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A substantive grounded theory - A good formal theory ought to be at least the equivalent ought of a ton of ethnographies and perhaps half a gross of substantive theories (Strauss 1987, p.248). A substantive grounded theory is a tailor-made theory while a formal grounded theory is a ready-made theory (Kearney 1998). Substantive theory may limit its application to other contexts if a constant comparative method of modifying a theory is neglected. Nevertheless, it may have important general implications and relevance to other areas....   [tags: Informative, Theory] 491 words
(1.4 pages)
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Evaluating Career Theory and Application - It is easy to dissect an individual’s life to analyze and critique their choices based on our own opinions and experiences. Is that fair. No. We may see their actions clearly but the reasoning behind these is what the focus should be when it comes to judging one’s behavior or circumstances. Regular judgments are made about a person based on their profession. In our society, it would behoove us to look at the paths that lead to becoming a medical doctor instead of a drug dealer or prostitute. Application of career theories to life allow for analyzing past and future career decisions in all fields....   [tags: Career Theory] 971 words
(2.8 pages)
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Theory of Alienation: Marx and Nietzsche - Marx’s theory of alienation is concerned primarily with social interaction and production; he believes that we are able to overcome our alienation through human emancipation. Marx’s theory of alienation is the process by which social organized productive powers are experienced as external or alien forces that dominate the humans that create them. He believes that production is man’s act on nature and on himself. Man’s relationship with nature is his relationship with his tools, or means of production....   [tags: Theory of Alienation]
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2372 words
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John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice - John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice holds that rational, mutually disinterested individuals, in the Original Position and given the task of establishing societal rules to maximise their own happiness throughout life, are liable to choose as principles of societal justice a) guaranteed fundamental liberties and b) the nullification of social and economic disparities by universal equality of opportunities, which are to be of greatest benefit to the least advantaged members of society , . Rawls’ system of societal cbfgdbre for the maintenance of fundamental liberties, equality of opportunity and support for the disadvantaged is exercised....   [tags: A Theory of Justice] 786 words
(2.2 pages)
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John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice - John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice holds that a rational, mutually disinterested individual in the Original Position and given the task of establishing societal rules to maximise their own happiness throughout life, is liable to choose as their principles of justice a) guaranteed fundamental liberties and b) the nullification of social and economic disparities by universal equality of opportunities, which are to be of greatest benefit to the least advantaged members of society , . Rawls’ system of societal creation has both strengths and weaknesses, but is ultimately sound....   [tags: A Theory of Justice]
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959 words
(2.7 pages)
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Lee Vygotsky's Theory of Learning - Lev Vygotsky developed his theory of learning in the 1920’s but it was not until the late 1960’s that his ideas about learning became popular and were used to contribute to “Constructivism” as a method of teaching. (Krause [et al.] 2010 p. p81). Vygotsky believed that learning and cognitive development were significantly influenced by social interactions that occur with in a particular sociocultural environment. There are four major influences on cognitive development. • The social/cultural environment • The impact of language • Role of private speech • The Zone of Proximal Development....   [tags: Educational Theory]
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672 words
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Functionalism Theory of Education - There are three main theoretical perspectives (or theories) that represent the views of sociologist and educators, these views are the conflict perspective, symbolic interactions, and functionalism. Although all of these theories are important to education and society, I have chosen to focus my research or theoretical perspective on functionalism also including the effects functionalism and education. The Functionalist perspective is one of the most dominant core perspectives in sociology and is an analysis of social and cultural phenomena in terms of the functions they perform in a social system....   [tags: Educational theory]
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1430 words
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Frederick Herzberg's Motivator-Hygience Theory - Frederick Herzberg is renowned for the development of his Motivator-Hygiene theory. His theory stands on the ground that employees need to get satisfied with their job and avoid job dissatisfaction. For this purpose Herzberg recommends focusing on hygiene factors to avoid job dissatisfaction and focus on motivation factors to stimulate job satisfaction. In such a way, employees achieve job satisfaction and positive performance. 2010 Introduction Traditionally, the effectiveness of employees’ performance was one of the primary concerns of managers and theorists who researched issues related to management and who developed management theories....   [tags: Business Theory]
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2286 words
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Atomic Theory - Missing equations The understanding of the physical world changed as the development of the atomic theory progressed. The view of the world before the atomic theory is important to consider when trying to understand the kind of knowledge that people such as Democritus and Epicurus had when developing their theories that later influenced the further development of the atomic theory. Alchemy Alchemy is normally thought of as the transition of metals into gold. In reality alchemist are said by William H....   [tags: physics atomic theory] 1268 words
(3.6 pages)
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Erik Erikson's Human Developmental Theory - Out of the massive contributions made to developmental psychology, no psychologist had made a more significant contribution than Erik Erikson. As a young man, Erikson was highly influenced by the Freud family and their school of thought. However, Erikson disagreed with the Freudian concept of psychosexual stages, the idea that humans undergo stages of development and resolve basic conflicts by physical and pleasurable gratification (Santrock, 22). “According to Freud, the primary motivation for human behavior is sexual in nature according to Erikson, it is social and reflects a desire to affiliate with other people,” (Santrock, 23)....   [tags: Psychosocial Developmental Theory 2014 ]
