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Your search returned over 400 essays for "aluminium"
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The Application of Aluminium in Automobile Sector - In order to reduce the consumption of energy and also for avoiding the air pollution, requirement of more fuel efficient automobile or vehicles are in demand and it is big challenge for automobile industries. There are various unique characteristic of aluminum for example excellent formability properties; higher strength & stiffness in respect of weight- ratio, properties of recyclability and most important good resistance against corrosion and it must be note down that these properties of aluminium propose it the best and ideal aspirant for replacing the heavy materials such as copper and steel in car and other luxury vehicles for full filling the requirement of automobile industries of wei...   [tags: energy, pollution, weight reduction]
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1800 words
(5.1 pages)
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Alzheimer's Disease and Aluminium - Aluminium is present in the earth's crust in huge amount, mainly in the form of insoluble aluminium silicates. It is scarce in the human body which contain only 30-50 mg of that metal. This is due to the insolubility of aluminium, the presence of a barrier in the gastro-intestinal tract to soluble forms of aluminium, and the ability of the kidneys to excrete aluminium effectively in healthy people. Aluminium is present in food occurs in additives, tea which is rich in aluminium, and drinking water which is treated with aluminium to remove organic residues....   [tags: Alzheimer's Disease Essays]
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985 words
(2.8 pages)
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The Search for an Alternative to Aluminium Based Vaccines - ... Earlier reports have revealed that the excessive amount of aluminium may suppress immunity by covering the antigen and only a certain minimal amount of aluminium compound is necessary to form a depot at the site of injection to optimally stimulate the macrophages and for optimal adsorption (Hans and Lowman, 2002).Therefore, we also studied the optimal effective concentration of aluminium so as to avoid its over usage in the tetanus vaccine. As per our results, tetanus vaccine formulated at 0.4 mg/dose of aluminium also gave equivalent protection and therefore the upper acceptable limit of 1.25 mg/dose for aluminium (World Health Organisation, 1990) seems to be unwarranted....   [tags: efficacy, nanoparticles, adjuvants] 1102 words
(3.1 pages)
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Aluminium - Aluminium The history of Aluminium use Aluminium is now one of the most widely used metals, but one of the hardest to refine due to it's reactivity with other elements. Even as late as the turn of the century, Aluminium was considered very valuable and in turn expensive, even more expensive than gold. In some cultures, when a function was held (for example, a party) by wealthy people, only the most honored guests would be given Aluminium cutlery, the others had to make do with gold or silver cutlery....   [tags: essays research papers] 487 words
(1.4 pages)
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Experiment to Find the Specific Heat Capacity of an Aluminium Block - Experiment to Find the Specific Heat Capacity of an Aluminium Block DATA COLLECTION: Mass(m) (kg) (5dp) Current(I) (A) (2dp) Voltage (V) (2dp) Time(t) (s) (0dp) Initial temp(T1) (ºC) (2sf) Final temp(T2) (ºC) (2sf) +/-( 5*10^ -4) % +/- (1*10^ -1) % +/- (4*10^ -2) % +/- (5*10^-1)s +/- 0.5 ºC +/- (5*10^ -1) ºC 0.99577 3.70 12.07 0 16.0 16.0 0.99577 3.70 12.08 60 16.0 18.0 0.99577 3.68 12.10 120 16.0 20.0 0.99577 3.66 12.11 180 16.0 22.0 0.99577 3.68 12.10 240 16.0 25.0 0.99577 3.64 12.08 300 16.0 27....   [tags: Papers] 481 words
(1.4 pages)
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Alumnium-based Adjuvants Produce Long-lasing Vaccinations - ... The present study was designed with an aim to evaluate the effectiveness of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as adjuvant and also to explore the possibility of synergistic effect of admixture of polymeric nanoparticles and aluminium at reduced concentration as potential candidate for vaccine delivery. Efficacy of various developed formulations was evaluated by ELISA as well as by single dilution challenge method. 2.0 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS 2.1 Materials: Tetanus Toxoid (TT) (3300Lf/ml) was received as a gift from Human Biological Institute, Hyderabad....   [tags: immunity, side-effects, biodegradable ] 1225 words
(3.5 pages)
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Aluminum Contamination Due to Firework Industry - ... The increase in metal uptake with increased temperatures can be attributed to either high affinity of sites for the metal or to an increase in the binding sites on the biomass, under the experimental conditions (Sarı and Tuzen 2009). Maximum biosorption of aluminium (79 mg/L) was obtained at optimum temperature of 35 °C. The substantial growth of the bacterial biomass was observed at 35 °C, further increase in temperature affect the cell growth. At the optimum temperature, the energy of the system seems to facilitate aluminium attachment onto cell surface, but when the temperature is even higher, metal sorption was decreased due to damage of certain surface sites of cell available for me...   [tags: soil contamination] 1434 words
(4.1 pages)
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An Analysis of the Properties of Aluminum - An Analysis of the Properties of Aluminum Physically, chemically and mechanically aluminium is a metal like steel, brass, copper, zinc, lead or titanium. It can be melted, cast, formed and machined much like these metals and it conducts electric current. In fact often the same equipment and fabrication methods are used as for steel. Light Weight Aluminium is a very light metal with a specific weight of 2.7 g/cm3, about a third that of steel. For example, the use of aluminium in vehicles reduces dead-weight and energy consumption while increasing load capacity....   [tags: Papers] 1111 words
(3.2 pages)
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Selecting a Microorganism Able to Bioabsorb Aluminum from Water Systems - ... Physico-chemical methods such as chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation or reduction, filtration, ion exchange, electrochemical treatment, reverse osmosis, membrane technology and evaporation recovery have been widely used to remove heavy metal ions. These technologies usually produce wastes with high concentrations of metals which are a significant source of environmental pollution. Furthermore, the above methods may be ineffective or expensive, especially when the heavy metal concentrations are less than 100 mg/L (Ahluwalia and Goyal 2007)....   [tags: Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease prevention] 588 words
(1.7 pages)
