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Modernism - Modernism Modernism is a period which is both progressive and optimistic.The Modern period starts with the Renaissance for historians.It’s stem ‘’Modern’’,comes from the Latin which means ‘’current’’.It is a cultural movement which involves changes in art,architecture,music and literature: ‘’… the vast majority of attempts to offer alternative modes of representation in literature,music,painting,film and architecturefrom the middle of the 19th century to the middle of 20th century have been termed modernist’’(Childs 6) It is a period when traditional values start to change.This movement causes innovations in science,art,culture,ethics,philosophy and psychology.It intends to find new or hidden meanings in the human experience.It’s main aim is to deal with new ideas.It is a break with the tradition.Modernist Poetry occurs between the 1890 and 1970.It’s key elements can be experimentation,anti realism,individualism.Experimentation means searching constantly.Anti-realism means to be against realism and concreteness.Individualism means to be an intellectual and to be an individual who has a self-confidence.The stress is mainly on the human mind rather than emotions.Many Modernist poets are from Universities,they appreciate their work a lot.It is a movement which is complex and diversed.It takes some of the important aspects from the movements.Modernism supports that every aspect from industry to philosophy should be interrogated.In this way,culture’s elements could be replaced by the new ones.The Modernist English poets write against the rules that are put by Victorian Poetry.They never deny the past poets or past works.They see themselves as they are respecting the earlier periods and other cultures.Their poems seem to be in longer form in the 20th century.The poets use new techniques such as collage,found poetry and visual poetry.Poetic sonic effects are also the poetic device of modernism.Modernists also put the emphasis on the surface of the poem.They generally deal with the literary meanings of the words rather than the metaphorical or symbolic meanings of them....   [tags: Literature Art Modernism] 1067 words
(3 pages)
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What is Post-Modernism? - ... So architects believed that incorporating architectural forms from the past would still keep the history of a place or the history of a city. Jencks in his work “Modern Movements in Architecture” (1985, p.373) claims Post-Modernist are a group of architects who have evolved from the preceding movements because they have seen the failure of the Modernism both as an ideology and language. One could agree that Modernism as an ideology and language was a failure. However this is because the modern movement was moving to fast, in terms of architectural design or aesthetics, in the case of Le Corbusier “Villa Savoye”....   [tags: Philosophy, Modernism] 1476 words
(4.2 pages)
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Operatic Modernism - Operatic Modernism The profound modernist ruptures of the 20th Century questioned, displaced, and reconfigured the way humanity regards itself. Within the fine arts, literature, architecture, and music, artistic revolutions occurred at an unprecedented rate and, within the rubric of modernism, deliberately broke with the bases of Western art, culture and society. While working within the operatic institution, Strauss' Salome, Weill's Die Dreigroschenoper, and Berg's Wozzeck profoundly challenge the generic conventions of the operatic tradition....   [tags: Opera Modernism Music Essays]
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Toward a Definition of Modernism - Toward a Definition of Modernism Lawrence B. Gamache’s article “Toward a Definition of Modernism” encapsulates in its title the challenges critics meet in their attempts to formulate a coherent theoretical modernist model, though the quintessential modernist works –even at the time of this 1987 article – are over sixty years old. Indeed, the sheer number of scholarly books and articles that discuss or contribute to the debate surrounding the definition of modernism indicates the extent to which modernism is a term whose only non-contentious consensus is that it its meaning is fraught with ambiguity....   [tags: Modernism Opera Literature Essays]
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Defining Post-Modernism - Defining Post-Modernism In trying to define exactly what post-modernism is I shall firstly briefly consider some of the events and thinking that led up to the development of this particular school of social theory. I shall then consider some of the common strands of thinking in postmodernism concentrating mainly on the writings of Jean-Francois Lyotard and Jean Baudrillard. I shall then consider the view of David Harvey, a Marxist many consider to be writing in the postmodern tradition, who argues that post-modernism is just another form of capitalism....   [tags: Definition post Modernism]