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Description of the Instructional Design Theory on Education - A definition of instructional design theory is a theory that offers guidance and direction in the field of education to better help people learn and develop (Reigeluth, 1983, p. 5). The kinds of learning and development may vary and include cognitive, emotional, spiritual, physical, and social foundations. The learner may receive this knowledge in any number of methods including face-to-face teacher-lead learning, facilitated online student-focused learning, and any number of hybrid or mixed formats....   [tags: Educational theory, teaching, teacher]
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2172 words
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Organisational Theory and Analysis - ORGANISATIONAL THEORY AND ANALYSIS Organization can be a stressful place in which to work, thus stress management is becoming an important issue at work. It can be argued that the responsibility for stress management lies with both the organization and the individuals who are, or could be affected by stress. Explain why organization are stressful place and discuss who should have the responsibility for stress management and why. Organization is social structure. That is to say an organization is a group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall, common goal or set or goal....   [tags: Theory Analysis] 1412 words
(4 pages)
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Chaos Theory - Chaos Theory      What exactly is chaos theory. From the understanding of many scientists such as Edward Lorenz, Ian Stewart, and Robert May the chaos theory relatively means the same thing. Each of these scientists contributed to the science of chaos theory.      First and Foremost chaos theory itself comes from the seemingly half-hazard way things seem to happen in its equations, but chaos theory is really about finding the similarities between these seemingly random events in an equation.      Edward Lorenz, a meteorologist, discovered this theory when he was working on a calculation for weather prediction on his computer....   [tags: Science Scientists Chaos Theory Essays]
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The Background on the Stanley Milgram Theory - The social psychology theory that I will be analyzing is based on the Stanley Milgram experiment done in 1965 following the start of the Nazi war. He was curios on all the violence taking place during this time. As a Jew himself, he wanted to find out whether or not the Adolf Eichmann accomplice had the same intent and hate towards the Jewish people during the holocaust. Based on Solomon Asch’s past experiments on conformity, Milgram’s experiment was done to determine whether or not the power of the situation could cause average people to conform to obedience....   [tags: Stanley Milgram Theory, psychology, social psychol] 1082 words
(3.1 pages)
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Major Challenges to Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development - What are the major challenges to Piaget's theory of cognitive development and what aspects still have value. To answer this question, Piaget's theory of development should be explained along with Vygotsky's theory and the connectionist theory of development, and then each should be compared with the others. Once this has been achieved the main similarities and differences will be summarized, and finally the areas of Piaget's theory that have not been undermined by other theories will be reiterated....   [tags: Vygotsky's theory connectionist theory]
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Psychologist’s Theory - Which psychologist’s theory best describes your own personality.      Personality can best be described as “personal qualities of an individual”. No two people have the same personality, but yet all the different personalities in the world can be characterized into 4 main theories. The four psychologists that thought up the four theories are Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, and Abraham Maslow. (pg.64) Each man based his theory on a different part of a person’s personality development. The theory that best describes my personality is Maslow’s....   [tags: Maslow’s Theory Psychology] 525 words
(1.5 pages)
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The Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory - The Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory According to William B. Gudykunst in his article "A Model of Uncertainty Reduction in Intercultural Encounters," the uncertainty reduction theory explains initial interactions between two strangers from the same culture. Studies, however, suggest this theory can also be extended to interpersonal communication between two people from different cultures. Uncertainty refers to how well you can accurately predict how strangers will behave during their initial interaction and the ability to explain the strangers' behavior....   [tags: Anxiety Uncertainty Management Theory]
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693 words
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Maslow's Theory of Self-Actualization and Giving Up on Dreams - As we can see, in the daily life we are living in, people always give up on their dreams very easily. It is usual for us to hear someone say that, "I quit. I can not do this any more." Some people do so because they are tired of what they are doing, and others may just give up on their dreams because of their own personality problem. In my point of view, it is not a good or healthy thing to do because in the end, people may regret for what they decided to do. They may feel unhappy or even depressed....   [tags: Maslow, theory of self-actualization, psychology, ] 1008 words
(2.9 pages)
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Einstein's Theory of Relativity - Motion and time are fundamental components of life. Finding himself late to work, an employee will drive faster, which in turn, will reduce the time needed to commute to his job. The rules of motion and time are known intrinsically to every person on the planet. As children, these “Laws” become common sense. No explanation is needed when a sleeping student falls out of his desk onto the floor. Motion and time were always considered to be self-explanatory and obvious parts of everyday life. This was true until a group of scientists who deemed themselves “Physicists” began challenging the known rules of motion and explaining them using mathematics and experimentation....   [tags: physics Albert Einstein theory relativity]
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3230 words