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Hulamin Limited Supply Chain Management - Hulamin Limited is the leading producer of semi-fabricated aluminium products in Africa, and the main key supplier of aluminum rolled products to the South African industry. It has 2 main operations i.e. Rolled products and Extrusions, with rolled products contributing to approximately 80% to its profits. Hulamin Rolled Products produces rolled sheet, foil, paste, can stock and plate products conforming to international standards with 70% of its production exported to customers round the world. Hulamin Rolled products is situated in Edendale, Pietermaritzburg, with two manufacturing sites Camps Drift and Edendale, which are situated within a radius of 4km apart....   [tags: Hulamin, aluminum, rolled products]
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1311 words
(3.7 pages)
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Overview of Aluminum - Aluminum (Al) The Element The name comes from the Latin word alumen, for the mineral alum. The electron configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p1. The element looks solid at room temperature and is a classification of other metals. Its crystal structure is cubic. Aluminum is not an element found in nature, it is found in the earth’s crust which is 8.2 percent of it. Aluminum is obtained from rocks called bauxite. It is the most available element. In the beginning, scientist suspected it was in the earth’s crust....   [tags: electron, mineral alum]
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886 words
(2.5 pages)
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The Toxicology of Aluminum Chlorohydrate - Introduction Aluminum chlorohydrate is an aluminum salt. It is an inorganic, water-soluble aluminum complex with widespread commercial use. It is a stable, powdered solid that can be hazardous if inhaled or ingested (MSDS). It is used in most antiperspirants on the market today in the United States. In aqueous solution it polymerizes, forming a number of polymers, some of which play an important role in antiperspirant activity (Pophristic et al. 2003). Bulk samples of aluminum chlorohydrate, Al2(OH)5Cl2H2O - (ACH) consists of a mixture of polymers ranging from Al2 to Al200, with the Al13 being the major component (Pophristic et al....   [tags: Antiperspirants, Negative Effects]
:: 9 Works Cited
1985 words
(5.7 pages)
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Aluminum - ... Second, Aluminum sheets are more difficult to stamp into car body parts. Third, Aluminum is difficult to weld than steel. Last, Aluminum doesn't have the strengths levels as steel. Steel is an alloy of iron and a small amount of carbon. Carbon is the primary alloy element, which content between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight in steel. There is no stiffness advantage in using aluminum over steel. Basically, strength refers to the maximum load that a material can be subjected to without yielding, whereas stiffness refers to how much a material bends when a load is applied....   [tags: vehicle industry, heating temperature] 525 words
(1.5 pages)
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Aluminum Nitride on Titanium - Piezoelectric materials are widely used for microscale sensors and actuators but can pose material compatibility challenges. This paper reports a post-CMOS compatible fabrication process for piezoelectric sensors and actuators on silicon using only standard CMOS metals. The piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited on titanium (Ti) by reactive sputtering are characterized and microcantilever actuators are demonstrated. The film texture of the polycrystalline Ti and AlN films is improved by removing the native oxide from the silicon substrate in-situ and sequentially depositing the films under vacuum to provide a uniform growth surface....   [tags: Research Analysis] 800 words
(2.3 pages)
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Aluminum Recycling - Introduction: Aluminum is an element in the boron group with a symbol of Al, and an atomic number of 13. Aluminum is a very soft metal when pure but becomes strong and hard when alloyed, a malleable metal with a silvery gray color. Aluminum is a very reactive element so it is found in nature combined with other elements. Aluminum resists corrosion by the formation of a self-protecting oxide coating. Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, following oxygen and silicon....   [tags: Research Paper]
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2032 words
(5.8 pages)
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Aluminum Bat vs. Wood Bat - ... In 1986 they started to put weight limits on bats because the bat performance and impact with aluminum bats were having on the games it allowed grater bat swing speed and better bat control. The bat affects the bounce factor time and position of the bat at what the swing speed is at a maximum. the rotation of the ball is on an axis perpendicular to the direction of travel. You have a bigger probability of getting out hen you are to get a signal and an walk. but you have a better chance at getting a home run than a double in baseball it can compare it to the hitting of the different bats....   [tags: baseball, hit, speed]
:: 2 Works Cited
703 words
(2 pages)
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Aluminum - Aluminum Aluminum is one of a number of soft metals that scientists call "poor" metals. It can be shaped and twisted into any form. It can be rolled into thick plates for armored tanks or into thin foil for chewing gum wrappers. It may be drawn into a wire or made into cans. Aluminum is a generally popular metal because it does not rust and it resists wear from weather and chemicals. (Bowman, 391) Aluminum is an element. Its atomic number is thirteen and its atomic weight is usually twenty-seven....   [tags: Papers] 1590 words
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Aluminum - Aluminum, symbol Al, the most abundant metallic element in the earth's crust. The atomic number of aluminum is 13; the element is in group 13 (IIIa) of the periodic table. Hans Christian Orstead, Danish chemist, first isolated aluminum in 1825, using a chemical process involving potassium amalgam. Between 1827 and 1845, Friedrich Wöhler, a German chemist, improved Oersted's process by using metallic potassium. He was the first to measure the specific gravity of aluminum and show its lightness. In 1854 Henri Sainte-Claire Deville, in France, obtained the metal by reducing aluminum chloride with sodium....   [tags: essays research papers] 1227 words
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Aluminum - Aluminum Aluminum is the second most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It has a concentration of about 8.2 percent (Craig et al 264). Aluminum “is malleable, ductile, and easily machined and cast; and has excellent corrosion resistance and durability” (http://minerals.usgs.gov/). It is evident in everyday life. Aluminum is a very useful abundant metal. A large fraction of the mineral products we seek are metals, such as aluminum (Halleck, 1/20). The major uses of aluminum are transportation, packaging and containers, and building products....   [tags: Research Essays]
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579 words