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Post Modernism and Architecture - Post Modernism and Architecture If one were to walk around and casually ask five people what post modernism was they would probably get five different answers or none at all. It is one of those indefinable academic terms that applies to many different fields of study. Most people seem to understand what it means individually but few agree collectively. To make matters even more complicated, it is often used in discussions about deconstruction. "To some Post Modernism is an excuse to pile together oodles of wild and crazy decor, to others it is another example of the weakness of standards and values....   [tags: Architecture Post Modernism Architects Essays] 1168 words
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Modernism and New Criticism - Modernism and New Criticism The ways in which we define the importance of texts is constantly changing. We can look back and see critical theories used, such as Historical Criticism, Reader-Response Criticism and Psychoanalytic Criticism. Each of these theories offers a different way to interpret a text. However, when looking back over the texts of a specific era, shouldn’t the type of criticism we used for a book be based on that time period. Defining the Modernist Era of literature seems almost impossible, since the definition of modernism often seems to constitute anything from being “new and common” to “new and uncommon” (Barzun)....   [tags: Modernism New Criticism Literature Essays]
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Modernism - Modernism “An inclination to subjective distortion to point up the evanescence of the social world of the nineteenth century bourgeoisie.” -Barth, “Literature of Replenishment” (www.iath.virginia.edu/elab/hfl0255.html) Modernism was rebellion against not only the repressive principles of the Victorian era but also the emergence of the fast-changing, materialistic corporate society. The period preceding modernism held up Victorian virtues, which accepted the worldview of everything being ordered, neat, stable, and meaningful....   [tags: Literature Literary Essays]
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Modernism - Modernism Modernism is defined in Merriam-Webster's Dictionary as "a self-conscious break with the past and a search for new forms of expression." While this explanation does relate what modernism means, the intricacies of the term go much deeper. Modernism began around 1890 and waned around 1922. Virginia Wolf once wrote, "In or about December, 1910, human character changed." (Hurt and Wilkie 1443). D.H. Lawrence wrote a similar statement about 1915: "It was 1915 the old world ended." (Hurt and Wilkie 1444)....   [tags: Comparative Literature Essays Papers]
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Modernism - The modernist period in British and Irish literature was one of the most important and exciting times in literary history. The term modernist stemmed from the beginning of the 20th century labelled the modern period. The modern period was a time of confusion and transitions, mostly due to the result of people returning from World War I. The modern period was an era of massive unemployment and technological changes. Freud, Jung, and Marx were redefining human identity, Assembly lines and factories were being introduced, and gender differences were starting to crumble....   [tags: European Literature] 1090 words
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Understanding Modernism - ... Hilder provides the first glimpse into Stein’s Modernist attitude when she describes why Stein wrote her collection of poetry, Tender Buttons, in the first place. Hilder writes that “She claims it was her ‘first conscious struggle with the problem of correlating sight, sound, and sense, and eliminating rhythm’” (Hilder 70). This conscious act of eliminating rhythm is a big indicator of Stein’s Modernist thinking. Poetry is all about creating rhythm. It is about creating something that flows well, and has almost a beat to it, like a song....   [tags: Literary Analysis]
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The Modernism Movement - ... Block images with a slight hint of light had a metal like effect imitating mechanised future. The book cover illustration by John Heartfield for instance is another image that springs up as modernist illustration. The image simply is of a human like figure but the elements of the body parts are made up of various mechanical accessories e.g. clock, levers, meters, etc. Modernist's were convinced, technology was the way forward and the image in particular echoed that ethos. The poster designed by Adolphe Mouron Cassandre for the "Nord Express" was one of the iconic image during the later part of modernist era....   [tags: Art History] 1130 words
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Preludes and Modernism - ... “’Preludes’ is strikingly imagistic, which perhaps isn’t surprising since each section evokes a scene and situation for the reader, visually, to imagine” (Martin 28). In the following excerpt “The thousand sordid images / Of which your soul was constituted” (Eliot 10), an image is used to show how city life makes the soul of woman sinful. “The images of “yellow soles” at the end of III and “his soul” in the first line of IV provide an ironic juxtaposition of the sordid and the spiritual, an apparent movement from the shabby and sensual to the profound.” (Hanlon 104-106) Binary opposition like “lighting” and “evening”, “morning” and “evening”, “night” and “light” (Eliot 9-10) shows a description of a street in different time at which different events occurred....   [tags: Sociology]