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Fear of Flying and Classical Conditioning Theory - How Lauren may have learned of her Fear of Flying. How Lauren learned she had a fear in flying. Using the Classical Conditioning theory the possibilities could be endless. Classical conditioning in simple terms is the method in which one determines why and the cause of a condition as well as what has brought it about. There are many stimulus both conditioned and unconditioned that can cause fear or other problems, but the major reason for causes regarding the fear of flying has been mentioned in several articles regarding anxiety disorders....   [tags: Classical Conditioning Theory Psychology]
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692 words
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Travis Hirschi's Social Control Theory: Helpful or False? - In this essay I will first explain what a Social Control Theory is and how Hirschi developed his theory ‘Social Bond’ from this, I will also discuss further development of his theory with Gottfredson in a ‘General Theory of Crime’. I will then discuss and consider the criticisms of both theories before providing my own conclusion, including why his theory is still relevant in today’s society. Control theories take on a different approach to other previous theories such as….. Most theorists ask ‘why someone commits a crime’ whilst control theories look at why most people chose not to commit crime....   [tags: Social Control Theory, sociology, Travis Hirschi, ] 1196 words
(3.4 pages)
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The Big Bang Theory - The Big Bang Theory Why is the Universe expanding. What is Cosmic Back Ground Radiation (CBR). There are many questions asked about our Universe, which we know so little about. Scientists, in their attempt to answer these and other confrontations, have found one idea that seems to explain much of what we don't understand: The Big Bang Theory. An explosion of incomprehensible speed was the beginning of our known Universe and existence. At that time matter as small as the head of a pin inflated to become larger than the visible Universe of today in less than one millisecond....   [tags: Big Bang Theory Science Essays Papers] 1334 words
(3.8 pages)
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The Mathematical Theory of Communication by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver - The Mathematical Theory of Communication by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver For my research report, I read The Mathematical Theory of Communication by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver. This book is an in-depth description of their theory. While I will focus mostly on Weaver's translation and application of information, I will also touch on the theory's core ideas as explained by Shannon. The information theory is the extentsion of Nyquist's and Hartley's origingal ideas on the subject. However, Claude Shannon includes new factors such as "the effect of noise in the channel, and savings possible due to statistical structure of the original message and due to the nature of the final destination of information." Shannon's ideas were based on the fundamental problem in communication, which he described as the "difficulty of reproducing at one point the message selected at another point." The most significant aspect is that the actual message sent is one "selected from a set" of possible messages....   [tags: Information Theory Research Report]
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650 words
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Auteur Theory: Howard Hawks and Martin Scorsese - Use a range of auteur theories to examine the work of two significant directors you have studied on this module. One director should have produced the majority of their work prior to 1960 and the other should have produced it from the 1970s onwards. Discuss the origins and main developments of auteur theory then examine the works of Howard Hawks and Martin Scorsese with relevance to their status as auteur directors. In having their films examined as auteurs of the cinema, both Howard Hawks and Martin Scorsese have been described as great artists whose body of work demonstrates repeated themes and motifs, that put in context reveals a particular belief and world view that is held by the director....   [tags: auteurism theory, film, director]
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Utopia on the Horizons of Time in Lukács's The Theory of the Novel - Utopia on the Horizons of Time in Lukács's The Theory of the Novel Time is a pivotal term in Georg Lukács's The Theory of the Novel for two reasons: the text's "time" describes the time of the novel (the time depicted in novels as described by Lukács), but it also bears reflexively on the chronology, or the history of literary forms, which the text itself describes. These readings are not easily separable; The Theory of the Novel must be read as a self-description, as a "theoretical novel" itself (as Freud called Moses and Monotheism), though one whose plot is about the history of forms or the development of plot in human history....   [tags: Lukacs Theory Novel Essays]
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The Language Behind Dawkins’ Selfish Gene Theory - The Language Behind Dawkins’ Selfish Gene Theory According to Michael Polanyi, our understanding of a concept depends in part on the language we use to describe it. Connie Barlow's book, From Gaia to Selfish Genes, looks at metaphors in science as integral parts of some new biological theories. One example is Richard Dawkins' theory about the selfish gene, where he claims that the most basic unit of humanity, the gene, is a selfish entity unto itself that exists outside the realm of our individual good and serves its own distinct purpose....   [tags: Science Selfish Gene Theory Essays]
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Dorothea E. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory - Dorothea E. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader how Dorethea Orem’s nursing theory has been used in research. Orem begin developing her theory in the 1950’s, a time when most nursing conceptual models were based on other disciplines such as medicine, psychology and/or sociology (Fawcett, 2000). Orem’s theory is a three-part theory of self-care. The three theories that make up the general theory are: Self-Care, Self-Care Deficit, and Nursing Systems....   [tags: Nursing Medical Caring Theory Essays]
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Evaluation of Books on String Theory - A String Method Book Evaluation Three different methods books; “Muller Rusch String Method,” “Action with Strings,” and “ Essential Elements for strings,” revealed three very different approaches to learning. The influence of time is greatly noticeable in comparing and contrasting these three approaches. “Essential Elements for Strings” was published in 1994 and the other two books in the 1960’s. After many years of studying education the approach to teaching students how to play an instrument has greatly improved....   [tags: String Method Theory Music]