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Aluminum - Aluminum Hello buddy. How is the weather in Paris. It is extremely cold in New York and there is snow all over the place. The reason I am writing is to give you the information you wanted on aluminum. I have everything you would possibly want to know about everything from mining to recycling, but I will begin with a little background on the element first. Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the Earth's crust and was probably formed during the birth of our solar system through collisions of hydrogen atoms under intense heat and pressure....   [tags: Elements Natural Resources Science Essays]
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1349 words
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Refining Differences Between Copper, aluminum, and Steel - The process varies when extracting copper from copper ore to obtain a preferred purity level of the final product. However the most common type of process in the United States is called Smelting. This is only achieved once the copper ore has been processed to a specified concentration level. This is done by grinding the ore into a concentration of slurry with chemical agents and water. The copper will float to the top of the slurry mixture when air is blown through the mixture and a frothed layer or a foaming layer allows the copper to attach and overflow the tank, this is called ore benefaction....   [tags: minerals, smelting, ore benefaction ]
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1167 words
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Bauxite/Aluminum and the Environment - Bauxite/Aluminum and the Environment Aluminum is the third most common element in the earth's crust, with reserves guaranteed to last hundreds of years, and, in its ore, bauxite, one of the most economically significant minerals in the world. It is, perhaps, more easily recycled than any other mineral substance used by man, but mining operations still continue and are enormously valuable. Aluminum companies have been at the forefront of environmental progress and effort in the minerals industry....   [tags: Essays Papers] 955 words
(2.7 pages)
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Aluminum Bats - ESPN the magazine starts the story July 25, 2003 Brandon Patch was on his way to play his final American Legion Baseball game against Montana's two time state champs Helena. Brandon was a husky first baseman and a pitcher not much for the specifics. He just loved to play the game of baseball. He was so excited to play against their rival the best team in the state. He said, "He was not going to lose." The score tied 3 to 3 in the bottom of the fifth inning with one out and a 1-1count, Quinn LeSage was at bat....   [tags: Sports] 1177 words
(3.4 pages)
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Recycle the Present, Save the Future: Effects of Recycling - Recycle the Present, Save the Future: Effects of Recycling Approximately 99% of all soda cans are solely made of aluminum; because of this it is highly important that we recycle. Additionally, more than 80 billion aluminum cans are used in the United States every year. Aluminum recycling can have disastrous effects; everyone should be required to recycle it because it is a big factor involved with saving our Earth. There are many metals in the world that aren’t nearly as used as aluminum so it isn’t as imperative that they are recycled, but with this world wide used metal we must take a stand....   [tags: aluminum, trash, environment] 1444 words
(4.1 pages)
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Aluminum Bats vs. Wooden Bats - Aluminum Bats vs. Wooden Bats      Is baseball America’s pastime. For the major leaguers maybe, but for college athletes it seems more like a new age video game. The introduction of high dollared aluminum bats produce football like scores, higher statistics, and a percentage of danger to each and every player on the field. The NCAA has changed the regulations of the bats so far and should look further into to making another change to wooden bats.      High tech aluminum baseball bats aren’t quite as new to the game as many people may think....   [tags: Baseball Bats compare Contrast Essays]
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1765 words
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Hydrophobic property of Carbon Nanotubes - Carbon fiber also has corrosion issues due to its chemical composition There are many different types of corrosions. According to Boeing Engineer David Banis, “Concentration cell corrosion, or crevice corrosion, is the most common type of corrosion found on airplanes” (Banis 2). It occurred whenever water is trapped between two surfaces, such as under loose paint, within a delaminated bond-line, or in an unsealed joint. The magnitude of the corrosion depends on the alloy that is used. Carbon fiber with metal mesh is susceptible to severe corrosion if not properly treated with the right sealant....   [tags: corrosion, aluminum, carbon fiber]
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1608 words
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Toxic Effects of Aluminum and Their Probable Association with Dialysis Encephalopathy - Toxic Effects of Aluminum and Their Probable Association with Dialysis Encephalopathy Reports on the neurotoxic properties of Aluminum (Al++), as well as those of many other heavy metals, date as far back as the end of the nineteenth century. In 1965, Al was found to induce the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in animal brains. These NFT’s were similar to those found in brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Vast research thus, was targeted at defining the possible etiologic role of Al in AD....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Essays]
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1673 words
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The Importance of Automoblies in Society - ... Therefore, carbon fibres are more resistant to corrosion as compared to aluminium and steel alloys. Among the three materials, aluminium alloys have a relatively low elastic modulus compared to steel alloys and carbon fibre. While carbon fibre and steel alloys have elastic modulus of about 200GPa and above, the elastic modulus of aluminium alloys is approximately 70.0GPa (Callister & Rethwisch, 2011, pp. A6 – A9). In terms of cost, steel alloys are relatively much cheaper as compared to aluminium alloys and carbon fibre....   [tags: bonnet, properties, materials, techniques] 3253 words
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Changing Raw Material Into Standard Stock with Primary Process - 1.a Define and describe primary processes A Primary Process is changing a raw material into a standard stock. This is a rather ambiguous definition as some processes can be a primary process or secondary process depending on the product being produced. For example pig iron from a blast furnace can be standard stock (for cast iron) or it can be sent to a BOS furnace for further processing into steel, which is the standard stock in this case. Some basic examples of primary processes are: Wood Trees are cut down from native, regrowth or plantation forests....   [tags: casting, cutting, moulding] 2690 words