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Modernism in Literature - ... Kurtz realizes the life of evil he has lived, the inhuman acts he committed, and the regrets he has. The words ring true for society in the real world, expressed by Freud. We are inconsistent with rationality. ("irrational") When Marlow returns home, he must inform Kurtz's intended of his death. When she asks what the last thing Kurtz said was, Marlow lied to her, and said that Kurtz uttered her name with his dying breath. Why did Marlow lie. Was it to protect Kurtz's intended. Was it to keep her in the innocent, civilized world she was living in....   [tags: Literature ]
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Difference of Modernism and Post Modernism - Modernism and Post Modernism Have you ever wondered what the differences are between the modernism and post modernism. It seems like it would be easy to describe what they are by the words and what they are usually associated with. Yet, it’s actually a lot different then your thinking. Modernism is the movement in visual arts, music, literature, and drama, which rejected the old Victorian standards of how art should be made, consumed, and what it should mean. Modernists want the absolute truth in everything....   [tags: essays research papers] 917 words
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Defining Modernism - Defining Modernism Modernism described as movement in arts would best be described as a movement that was used to unit America after a period of crisis, it did this by it being centered on explorations into the spiritual nature of men and the value of his society and institutions. In a way it was like realism they too focused on the changes on society. The modernistic writers always wrote in a very formal defined form. Modernism also played a very important role as a movement in poetry. The way modernism did this was it brought so much more opportunity to the poet as a way of writing....   [tags: Definition Essays] 442 words
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Post-Modernism - In recent years, multiculturalism, tolerance and political correctness have been integrated into how American society thinks. America seems to be trying to learn more about the ingredients of her melting pot. These efforts can be best understood by examining post-modernism. Post-modernism is especially important to breaking down stereotypes such as those that exist surrounding the black family. To understand post-modernism we must first understand modernism. Modernism is the philosophy that began with the Enlightenment....   [tags: essays research papers] 1194 words
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German Modernism - The Era of Modern Germany Throughout time, nations have attempted to become independent from one another by discovering means to help their citizens experience more fulfilling lives. The dilemma that troubled each of these countries is whether or not innovations, in technology and society, led to a higher quality of life. In the book, Rites of Spring, Modris Eksteins examines how innovation affected the citizens of Germany. Eksteins conveys that technological and industrial innovations paved the way for social transformations, throughout Germany....   [tags: essays research papers] 952 words
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Modernism in The Metamorphoses - Modernism in The Metamorphoses The modernist movement in literature began around the turn of the century and createda dramatic change in the way that author's viewed their work. The new breed of writers were extremely affected by the new perception of the world and our place as human beings in it. WWII was on the verge of beginning, and the literary world was expressing their fears and attitudes toward their impending doom through their writings. Modernism has a few key themes that Franz Kafka follows throughout his piece, "The Metamorphosis." One of the most common themes among popular modernist literature are the rejection of literary tradition through experimentation with a darker style of writing....   [tags: Ovid Metamorphoses Essays] 526 words
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Modernism versus Modernismo - Modernism versus Modernismo Both Modernism and Modernismo were movements around the turn of the 20th century which caused cultural upheaval and renovation in times where the society was, or needed to be, changing. Modernism took place throughout Europe and in the United States, while Modernismo was a Latin American movement. The two movements share several general characteristics, but were, without a doubt, two separate and distinct movements, and should not be confused. Therefore, it is useful to clarify the causes, characteristics, and effects of each movement, comparing their similarities and contrasting their differences....   [tags: Hispanic Literature Essays]
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Modern and Post-Modernism Architecture - There is often some confusion when people start talking about the post-modernism and modernism in architecture in terms of  their philosophical terminology differences. Modern architecture is known for its minimalism (Linder, 2004); buildings were functional and economical rather than comfortable and beautifully decorated. The post-modernism architecture, however, is called a “neo-eclectic, significantly assuming the role of a regeneration of period styles for designing houses, and a never-ending variety of forms and characteristics, asymmetrical designs for commercial buildings” (Fullerton Heritage, 2008)....   [tags: Architecture ]