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Theory X and Theory Y - Theory X and Theory Y, developed by Douglas McGregor, grew out of opposition towards classical management methods. Classical management theorists, such as Fredrick Taylor, focused on scientific training and efficiency and did not account for personal and behavioral issues, such as management styles or job satisfaction. McGregor saw these deficiencies in the classical school of management which lead him to develop a theory of management that would factor the importance of the individual worker. If a manager could tap into the feelings and attitudes of their workers, then the manager would be able increase their employee’s motivation which would then increase production....   [tags: Business Management] 1301 words
(3.7 pages)
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Evolution Vs. Creation - Evolution. The theory that every living organism has come from a lesser organism. A theory that claims humans have come from monkeys. This "theory", is what’s being taught to our children in school. If a child asks a teacher about the theory of Creation, they are sure to get a response like, "I’m not allowed to answer that question", or something along those lines, because schools are not allowed to teach on religious subjects. I guess schools think that evolution is the next best thing. I believe that the world was created by God....   [tags: Theory] 1658 words
(4.7 pages)
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Control theory, Anomie theory and Strain theory - ... While one would hope that criminological theory was free of politics, the reality is that it is quite throughly infected by politics. Lipset (1994), suggests that it may be the most internally divided disciplines, with politics driving this division. Weber argued that every scholar has a “party line”. Though many researchers try to avoid letting this party line show through in their research, politics are quite evident it the development of most sociological and criminological theories and often the resulting theory as well (Lipset, 1994)....   [tags: Criminology Theories]
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The Relation of September 11 to Goffman's Theory of Face and Line - Goffman was the contemporary theorist who first introduced the idea of face and line into a sociological perspective. When Goffman refers to the concept of the line, he is referring to the patterns of behavior through which a person uses to express their view of a particular situation to others and ones self (Layder 1998:172-174) It is the view that a person takes on an issue that he tries to "sell" to himself and others. An example of a line could be a person stating that he or she is the fastest kid in high school....   [tags: Theory of Face and Line] 439 words
(1.3 pages)
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Game Theory - Game Theory Picture if you will a group of people making decisions. The decisions that are made do not have to be significant at all. They have to be just significant to the situation at hand. This concept is considered to mathematicians as Game Theory. Game Theory is broken down into tree different types of games. As stated by Thomas S. Ferguson of UCLA “There are three main mathematical models or forms used in the study of games, the extensive form, the strategic form and the coalitional form”....   [tags: Mathematics]
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Game Theory - Game Theory was said to have been introduced by Emile Borel in 1921. Borel was a French mathematician who published papers on the theory of games. From this standpoint and according to the article “Game Theory”, Borel could have been named the “first mathematician to envision an organized system for playing games” however; evidence has shown that Borel did not develop his ideas any further. This is the reason why most historians have given credit to John Von Neumann. Von Neumann was born in 1903 in Budapest, Hungary....   [tags: Gaming]
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String Theory - What is string theory and what does it mean for human kind. String theory is a theory that seeks to unify the four forces of nature and explain the origins of our universe. Before the string theory, it was impossible to combine the theories of General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. By using tiny vibrating strings of energy that are 10-33 m in length, scientists can create all the fundamental particles we’ve started to find using particle accelerators. Then, using these particles they can try to unite the two different theories and create a universe that is perhaps, more perfect than the Standard Model will allow....   [tags: Physics Essays] 1150 words
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Systems Theory - Systems approach is based on the fundamental principle that all aspects of a human problem should be treated together in a rational manner (Healy, 2005). I have divided this essay into relevant sections that cover an overview of systems ideas, general systems theory and ecological systems theory. This assignment will also include Germain and Gittermans life model, and it will be related back to the case study that has been provided. Limitations of systems theory will also be discussed. Systems ideas is referring to three different types of systems, each created in a different era; general systems theory, ecosystem perspectives and complex systems theory (Healy, 2005)....   [tags: Psychology ]
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Gender Theory - Gender Theory Gender Theories can be related to a person’s emotional stability, status in society, work ethics and most important their ability to relate to others. As the sources of text, personal experience, research books, articles and websites are used to explain the importance of male and female communication, in itself it is only a theory based on the historical and internal learning that influence me as a student (Wood, 2011). In the end, the theory that best describes my gender characteristic will influence the outcome of opinion....   [tags: Gender Issues]
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The Sociocultural Theory - The sociocultural theory was developed by a theorist named Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky was born in 1896 and was from the former Soviet Union. He was a psychologist who had an abundance of ideas and put them into many theories and writings. Although Vygotsky died from tuberculosis at the young age of thirty-eight, his most prominent work was done in a short period of ten years. When he died in 1934, the Soviet Union held most of his work and it was not until about 1960 that his work was translated into English....   [tags: Sociology]
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Constructivism Theory - Theoretical Framework Dewey (1916/1997), Papert (1993/2000), Piaget (1932/1997), Bruner and Vygotsky‘s (1978/1981) social constructivism (SC) theory will support this study. The theory of SC places teachers as facilitators in an active learning setting. An active social learning setting creates opportunities to facilitate learners with actively constructing knowledge using past experiences to connect to introduced concepts and tasks (Ryu et al., 2009). This can also be applied when teachers instill the value of the learning content through connecting the subject to past experiences and real-world situations (Specht, 2009)....   [tags: Education, Teachers, Wireless Computing] 2275 words