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Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment - The treatment of surface wastewater is aimed at bringing contaminated water back to its previous state for domestic use or otherwise. Some of the sources of wastewater include industrial effluents from manufactures, agricultural effluents, agro-industrial as well as domestic wastewater from sinks, bathtubs, toilets, and so on. Particles in the water from the various sources include bacteria, organic matters, and sand which cause the water to be turbid or discoloured in appearance and have an unpleasant odour....   [tags: wastewater, flocculation, alkalinity, flocs]
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1053 words
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Which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid - Which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid Introduction In this investigation we will find out which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid. The metals used will be: · Aluminium · Zinc · Iron · Tin · Lead · Nickel · Copper To make a prediction on what metals will be the ones that give the highest voltage when combined together you need to find out if the position in which the metals are at in the reactivity series would make a difference, and if it does, how....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1196 words
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Business Analysis of Broken Hill Proprietary Company - BHP BILLITON BHP is known as Broken Hill Proprietary Company and was established in 1885 and its works in three major sectors which are: mineral, petroleum and steel along with that it also works in some other field like transport and logistics, corporate services, strategy and legal .Mainly they were involved in discovery, development, production and marketing of iron ore, copper, oil and gas. Its main headquarter was in Melbourne and gave employment to 30000 individual. Billiton was formed in 1860 in Netherlands and it is named after the name of tin-rich Island in Indonesia, where they first started mining....   [tags: competition, environment, profit] 1552 words
(4.4 pages)
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BHP Billiton's Global Success - BHP Billiton is a global leader in mining and resource companies with around 100,000 employees in over 25 countries worldwide.BHP was founded in 1885 as the broken hill proprietary company having three main operations such as minerals, petroleum and steel. In case of minerals and petroleum market it includes the production of iron ore, copper, nickel, silver, diamonds, oil and gas and other natural resource. It also produces other services like transport and logistics, corporate services, strategy and legal....   [tags: mine, market, environment] 1599 words
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Malaysian National Art Gallery - ... Bartuska (1994) noted that, “Human functional aspects are an important component of architecture and deep understanding of them is a fundamental prerequisite to building design. Internally, fine building provides appropriate functional spaces for healthy human needs, values and activities, Externally, the form of architecture is prominent, expressing the symbolic qualities of a structure, be it an office building, civic centre, church or home. The symbolic meaning is a unique and provides orientation and enjoyment for the public (p.157)” The function of a building is how the building serves its community and the public....   [tags: rainscreen cady, refurbish, building] 2777 words
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Investigating Which Metal Combination Gives Out the Most Voltage in a Solution - Investigating Which Metal Combination Gives Out the Most Voltage in a Solution Background Metals are an order of chemical elements in the periodic table. They are arranged in atomic number. All of them are solid (apart from mercury), good thermal and electrical conductors and are shiny when polished. Metals and non - metals are separated in the table by a diagonal line. -------------------------------------------------------------------- The reactivity series is a table to show which metals are most reactive to the least reactive....   [tags: Papers] 919 words
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Expansion and Contraction of Materials - Expansion and Contraction of Materials When most materials are heated they expand and this increase their volume. One example of expansion is the fitting of the starter ring gear to the flywheel. The gear is heated until it expands sufficiently to pass over the rim of the flywheel, and when it is cool the gear tries to return to its original size, this gripping the flywheel with considerable force. All metals do not expand equally when heated through the same range of temperature, e.g. aluminium alloy expands more than cast iron; copper and brass expand more than mild steel....   [tags: Papers] 902 words
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Justifying My Choice of Bridge Design - ... http://prezi.com/t8-aj6js4s2g/bridges-trusses/ http://www.brighthubengineering.com/structural-engineering/63635-truss-bridge-designs/ http://www.brighthubengineering.com/structural-engineering/65884-construction-of-beam-and-truss-bridges/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truss_bridge http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_Springs_Pegram_Truss_Railroad_Bridge http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republican_River_Pegram_Truss Provide a diagram of your bridge and analyse the stresses (tension compression torsion and shear etc) that in your bridge will experience under load....   [tags: Pegram Truss, civil engineering] 1111 words
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Invention Relating to Alloy of Copper - ... This is the case in the most conductive metals, such as silver and copper, who each have a single valence electron that moves with little resistance and causes a strong repelling reaction. Even without an external electric field applied, these electrons move about randomly due to thermal energy but on an average, there is zero net current within the metal. In an imaginary plane through which a wire passes, the number of electrons moving from one side to the other in any period of time is exactly equal to the number passing in the opposite direction....   [tags: ohm , conductivity, resistivity] 1235 words
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Composite Material Systems - ... Wear and corrosion resistance : It is used as wear resistant linings for pipes and vessels, pump and faucet seals, thread and wire guides because of its high resistance to wear and corrosion. 2.3Aluminium Casting Alloy LM25 (Al – Si ,Mg) 2.3.1 Introduction This alloy conforms to British Standard 1490 LM25. Castings made of this alloy are standardised as per following conditions : 1. As cast, LM25-M 2. Precipitation treated LM25 - TE 3. Solution treated and stabilized LM25 - TB7 4. Fully heat - treated LM25 - TF.It is suitable where good corrosion resistance combined with thermal properties are required....   [tags: material science] 2998 words