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T.S. Eliot and Modernism - ... The fact that Eliot draws from this work to begin his poem seems to give permission to Prufrock to speak to the listener so openly. Furthermore, the allusion to being trapped in hell gives the reader perhaps a sense of Prufrock’s state of mind. In addition to the inclusion of Dante, Eliot makes a reference to a troubled Shakespearian character. The speaker describes himself not as Prince Hamlet, but as someone “[a]t times, indeed, almost ridiculous—/ Almost, at times, the Fool.” (Eliot, lines 118-119)....   [tags: Literary Techniques]
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Neoclassicism Vs. Modernism - ... Musically the two pieces generate similarity through their use of classic styles, they also derive similarity because Pierrot and Pulcinella are similar in that they are both stock characters. There major differences are their over all style (Expressionist vs. Neoclassicism), in addition to the fact that Schoenberg wrote his piece 8 years earlier when neoclassicism had yet to gain steam and Stravinsky had written his piece when he was on the cusp of his neoclassical transition. Although Stravinsky's neoclassical pieces may resemble his modernist pieces they differ because,“Stravinsky's neoclassicism takes the form of borrowing forms, ideas, and styles from throughout Western music, not just (in fact, least of all) from the Classical period”5 With Pulcinella, Stravinsky leaped from modernism by taking from the past, by using 18th century musical form and structure and giving it his own touch or certain timbres....   [tags: Music Analysis ]
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Modernism - Rebellion and Sexuality - Michael Levenson said in The Cambridge Companion to Modernism that Modernism fiction was “involved in the radical modern departure, across all of the arts, from representational verisimilitudei”. It was stylistically and thematically focused on rebellion against the way art was presented in the past and what its main focus was. D. H. Lawrence was from a working class background and was always conscious of his status as an outsider because of his class. In his writing he focused on the idea of transgressing modern class systems in the search of new experiences....   [tags: Literary Analysis] 2048 words
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The New Idea of Modernism - ... What if I do” (Hemingway 27). This reaction is something new. Post World War, many women began reject the social norms that had been set for them. Unlike the women in e.e. Cummings poem The Cambridge ladies who live in furnished souls, where women questioned nothing around them, and were considered “unbeautiful and [to] have comfortable minds” (line 2), women began to realize that men and society were not in control of their lives. They were. The fact that women were now questioning the rules they once lived, only shows that people were finally shifting away from the past and into a new era of thinking....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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Elements of Post-Modernism in Literature - Post modernism is a very difficult concept to define. A French philosopher once defined post modernism as an "incredulity toward all meta narratives," which basically means a skeptical attitude toward all claims of absolute truth. Post modern writers use elements and techniques that provoke the reader to question their reading experience and scrutinize their own personal understanding of life and the values of their society. There are excellent examples of post modern writers using elements of post modern writing, such as irony, magic realism and fragmentation in the short stories read in Ms....   [tags: magic realism, irony, fragmentation, ] 2033 words
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Aesthetic of Modernist Cinema - Standing Out in a Crowd: The Aesthetic of Modernist Cinema 2 Among the large objects, such as vast plains or panoramas of any kind, one deserves special attention: the masses. No doubt imperial Rome already teemed with them. But masses of people in the modern sense entered the historical scene only in the wake of the industrial revolution. Then they became a social force of first magnitude. Warring nations resorted to levies on an unheard-of scale and identifiable groups yielded to the anonymous multitude which filled the big cities in the form of amorphous crowds....   [tags: American Modernism]
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Henrik Ibsen: The Father of Modernism in Theatre - Henrik Ibsen: The Father of Modernism in Theatre Rank, deadly pessimistic, a disease, evil to be deprecated (Bordman and Hischak 1). Who would have thought such words would be used to describe the work of the man who swept modernism into theatre. Henrik Ibsen’s life was not one to envy. The shame the surrounded his childhood and seeped into his adulthood greatly impacted his writing. Infusing his plays with highly controversial themes, which lacked the current sunny air of Victorian values which Europe held in such a high regard, which led him to make a lasting impact on theatre....   [tags: Biography] 795 words