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Conflict Theory - Throughout life, one encounters many social situations. The way a person processes these situations says a lot about his or her general outlook on life. While there are many theories, there are three primary Theoretical Perspectives: Functionalist Theory, Conflict Theory, and Symbolic Interaction Theory. Personally, I struggled in choosing a single perspective. I believe that if one perspective had a perfect explanation, there would probably be only one perspective. Since this is not the case however, it must be admitted that no single theory base perfectly explains every social situation....   [tags: Psychology] 790 words
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The McGregor Theory - Introduction The onset of the industrial revolution in the late 19 century created a host of new challenges for the managers. Some of these challenges included the need to increase the workforce effectiveness. Therefore, early futurist suggested theories that they believe if applied would result in higher management efficiency. Such theory were based on the fundamental believe that employee should be actively supervised and monitored (Jone & George 2008). However, Douglas McGregor challenged this notion....   [tags: Business Management]
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Ideology As Theory - A scientific theory is a grounded systematic observation that explains how two or more events or things relate to each other. To quality as scientific, the theory must satisfy the criteria of logical integrity and empirical verifiability. As explained by Shadish, Cook, & Campbell the necessary elements for causality in science research are (1) “two variables must vary together,” and “must be empirically correlated,” (2) “the cause must occur before the effect,” and (3) “the empirical correlation between cause and effect is not due to some other factor” (as cited in Maxfield & Babbie, 2008, p....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Behaviorist Theory - Behaviorism used learning concentrates entirely on observing, measuring, and modifying behavior. Since Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner began this theory teacher can better discipline their students. Using operant conditioning teachers can use positive reinforcement to get all the students to behave during class. There are few drawbacks to this theory, but there are drawbacks to everything in life. Behaviorist theory is that any and all behaviors can be learned, emotional or otherwise. This learning is founded on an impression that all behaviors are developed by the means of conditioning....   [tags: Education]
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Determinist Theory - Determinist Theory: predicts that the behaviors and characteristics that people show are mediated by “urbanism,” or example delinquency seem as a consequence due to the negative exposure to urban environments. Wirth's essay “Urbanism as a Way of Life” studied the social disorganization of the urban life also known as “community lost perspective.”Although Wirth argues that life in the city is goal oriented, anomic and segmented, other theories argue that “urbanism” does affects social behavior but there is not proof that “urbanism” causes mental health, and isolation (152-153)....   [tags: Psychology, Behavior, Urbanism] 2511 words
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The Theory of Attributions - Attributions are referred to as the causes of behaviour, and these can be viewed as dispositional or situational. Constructing attributions allows an understanding of others. This allows us to make judgments, which in turn allow us to form an impression of an individual, which will either promote or inhibit our interaction with that individual. Attribution is an important aspect of human behaviour, as it allows predications to be made with respect to forthcoming actions. Attribution explains human causal reasoning i.e....   [tags: Psychology] 2171 words
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The Attachment Theory - The Attachment theory is a psychological, ethological and evolutionary theory that gives a descriptive and explanatory framework of understanding interpersonal relationship between human beings. Presented by John Bowlby, the important tenet of this theory is that an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to progress generally. The idea of attachment theory is that infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social relationships with them, and who remain consistent caregivers for some months during the period of early six months to two/three years of age....   [tags: Psychology, Interpersonal Relationship] 1787 words
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The Queer Theory - Queer, a word first used by the Scottish in 1508 to mean strange, peculiar, or eccentric, has evolved into a critical theory signifying resistance to the traditional views on gender and sexuality since the early 1990s. An Italian author and professor, Teresa de Lauretis coined the term “Queer Theory” during a conference on conjecturing gay and lesbian sexualities held at the University of California. Heavily influenced by deconstruction, post-structuralism, and feminism, queer theory challenges the practice of assigning people to different categories based on a person’s description....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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Contingency Theory - In this assignment I shall discuss three theories explaining structure choice; management choice, population ecology theory and contingency theory including their strengths and weaknesses. I shall outline and compare functional and team structures as they are the two greatest opposites, using sources to support or disprove statements. Comparisons will then be made between centralised and decentralised structures, commenting on how they relate to the contingencies outlined by the contingency theory whilst also taking into account related issues such as motivation and competitiveness....   [tags: Business Management ]
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Scientific Theory - Between the 16th and 17th century, an era commonly known as the Scientific Revolution was born. This paved the way for the advancement of pre-historic knowledge throughout the years in Chemistry, Physics, Biology, and the like. On the other hand, in the 1950’s a revolution broke out which contributed in progresses in human sciences. Due to these improvements, the human race began to value scientific theories. Before proceeding, the terminologies need to be defined. Theory is defined as a presentation of an idea which is acceptable and can be used in describing, predicting or explaining within a specific area of knowledge....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Organizational Theory - This is a study to examine the background of various organization theories and their development from the perspective of legitimacy and efficacy; to evaluate selected discussions regarding theory development and various theories; to encourage the use of evidence based theory development and to provide a look into the model and related theories that are created after looking at the existing theories. While not rejecting the need for thorough testing of theories, I am simply looking into the suggestion of theories and models for their worth....   [tags: Business Management ]