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Alloy Wheels - Alloys They are lightweight, better conductors of heat and fit more snugly than steel variants. But most importantly they improve fuel efficiency...No wonder aluminium alloy wheels are fast becoming the preferred accessory of car consumers IT'S now considered a wonder material for autoville. Aluminium, which is increasingly replacing steel in car factories across the world (including some of the more premium names in the business like BMW and Mercedes Benz), is also the preferred material for wheels, both automotive and otherwise....   [tags: Case Study, solution] 939 words
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The A380, The Worlds’ First Superjumbo Jet - In 1988 engineers at the Airbus headquarters in Toulouse started work on a highly ambitious project, the possibility of a commercial UHCA (ultra-high-capacity aircraft). By 1993 Boeing and Deutsche Aerospace, a member of the Airbus consortium, surprisingly declared they were joining forces on a VLCT (very large commercial transport) feasibility study, with the aim to create a product in a shared partnership that would lead in the limited market [7]. Nevertheless two years later this study was abandoned due to viability from increasing development costs....   [tags: Airbus, Boeing, Lufthansa]
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1148 words
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Rocks and the Earth - Rocks and the Earth There are 3 main types of rock . These are sedimentary , metamorphic and igneous . Igneous rocks are formed by molten lava escaping from the mantle and cooling down to form solid , crystalline rock. The faster the new rock cools the smaller the crystals in the rock are. Eg Granite Sedimentary rocks are made when small chippings of rock accumulate on the seabed and are crushed together over thousands of years. These chippings are worn from rocks by wind, rain and ice , this is called erosion or weathering....   [tags: Papers] 728 words
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Heat Energy Investigation - Heat Energy Investigation In this experiment we will as accurately as possible measure the voltage, current, time, start temperature, final temperature and the mass of 7 different substances. We will measure the voltage to make the experiment more accurate, we will do this by making sure that every time we do an experiment we will keep the volts to 12v and nothing else, as this could affect the overall result. It is also needed as part of an equation that will be done later on....   [tags: Papers] 1170 words
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Vapour-Compression Refrigeration System - The first working vapour-compression refrigeration system in the world which operated on a closed cycle as to run continuously wasn’t built until 1834 by American expatriate to Great Britain Jacob Perkins. Until this point, ice houses or natural sources of cold (snow, cold lakes) were used to provide cool storage for most of the year. In 1856 James Harrison built the first practical vapour compression refrigeration system, His prototype was built in 1851 on the banks of the Barwon River and his first commercial ice-making machine followed in 1854....   [tags: ice, freezer, hydrogen, low temperatures]
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1378 words
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Microstructural Evolution, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Low Cost Ti-Fe-O-N Alloys - MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND CORROSION BEHAVIOUR OF LOW COST Ti-Fe-O-N (alpha-beta) ALLOYS 1. INTRODUCTION Titanium and its alloys are highly recognized materials used for advanced applications such as aerospace, biomedical and chemical industries [1]. This is attributed to the excellent physical and mechanical properties exhibited by these alloys. Some of these properties include low density, specific strength, corrosion resistance, non magnetic and high temperature resistance....   [tags: materials for advanced applications]
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1592 words
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Considerations for the Design and Fabrication of a Boat Propeller - ... Material selection and corrosion protection would be simple if all that needed to be considered was the environmental conditions, however the operational conditions must also be considered. Operational Conditions There are two key operational conditions that must be considered in the design of a propeller, these are pitting and operating time. Pitting is a very important consideration as it is the starting block for corrosion damage on a propeller blade. Boat propellers transmit power by rotating in the water to provide thrust; as such it is subjected to a high amount of revolutions per minute....   [tags: corrosion, materials, maintenance] 1450 words
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Various Kinds of Heat Exchangers Analysis - This is another type of heat exchanger, which is vital during energy recovery systems and normally finds its application in HVAC systems. It has the general appearance of a plate-finned water coil although in this case, the tubes are never interconnected. A typical heat pipe is separated into two sections using a closed/sealed dividing wall. When placed in an air handling system, hot exhaust air stream passes through the evaporator and gets cooled, while the cool incoming air stream is passed through the condenser....   [tags: heat pipes, hvac systems, energy recovery]
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935 words
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The Importance of Studying Mechanical Engineering - ... Consequently, one of my research projects involves the investigation of mechanical properties of thermosetting plastic blend of Phenol Formaldehyde and Chitin and another deals with the study of microstructures and mechanical properties of weldments. I carried out my first research project in the third semester under the guidance of Professor R S Uma Maheshwar Rao. It was an experimental study of mechanical properties of thermosetting plastic blend of Phenol Formaldehyde and Chitin. The objective of the project was to develop a new composite system by reinforcing phenol formaldehyde with chitin particles and to characterize it to achieve products that range from offshore to common house...   [tags: research, projects, materials] 833 words
(2.4 pages)
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Technical Report The Construction of Alloy Wheels - Technical Report The Construction of Alloy Wheels Introduction Aluminium alloy wheels are now used in all branches of Motor Racing, ranging from Touring cars and Rally cars to Formula One cars. The Alloy wheels offer far superior mechanical properties than the conventional steel wheels formerly used. These benefits include reduced un-sprung weight, i.e. not held by the suspension, providing more precise steering input and improved responsiveness. Alloy wheels also improve acceleration and braking due to the reduction of weight....   [tags: Design and Technology]
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2086 words
(6 pages)