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Examples of Modernism in Fitzgerald's Great Gatsby - Great Gatsby Essay The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald shows many examples of modernism. Fitzgerald shows many modernism techniques like loss of control, alienation, corruption of the American Dream, breaking society’s rules and feeling restless. Fitzgerald also shows modernism through the fragmented writing. One example of a modernism technique that Fitzgerald uses is loss of control. The characters often lose control and make bad decisions that have horrible effects....   [tags: literary analysis, english literature] 1059 words
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The Influence of Modernism of New Theories of the Self - This essay seeks to discuss the influence on modernism of new theories of the self, with reference to The life and Death of Harriet Frean and to relevant works of theory from the period. It is the purpose of this work to achieve this by conversing on memory, spiritual and physical dualism with final assertions on identity. Lastly the conclusion will emphasise the points made in the text. Pete A. Y. Gunter’s comment, on French psychologist Pierre Janet, can be employed to describe the regressive memory theme in The Life and Death of Harriet Frean....   [tags: Sociology ] 2160 words
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Modernism vs Neo-Traditionalism - Modernism vs Neo-Traditionalism: A debate on the merits and failures of two major competing paradigms in architecture and urban planning. Beyond the term modernism underlies one of the greatest ideas in architectural development. Modernism was meant to provide more green areas, cheaper housing and more efficient use of space. This was to be accomplished by creating vertically dense spaces with the use of the new inventions of the nineteenth century, such as steel, glass, electricity and elevators....   [tags: essays research papers] 1055 words
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Modernism In The Great Gatsby - INTRODUCTION What is real. In a modernist point of view the world shouldn't be called reality. But if the world isn't reality what is it then. What is reality in modernism. Modernism is a rejection of realism, which believed that science will save the world and where notion of science and social determinism is idealized. In modernism, science explains everything, which took away all the power of God, He became useless. In a way, life had lost its mystery, man, not God, could rule the world. Irving Howe, a literary critic, once talked about modernism as an "unyielding rage against the existing order"....   [tags: F. Scott Fitzgerald] 1924 words
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Modernism in Visual Art and Writing - Modernism in Visual Art and Writing Modernism is unlike any other form of art the preceded it. It began in the late nineteenth century. Modernism is anti-traditional and against the rules. It is about looking for new things instead of accepting the old. Innovation and creation are important aspects of Modernism. It is introspective and subjective. Modernism includes a wide variety of different perspectives and multiple ways of doing things. There is no simple order in Modern works....   [tags: Art Theory Essays] 488 words
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Modernism and the Modern Novel - Modernism and the Modern Novel ============================== The term modernism refers to the radical shift in aesthetic and cultural sensibilities evident in the art and literature of the post-World War One period. The ordered, stable and inherently meaningful world view of the nineteenth century could not, wrote T.S. Eliot, accord with "the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history." Modernism thus marks a distinctive break with Victorian bourgeois morality; rejecting nineteenth-century optimism, they presented a profoundly pessimistic picture of a culture in disarray....   [tags: English Literature] 568 words
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Modernism's Lamentation And Postmodernism's Celebration - Modernism's Lamentation and Postmodernism's Celebration While each movement claims its own name and set of authors, the characteristics of the literary postmodernist period are quite similar to those of the literary modernist movement, and their differences are more those of attitude than of form. Modernism and postmodernism strongly emphasize a new standard which distances and rejects the romantic period's ideas of how art should be created and how one should perceive art. Annie Dillard's Holy the Firm and Virginia Woolf's "An Unwritten Novel" are both excellent examples of the modern and postmodern literary movements, and can be used to illustrate their general similarities and subtle differences....   [tags: Literature] 1579 words