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The Multiverse Theory - The argument suggesting life existing on other Earth-like planets has been present since man first looked into space and questioned his own existence and the existence of others like him. Today there are many theories on the existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe, but only one theory goes beyond them and into an even larger realm. The contents of this theory, known as the “multiverse” theory, suggest that humans on Earth live within one universe of many others that reside within a primordial vacuum containing many other universes (Jenkins and Perez)....   [tags: Extraterrestrial Life]
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Identity Theory - This paper aims to endorse physicalism over dualism by means of Smart’s concept of identity theory. Smart’s article Sensations and the Brain provides a strong argument for identity theory and accounts for many of it primary objections. Here I plan to first discuss the main arguments for physicalism over dualism, then more specific arguments for identity theory, and finish with further criticisms of identity theory. Physicalism is the theory that the universe contains nothing other than the physical....   [tags: Psychology] 1919 words
(5.5 pages)
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Malthus's Theory - How can we ever determine or analyze the amount of data we receive, when the only perception we have is from the way things have been up until that time, rather than the future. In 1798, what seemed like a monumental amount of people is now nothing compared to the population of the world today; a trend which will continue just like the growth of Earth’s population. However, with all things, it seems, there is a breaking point. Malthus was quite certain that this breaking point would be felt in our world’s food supply by now, but he was wrong....   [tags: Demographics]
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The Dell Theory - “The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention,” is a theory that is approved by multiple famous authors. The theories main points are valuable and the theory should be looked upon more seriously. In Thomas Friedman’s essay, “The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention,” he gives examples of how global supply chains would be constructive to promoting world peace. Friedman feels that if everyone is an ally to each other in some shape or form, then no one will want to engage in war. Madeline Albright would agree with Friedman’s theory according to her writings in “Faith and Diplomacy.” Albright felt that religion should play a factor in the diplomatic system of America, in order for us to maintain some kind of peace with other nations....   [tags: Psychology ]
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1811 words
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Vygotsky Theory - Running head: VYGOTSKY'S THEORY Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) Grand Canyon University Educational Psychology Abstract This paper describes Vygotsky’s theory on social development. Vygotsky’s tells hoe ones culture plays a large role in children’s cognitive development. His theory tells us ways in which culture influences cognitive development. A society’s culture ensures that each new generation benefits from the knowledge of prior generations. Lev Vygotsky (1896- 1934) Lev Vygotsky died prematurely at the age of 37 due to the disease tuberculosis....   [tags: Psychology ]
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1032 words
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LMX Theory - What is leadership. Think of the last time you were asked to come together with peers into a group assigned to a specific goal; was there someone in charge of keeping the group on task and helping it towards the goal. This person is considered the leader, whose main job is to motivate and keep their selected members on task. Leaders develop different relationships with their subordinates based upon different levels and types of influence, known under the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory. Often subordinates view their time working at a particular company through the tinted glasses of their time with their leader, and help explain why this idea of LMX theory is so important to the workplace....   [tags: Leadership ]
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1413 words
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The Labelling Theory - The main aim of this essay is to describe two general theories of offending and then consider the extent to which they explain youth offending. This essay will firstly outline the context of the labelling theory then go on to discuss the way in which a label becomes a person’s master status in life. The essay will then compare the differences with primary and secondary deviance and define the term self fulfilling prophecy. The second stage of the essay will describe the learning theory, explaining the background including all the terms, classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning theory....   [tags: Psychology, Deviant Behavior] 1674 words
(4.8 pages)
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Psychodynamic Theory - The theory our learning team is studying is the psychodynamic approach or what is sometimes called psychoanalytic approach. The main contributors to Psychodynamic approaches was the founder Sigmund Freud (1859-1939), Anna Freud (1895-1982) gave significant contribution to the psychodynamics of adolescence and Erik Erickson (1902-1994) called the “new” Freud but with an emphasis on ego (conscious) forces, termed as psychosocial theory (Craig & Dunn, p 11-13). Psychodynamics is the explanation or interpretation (as of behavior or mental states) in terms of mental or emotional forces or processes (www.merriam-webster.com) Through case study, the psychodynamic approach was developed by Sigmund Freud....   [tags: Psychology, Freud] 857 words
(2.4 pages)
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Kaupapa Māori Theory and Critical Theory - Discuss how Kaupapa Māori Theory and Critical Theory are similar to one another and yet differ from Deficit Theory. Use examples and references to support your claims. Remember your examples should relate to an educational setting. For many eons the roots of kaupapa Māori theory have grown in Aotearoa by virtue of being the Māori ideology: a philosophical doctrine, incorporating the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values of Māori society; whereas critical theory was developed in the “Frankfurt School “in Europe, in the 1930s....   [tags: Education, Philosophy] 2044 words
(5.8 pages)