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The Content of Two Antacids - The purpose of this experiment is to investigate and compare the basic content of two antacids and also compare the prices and thus decide which antacid is more cost effective. This experiment is not hugely significant to the wider scientific community however it can help an uninformed consumer purchase a more cost effective antacid and understand how antacids work. The method used in this experiment is called a back titration. This involves adding HCl to an antacid tablet until an excess of HCl is reached and then titrating that solution against a 0.1mol NaOH solution....   [tags: Antacids, science experiments, ] 2178 words
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The Problem of Acid Rain - The Problem of Acid Rain WHAT CAUSES ACID RAIN When power stations, factories, houses and cars release pollution into the air it has chemicals in it called sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. SULPHUR DIOXIDE: Man-made sulphur dioxide comes mainly from burning fossils fuels in power stations. It then mixes with water in the atmosphere to make sulphuric acid, which will later fall as acid rain. NITROGEN OXIDES: Nitrogen oxides are also man-made and mainly come from car exhausts....   [tags: Papers] 859 words
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Law and Statue Law - Step 1 The area of law the question is associated with is statute law. The case in question concerns the breach of the local law 36 which states “A person shall not dispose of metals or metallic particles into soil, areas of vegetation, waterways, sewers, drains or similar areas. Penalty: $3000.00”. Yvette, a student sells artworks in her garage in her private residence. The chromium paint she uses contains a small amount of aluminium and while the paint can is being cleaned, some paint may escape the can and flow into a water trough which is not used....   [tags: Four Step Process, Laws, Streets, Systems]
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1518 words
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Monopolies that make super normal profits aren’t in the public - Monopolies that make super normal profits aren’t in the public interest because they could charge a lower price than they do. Introduction: Monopoly is an emotive word, and the immediate reaction is that it should be replaced with competition. In this investigation we are going to look at what is a monopoly, what are barriers to entry and what types of barriers there are, what are normal and supernormal profits and to they bear any benefits to the public. What is a monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in which there is a single seller of a product and there are no close substitutes of this product in the market....   [tags: Business and Management Studies] 1153 words
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The Pros and Cons of Vertical Integration - It leads to reduction of transportation costs as the common ownership results in closer geographic proximity. The transaction costs can be controlled if a firm acquires the other firms in the vertical chain, then one division of the same company will transfer goods to other divisions. So, transaction costs in form of transport, cost of negotiation, cost of control etc. will be eliminated. The overall average cost of the firm will decrease because if the divisions are under same management control then there will be in house supply and departmental heads will determine the transfer price....   [tags: essays research papers] 1124 words
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A Brief Look at Playing Tennis - ... [2] The steel tennis racquets were started to replace the wooden tennis racquets in order to solve the heavy and weak problems that caused by wooden tennis racquets as steel is stronger and lighter than wood. Although the steel tennis racquets is better than the wood racquet, the tennis players still faced a problem in terms of swing strength. Figure 1.1.2: Steel tennis racquet When the tennis racquet technologies came in 1975, an aluminium racket was introduced. This material was lighter than steel and allowed the construction of oversized tennis rackets....   [tags: games with a ball and racket] 611 words
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Turning a Mild Steel Bar - TASK: Turning a Mild Steel Bar.We were each given a mild steel bar to work into the shape shown in the drawing found on the following pages, TURNING TASK: Turning a Mild Steel Bar. We were each given a mild steel bar to work into the shape shown in the drawing found on the following pages, to do this we used the Turning Lathe in the workshop, but before we could start some measurements had to be taken. This meant using a micrometer to determine the diameter of the bar to begin with. A micrometer allows a measurement of the size of a body....   [tags: Design and Technology] 2186 words
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Corporate Strategy - External Environment The various factors and systems that surround a business, and do not constitute the operation of the business, are regarded as components of the external environment for the business. These systems and factors have a very great potential of influencing and affecting the business activities (The External Environment). The constituents of the external environment include: the business competitors, the prevailing economic status of the country the business is located in, the existing surrounding social system, the dynamics of political or legal components in the country, and the existing monetary system of the country....   [tags: Business Analysis ]
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Electrolysis - Electrolysis Electrolysis is a chemical process by which electrical currents can be passed through solutions. Pure water cannot conduct electricity, but if a salt such as Sodium Chloride is dissolved in it, the solutions will start conducting if two electrodes are placed in it with a battery that provides the initial current. When we close the switch, copper ions on the anode will start to move through the solution to the cathode. The copper atoms have already given up two electrons to become ions and their electrons are free to move in the wires....   [tags: Papers] 491 words
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There are Four Types of Insovency: Voluntary Arrangements, Bankruptcy , Administration and Winding-up - ... The plaintiff, Aluminium Industries, supplied aluminium foil to Romalpa, which processed tin foil. The standard conditions of the contract stated that the ownership of the foil was to be transferred when the purchase price was paid to the seller. Until then, the buyer was required to store the foil separately so they it could be recognized . Also, the articles manufactured from the foil had to become the property of the seller in order to secure payment and until that payment was made by the buyer to the seller....   [tags: creditors, law, financial accommodation] 2929 words
