizens, but also people who want to live a good, honest life....   [tags: law, moral. society, crimes] 1104 words
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Mill’s Objection to Kant’s Moral Theory - John Stuart Mill famously criticized Immanuel Kant and his theory of the Categorical Imperative by arguing that, “[Kant] fails… to show that there would be any contradiction, any logical (not to say physical) impossibility, in the adoption by all rational beings of the most outrageously immoral rules of conduct. All he shows is that the consequences of their universal adoption would be such as no one would choose to incur.” If accurate, this is a debilitating criticism of Kant’s moral theory as he had intended it....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Immanuel Kant’s Non- consequentialist Ethical Theory - 1. Introduction According to Immanuel Kant the driving force behind our actions should be dictated by what is inherently good as sole consideration and not be based upon the effects of what such actions may produce such as the case in the consequentialist theory of cause. In this essay Kant’s ethical non-consequentialist theory will be briefly investigated and a comparison drawn between the two different theories in order to establish merit in employment thereof in practice. 2. Kantian Morality Central to Kant’s morality theory is his claim that: “It is impossible to conceive anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be taken as good without qualification, except a good will...   [tags: Immanuel Kant]
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Philosophy: Two Differetn Types of Utilitarianism - John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was one of the leading British moral philosophers of the nineteen-century (Feinberg, 596). As presented in class, Mill’s principle of utility is known as the greatest happiness principle which is defined as “actions are right as they tend to promote happiness and wrong as they tend to promote unhappiness” or in simple words “right actions maximize overall happiness” (Feinberg, 597). Mills definition of happiness is seen as “pleasure absent of pain” (Feinberg, 597). There are two different types of utilitarianism: act and rule....   [tags: switch case, fat man case, kant]
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Religious Symbols Represent Religious Beliefs - A religious symbol is a representation that symbolizes a religion, or an idea within a specified religion. For example, the cross is a symbol of Christianity, or the moon and the star represent Islam. Both of these are religious symbols, representing a religion. However, there are also other religious symbols that people wear, or have. For example, Muslim women wear a Hijab, or a head covering, which is considered a religious symbol. Another example of a religious symbol is the Turban and the Kirpan....   [tags: discrimination, ban, freedom] 736 words
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Autonomous Thinking and Immanuel Kant - Considered to be one of the most important philosophers of modern Europe and an important part of philosophical thinking, Immanuel Kant paved the way for current ethical thinkers. He paved the way for philosophers and social behavioral scientists such as Jean Piaget. Kant's theory is hinged by his beliefs on autonomy and his formulation of categorical imperatives. Kant believed in autonomy however, knowing that autonomy has flaws, he created the categorical imperatives. Autonomy allows us to be self creating when it comes to our values and morality....   [tags: philosophy, ethical thinker] 694 words
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Hume vs. Kant: Moral Philosophy -      From the origin of Western philosophical thought, there has been an interest in moral laws. As Hume points out in the Treatise, "morality is a subject that interests us above all others" (David Hume "A Treatise of Human Nature'). Originally, thoughts of how to live were centered on the issue of having the most satisfying life, with "virtue governing one's relations to others" (J.B. Schneewind 'Modern Moral Philosophy'). However, the view that there is one way to live that is best for everyone and the view that morality is determined by God, came to be questioned, and it is this that led to the emergence of Modern moral philosophy....   [tags: Philosophy Morality Philosophical Essays]
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