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Contingency Theory - Contingency Theory “Contingency theory is a class of behavioral theory claiming that there is no best way to organize a corporation, lead a company, or make decisions” (Pfeffer, 1997). There is no simple or one right way to run things. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, two men named Henri Fayrol and Frederick Taylor continued the study of contingency theory. Research in the 1970’s dealt with the organizational structures and leadership styles for different situations (Thompson, 2005). Contingency theory was started by Joan Woodward, whose company research found that different types of processes were linked to different structures and amounts of control....   [tags: Business Management] 1102 words
(3.1 pages)
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Attachment Theory - Attachment theory has had some very powerful theorists that have come up with these ideologies. In 1969, John Bowlby was the first theorist to develop the attachment theory. It is a theory developed to explain the emotional ties that children had with their parents or caregivers. It was believed that a child’s attachment style with a caregiver was developed throughout childhood and influenced how an individual interacts with society. It also gave an indication on what their parenting styles might be like, although this was not always a concrete indication....   [tags: Psychology ]
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The Theory of Mind - Children are clever. They are not clever in the sense that they can tell is the square root of pi or write an award winning piece of literature at the age of 5, but they are immensely clever in their extremely rapid rate of learning from the day they are born. It is this rapid rate of learning that allows us to believe that children can begin to understand the minds of others and also themselves as young as 4 years old. This is usually referred to as the Theory of Mind, where a person develops the ability to connect emotional states not only to themselves but others, too and also to understand that others may have different intentions, desires or beliefs from themselves....   [tags: Child Psychology ]
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1391 words
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Cognitive Behavioral Theory and Psychodynamic Theory - In this assignment I am going to introduce and unpack cognitive behavioural theory and psychodynamic theory. This will include the history of each theory and the theorists that discovered and developed both. I am going to link each theory to where they fit in Payne’s Triangle of Social Work as well as compare and contrast each theory. Both Cognitive behavioural theory and psychodynamic theory both support the purposes of social work in which I will cover beneath. This assignment will also include criticisms of both theories as well....   [tags: Psychology]
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Queueing Theory - Introduction to Queueing Theory : Queueing theory is a branch of Operations Research because the results that we obtained can be used to make business decisions. It is the mathematical study of waiting lines. Queueing theory enables mathematical analysis of several related processes, including arriving at the queue, waiting in the queue and being served at the front of the queue. Using this theory we measure the average waiting time in the queue or the system, the expected number waiting or receiving service and the probability of encountering the system....   [tags: Math] 1054 words
(3 pages)
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The Control Theory - Control Theory is the theory of support. This theory demonstrates an individual's social bonds in relation to their performance. Since certain bonds are stronger in certain kinds of lifestyles the affects will be different in all situations. Control theorists believe “in the rationality of the criminal act that the individual behaves in a criminal manner for ordinary reasons, and this behavior arises out of the person’s own free will” (Moyer, 2001, 133). However, deviant behavior is prevalent in today’s society....   [tags: Sociology]
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Attachment Theory - To gain a better insight of attachment theory Mary S. Ainsworth developed a concept unfolding the underlying behaviors infants display towards their mothers. Without a mother infant bond, insecure attachment can develop causing psychological and emotional stresses. However, a maternal bond is needed for a healthy development in an infant, without the necessary mother infant bond negative behaviors can arise leading to difficulties in relationships, negative behaviors, and an anxious attachment beyond infancy caused by a lack of the care giving system....   [tags: Psychology, Informative, Social Issues] 2565 words
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A Multifaceted Theory - First introduced by Mezirow in 1978 (Taylor, 2008), transformative learning theory burgeoned into one of the most studied, most talked about, and most debated theories of education (Taylor, 2007). Mezirow’s psychocritical view, though largely uncontested in the past, has now produced a panoply of alternative views including, the phychoanalytic, the psychodevelopmental, the social emancipatory, the neurobiological, the cultural-spiritual, the race-centric, and the planetary views (Taylor, 2008). Meaning What is transformative learning....   [tags: Psychology]
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1719 words
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Communication Theory - Communication Theory “Communication encompasses a great deal of human (and) animal activity, reading, writing, listening, speaking and viewing images, are all acts of communication” (Croft, 2004, p. 1) . Models or structures provide a recognized framework in organizations, structures consist of teams in a call center environment, which I work, desk are aligned in rolls complete with computer and telephone for effective communication purposes. Heading the team is the manager, he or she is responsible for carrying the message of order....   [tags: Business Leadership Communication]
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Attribution Theory - With reference to articles published within the last decade, critically evaluate the contribution to Social Psychology made by any one Attribution Theory This paper will define and explain attributions based on Weiner’s (1974, 1985) theory of attribution, The literature surrounding Weiner’s (1974, 1985) model shall be examined, in particular, articles that focus on stigmatisation within society, and the usefulness of attributions in a sporting context, before finally exploring the universal applicability of attributions in different cultural societies....   [tags: Psychology]
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Development Theory - Development theories are as complex as the process itself. One major thread that appears in multiple seminal development texts, however, is responsibility. The question ‘Who’s fault is it that we are in this pickle?’ is critical to determining the response to this pickle, and so should be quickly followed by ‘And who’s job is it to get us out?’ The answers to where blame and responsibility lie – with the developed or the developing world, or somewhere in between – often depends on who is writing, and when....   [tags: Modernization]