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Glass Bottle and Jars are Made of Different Raw Materials - ... Raw materials used in the glass container manufacturing are given the table below : Component Chemical Formula Percentage Silicon Oxide SiO2 71-73 Sodium Oxide Na2O 12-14 Calcium Oxide CaO 9-12 Magnesium Oxide MgO 0.2-3.5 Aluminium Oxide Al2O3 1-3 Potassium Oxide K2O 0.3-1.5 Sulphur trioxide SO3 .05-0.3 Colour modifiers etc. See Table 3.2 Traces Table 3.1 Raw materials used in glass container manufacturing[Source: Reference document on best available techniques in glass manufacturing industry December 2001, IPPC] * SiO2 is the most important raw material for glass container production....   [tags: impact on environment, failure] 1620 words
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Assessment of Manipulations in Commodities Futures Markets - Though complicated in implementations, neither market power nor fraud is sporadic in commodities futures markets. Although such perplexity does constrain understandings as well as prosecution attempts (Fischel and Ross, 1991; Markham, 1993; Pirrong, 2010), basic market functions, such as hedging and price discovery are apparently weakened with fraudulent prices (Hull, 2003). Some manipulations shaped the regulatory framework in commodities futures markets, like the 19th century corner in grain, which generated the initial need for regulations (Lower, 1991; Sharp, 2009)....   [tags: market power, electricity, energy markets]
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Design Consideration of a Noise Barrier - From the guidelines of EPD,the major function of noise barrier is to eliminate the excessive noise generated by vehicles. Noise barriers are considered as the most reasonable and efficient noise mitigation measures. Many factors need to consider in design of noise barrier. They are Acoustical Design Consideration, Transmission Loss of Various Barrier Materials, in Noise Barrier Performance due to Holes, Slits or Gap, Barrier Shape ,Choice of Material ,barrier materials ,Earth Berms and Retaining Structures and Non-acoustical Consideration....   [tags: acoustical design, noise mitigation]
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How Iodine-131 Works in Everyday Applications - ... Gamma radiation is the release of gamma rays (Lab, n.d.). These rays produce electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength than those of an X-ray. They are able to penetrate paper and aluminium but are not able to pass through a certain thickness of lead (Lab, n.d.). A radioisotope is another term for a radioactive isotope. Half- life is the time it takes for the half the number of radioactive atoms in a sample to decay.The element Iodine has one hundred and forty isotopes (Lab, n.d.). The Isotope with a mass of 127 being the most stable....   [tags: ingested, atoms, diagnosis] 1017 words
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Designer Charles Eames' Design Icon: The Eames Chair - The Eames chair designed by Charles Eames in 1955. Charles Eames was born in 1907 and dies in 1978, the Eames chair was named after the designer itself it took 80 years for prototype. Eames was best known as the designer responsible for many classic iconic designs of the 20th century, Eames was born in St Louis, Missouri and studied architecture at Washington University, he got married in 1941 and moved to California to set up a ground breaking design studio. The chair was design for exterior use however it became very popular as an office chair....   [tags: home decor, Designer, Charles Eames, Eames Chair, ] 465 words
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A Brief History of Lime - Symbol: Ca From the Latin calx which means lime. It was used as a building material as far back as 7000 to 14000 BC. Determine when and how this metal was discovered (and, if possible, who discovered this metal). This metal was discovered in Khafajah Mesopotamia; around 2500 BC (first kiln date). The Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide. However this could not be the first scientific date of discovery; this is because it was not discovered, isolated and named. An English scientist named Humphry Davy was the first person to isolate calcium, this was done in 1808 by mixing mercuric oxide and lime; he then performed an electrolysis of the mixture....   [tags: Chemistry Metals, Building Material, History]
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Preparation of Tooth: Rotary Cutterage - ... Surgery is not always possible for gingiva retraction. It’s only done when the finishing line has to be placed so near to the gingiva that it makes it impossible to retract the gingiva for an adequate impression with the before mentioned methods. The use of this surgery is to expand the gingival sulcus by removing irritated tissue from around the finishing line as they have proliferated over the finishing lines (Image) (Fixed Prosthodontics, p. 260-86). A better retention form can then before can be achieved by gingivectomy – removal of gingiva with a loop electrode which can only be done if the patient contains sufficient wide gingiva around tooth preparation....   [tags: gingiva, crown] 1379 words
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Radioactivity Experiments - Radioactivity Experiments Aim: To determine the penetrating power and the range in air of the three radioactive emissions alpha, beta and gamma. Apparatus: * gm tube, * clamp stand, * the counter thing, * ruler, * set-square Method of penetrating power of Alpha particles, Beta particles & Gamma Rays: The equipment was set up as shown below to measure the penetrating power of each radioactive source. Geiger-Muller Tube Again the measurements were taken without the absorber to measure background radiation....   [tags: Papers] 948 words
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Seminar: Smartphone Review - ... With a more widescreen-aspect display, the iPhone 5 is a good deal less wide is 58.6mm against the Samsung Galaxy S3‚which is 70.6mm (News Straits Times, 2013). Furthermore, the Samsung Galaxy S3 features also slightly slimmer, a rounder body and a sleeker design than its predecessor model which is Samsung Galaxy S2 ("2013 Nguyen and Fiolet"). Lastly, The iPhone 5 only available in two colours, black and white ("2012 Ritchie" par. 2). While, the Galaxy S3 comes in variety of colours like white, black, blue, red, grey and brown....   [tags: Samsung Galaxy S3, iPhone 5] 2475 words
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International Joint Ventures (IJVs) - INTRODUCTION: In today’s global world, multinational corporations (MNCs) need to find new markets to stay competitive. A way in which they can do this is through IJVs. Hyder and Ghauri (2000) estimate the growth of IJVs to be 25% annually. As defined by Geringer (1988), a joint venture (JV) is when two or more distinct companies come together and form a new entity. Geringer and Hebert (1991) extend this definition to include IJVs and stated that if the headquarters of one of the partners is outside the country where the JV is set-up or if it has operations in multiple countries, it is an IJV....   [tags: Strategic Alliances]
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2462 words