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Identity Theory - In my opinion, mental states are not behavioural dispositions, as originally described by behaviourists. Behaviourism was primarily devised to address the flaws of Substance Dualism and present a solution to the mind-body problem. Since then, many other philosophical ideas have provided alternative solutions to the mind-body problem, as well as exposing weaknesses in behaviourism. Behaviourism states that behavioural dispositions are tendencies to react with a certain kind of stimuli. For example, if a person is confronted by a tiger, that person would be disposed to; run away, shout for help and assert ‘there is a tiger.’ This is what is known as a mental state, a stimulus and the relevant dispositions....   [tags: Psychology]
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Supervision Theory - Why is a supervision theory basis necessary. How does an effective leader bridge theory to practice. Supervision involves having other people do work through delegation of duties. This requires that the people to whom work has been delegated be trusted and respected. There needs to be confidence between the employees and the supervisor. To compete effectively and achieve success companies usually rely on the involvement of their employees and must nurture their employees and encourage their initiative....   [tags: Business Management ]
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Theory and Me - There are many sociological theories to explain and describe how different groups and cultures fit into society and the effect that they have on it. I will be addressing two theoretical perspectives in this paper: pluralism theories, and psychological theories. I will also discuss my knowledge of the racial and ethnic identities of my parents, grandparents, and myself. Furthermore, I will explain how the theoretical perspectives relate to one another in accordance with my racial and ethnic identity....   [tags: Sociology]
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Strain Theory - Robert Agnew is known for his general strain theory. The theory explains that the basis of people getting involved in criminal activity is because of strain. If someone becomes upset, frustrated, depressed, or mistreated they will turn to crime in order to deal with the feelings. Yet, not all people turn to crime in order to deal with strain or stressors. There are different ways to measure strain. Subjective strains are those strains that are disliked by particular person or group. This approached is aimed at how the person reacts to the way they are treated....   [tags: Psychology ]
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Theory of Evolution - Man could not evolve to any other state, because he was made in the ultimate state. He was made in the image and likeness of the Father so there was no need for evolution; hence, there was no sign of evolution from the beginning. Since sin came into the world, man has been deceived into thinking there is evolution. We are not talking about the theory of evolution that says man started from an amoeba or as an ape and eventually began to walk upright; not that evolution, but evolution in the sense of development....   [tags: Evolution] 1355 words
(3.9 pages)
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The Bronfenbrenner Theory - The composition of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory cultivate a framework to study the numerous connections between the developing child from mother and father relationships to the environment, community settings, cultural influences and financial factors. The four levels of environmental stimuli the micro- , meso- , exo- and macrosystems, each intermingled within one another representing degrees of personal connections. Change and constancy are mediated by the passage of time. The chronosystem is exemplified through connections within the ecological model....   [tags: Sociology ]
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Conflict Theory - According to Robbins et al (2006), there are various concepts that are important in understanding conflict theory. These concepts include conflict, power, minority, and change. Demico Booth writes and reflects on the various aspects of his life that occurred during his incarceration, release and re incarceration. Throughout Booth’s book he reflects on why the percentage of Black men in prison continues to grow at alarming rates. Through the concepts associated with conflict theory the events leading up to Booths incarceration on both occasions can be analyzed....   [tags: Black Man, Minorities, Correctional System] 2791 words
(8 pages)
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Theory of Sign - To understand how sign functions, semiosis, Morris proposes four elements: Sign vehicle (S), Designatum (D), and Interpretant and interpreter (I). "The mediators are sign vehicles; the taking-account-of are interpretants; the agents of the process are interpreters; what is taken account of are designata" (Morris, 19). Those elements of semiosis become the foundation of branches of linguistics and basic elements of language. The branches of linguistics are semantics is the study of sign in its relation to designatum, pragmatics the study of sign in relation to interpreter, and syntactics the study of sign in relation to other signs....   [tags: Communication, Signs] 1287 words
(3.7 pages)
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Objectification Theory - Women are bombarded by images of a thin-ideal body form that is extremely hard, if not impossible, to emulate. Comparing themselves to these women can lead to feelings of inadequacy, depression, and an overall low self-esteem. (Expand on, need a good opening paragraph to grab the reader’s attention) Objectification Theory Objectification theory has been proposed as a standard for understanding the effects of living in a culture that sexually objectifies women (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). Objectification occurs when a person’s body is treated like a separate entity and is evaluated on its own merit, without consideration for the rest of the person....   [tags: Psychology, Body Shame] 1733 words
(5 pages)
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Behaviorism Theory - A learning, or behavioral theory, in terms of human development, follows the view that the focus of psychology should be behavior, the way we act. A behaviorist places value on attributes that one can see and therefore study, as opposed to the invisible attributes, such as thinking, feeling, and other brain activity that occurs without one even knowing (Craig & Dunn, 2010, p. 14). There are three important modern behavior or learning theorists: Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, and B. F. Skinner. However, as stated by William Crain John Locke was the “Father of environmentalism and learning theory”, although Ivan Pavlov and B.F....   [tags: Psychology, Watson, Skinne, Locke] 1090 words
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