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Herbal Medicine: Vino Ltd - Vrino Ltd was founded in 1991, with its main business activities being the cultivation, processing, packaging and distribution of aromatic plants, herbs and spices. Throughout these years, the company has tremendously expanded, not only within the Greek borders, but also across the whole world (exports in the USA, Australia, China, Germany, Canada are specific examples). The company has long been an authorized supplier of Delhaize Group as well as Spar Group and has acquired all the required certifications of standardized procedures and quality (ISO 9001:2008 and 22000:2005 stand as the most important)....   [tags: cultivation, aromatic plants]
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Safety of an Aircraft - ... As a result of this, the use of titanium is limited. Another option for consideration is stainless steel. Despite having a higher corrosion resistance, stainless steel lacks the tensile strength of regular grade steel, and for this reason particularly, aircraft grade steels like E4340 are used (Aerospace Metals, 2014). There are drawbacks with using steel however; it has a greater weight, and it corrodes at a much higher rate compared to the aforementioned materials. The weight of steel components cannot be altered, however corrosion can be prevented through certain means, hence the importance of understanding possible methods for protection....   [tags: landing gear, pilot, corrosion] 1306 words
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I Love Electronics - I Love Electronics I have been interested in electronics since I was a child. At the age 5 I made a plug of aluminium foil and I put it in the electrical wall socket. To my surprise I got an electric shock, the wall and socket consequently became blackened, we had no electricity for the rest of the day (I wasn't at all very popular). Following on from this incident, I was often found sitting by the side of the blackened socket looking at it and thinking. I never did try to make another aluminium foil plug....   [tags: College Admissions Essays] 359 words
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The Uses and Significance of Group Two Compounds - The Uses and Significance of Group Two Compounds The group two elements consist of Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium. These are known as the ‘Group Two elements’ because of their unique electron division. Each one of these elements, consists of two outer shell electrons. Because of the lack of outer electrons, these elements are highly reactive. Group two electrons have a positive Two charge or +ve. The Group 2 elements are all metals with a shiny, silvery-white colour....   [tags: Papers] 736 words
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The Age of Discovery of Elements - The Age of Discovery of Elements "The nineteenth century was the golden age for the discovery of elements. Scientists began to look for patterns of behaviour between elements."*1 Johann Döbereiner, a German chemist, was the first to attempt to categorise the elements. He used their atomic weights, which we now know as atomic masses. In 1863, John Newlands, produced something that he called the 'Law of Octaves'....   [tags: Papers] 879 words
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Frank J. Horgan Filtration Plant - Frank J. Horgan Filtration Plant Introduction The Frank J. Horgan Filtration Plant is located Southeast of Toronto on the shores of Lake Ontario (See map). Its purpose is to provide safe drinking water to our taps by filtering the water. The water is gathered from Lake Ontario. This plant has a production capacity of 455 million litres per day to supply the residents of Toronto with drinking water. Its average production of drinking water is 355 million litres per day. It is also the newest filtration plant in Toronto....   [tags: essays research papers] 1143 words
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Exploring the Role of Chemists - Exploring the Role of Chemists It was Lavoisier who divided the few elements known in the 1700's into four classes, and then John Dalton made atoms even more convincing, suggesting that the mass of an atom was it's most important property. In the nineteenth century Johann Döbereiner was the first to attempt to classify elements using their relative atomic mass. He also identified a number of ‘triads’ in the list of elements then known. Each triad was a set of 3 elements that have similar properties (e.g....   [tags: Papers] 647 words
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Light and Photosynthesis - Introduction. Light is a very important factor in the rate of photosynthesis, in my project I am going to test that plants do need light in order to photosynthesise. It will be very interesting to see how light will influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants and what will happen if they do not get the required light in order to produce starch . The plant I have chosen to do is a Geranium which is a dicotyledonous plant found in the dry and hot regions of South Africa. Aim To see whether light effects the rate of Photosynthesis in plants or not....   [tags: plant, sun, greranium]
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Photocatalytically Active Nanostructures - ... Drying and thermal annealing of the as‐formed TiO2 gel resulted in the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanotubes. A subsequent Ag electrodeposition step inside the TiO2 nanotubes resulted in formation of coaxial TiO2‐Ag nanowires. Due to the combination of an n‐type semiconductor (ZnO or TiO2) and a metal (Ag) within the same nanowire, a Schottky barrier was created at the interface between the phases. To demonstrate the photocatalytic activity of these nanowires, the Ag|ZnO nanowires were used in a photocatalytic experiment in which H2 gas was detected upon UV illumination of the nanowires dispersed in a methanol/water mixture....   [tags: electric engineering] 627 words
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Compensation of Temperature Effects on Guided Wave Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems - ... Experiments have revealed that, with temperature, acoustic signals present a decrease of energy under the form of amplitude and frequency decay. An exponential frequency drift with temperature was observed and empirically evaluated into a frequency-temperature function. This frequency-temperature analytic function was used to compensate for the “stretch” of the time traces, effect directly connected with the temperature influence. The compensation strategy proposed improved by -14 dB the residual resulting from subtraction of two sets of data registered on undamaged plate, but at different temperatures, Figure 2....   [tags: Temperature, Structures]
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The Production of Methanol and Hydrogen Fuels from MSW - ... The flow chart in figure?. below is shown the process to produce methanol and hydrogen from the MSW. Figure??: Flowchart of Methanol and Hydrogen Production from MSW (Chen, 1995) The Fuel Production Process: Gasification Gasification process is used to convert MSW into valuable form of energy (methanol and liquid hydrogen ).This process are involved the reaction of carbonaceous feedstock with an oxygen-containing reagent, usually oxygen, air, steam or carbon dioxide at temperatures in excess of 800°C....   [tags: municipal solid waste] 576 words
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