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Definition Of Modernism In Fiction - Definition of Modernism in Fiction Modernism, in literature, can be seen as a shift in focus to the unassociated introspective reflection of characters in such texts as Go Tell It On The Mountain, by James Baldwin, Miss Lonelyhearts, by Nathanael West and The Catcher in the Rye, by J.D. Salinger. This is a revision from the previous focal point of exterior events and places in correlation with the character’s reflections. Emphasis is placed on review upon feelings and thoughts, and even conversations with oneself, as opposed to the more directly event-driven reflections in texts of the pre-modernist era....   [tags: essays research papers] 616 words
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Revised Paper On German Modernism - The Significance of Modernity Throughout time, nations have attempted to become independent from one another by discovering means, which would help their citizens experience more fulfilling lives. The dilemma that troubled each of these countries is whether or not innovations, in technology and society, led to a higher quality of life. Modris Eckstein and Marshall Berman examine both, the damages and benefits of modernity. Eckstein looks at individual changes that lead to the overall acceptance of modernity....   [tags: essays research papers] 1236 words
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Modernism in T.s. Eliots's the Wasteland - Modernism in T.S. Eliot's "The Wasteland" Modernism has been defined as a rejection of traditional 19th-century norms, whereby artists, architects, poets and thinkers either altered or abandoned earlier conventions in an attempt to re-envision a society in flux. In literature this included a progression from objectivist optimism to cynical relativism expressed through fragmented free verse containing complex, and often contradictory, allusions, multiple points of view and other poetic devices that broke from the forms in Victorian and Romantic writing, as can be seen in T.S....   [tags: Poetry] 891 words
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Modernism vs Postmodernism - 'It quickly emerged that the proper and unique area of competence of each art coincided with all that was unique to the nature of its medium. The task of self-criticism became to eliminate from the effects of each art any and every effect that might conceivably be borrowed from or by the medium of any other art. Thereby each art would be rendered 'pure', and in its 'purify' find the guarantee of its standards of quality as well as of its independence. 'Purity' meant self-definition, and the enterprise of self-criticism in the arts became one of self-definition, with a vengeance.' (Greenberg, 'Modernist Painting', Art in Theory, p.755) 'Greenberg's aesthetics are the terminal point of [an] historical trajectory....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Modernism in Forster's A Passage to India - Modernism in Forster's A Passage to India       When considering the novels of E.M. Forster, it is natural to recall the reserved landscapes of the Merchant and Ivory cinematic versions. Gauzy images - green hills, languorous boat rides, tender embraces - these impressions, cousins, really, to Jane Austen's plots and settings, are remembered as period pieces seldom associated with the literary experimentation of Virginia Woolf or the winsome angst of the lost War poets. It seems - does it not....   [tags: Forster Passage to India Essays]
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Search for Innocence in American Modernism - Search for Innocence in American Modernism      American Literature from its very beginning has been centered around a theme of innocence. The Puritans wrote about abandoning the corruption of Europe to find innocence in a new world. The Romantics saw innocence and power in nature and often wrote of escaping from civilization to return to nature. After the Civil War, however, the innocence of the nation is challenged. The Realists focused on the loss of innocence and in Naturalist works innocence is mostly gone....   [tags: Literature Essays Literary Criticism]
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Modernism and Postmodernism in Shakespeare's Othello - Modernism and Postmodernism in Othello   Othello teaches us much about our current postmodern culture. The play connects to our ideas of sexism, male-bonding, racism and capitalism. Shakespeare uses these universal and timeless flaws in humanity along with our use of language and truth to tell his tale. Iago, over a period of about three days, uses these facets of humanity to turn Othello against his wife Desdemona and his friend Cassio. Othello reveals both the struggle of the British people of the early 1600's and Americans in the late 1900's with sexism, capitalism and racism....   [tags: GCSE English Literature Coursework] 1461 words
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Modern Architecture - ... Walter Gropius quoted ‘aesthetic image and monumentality of a design are more important than functionalism.’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) However the context of the building was all the more important. Venturi championed this and consequently revived the tendency to ‘change things around’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) to develop and discover a more motivating form. He believed that the simplicity of modernist designs were so minimal that they therefore could easily be manipulated to communicate historic and ornamental tendencies of the past whilst taking advantage of the modern advancements in technology and construction all the while considering the users requirements....   [tags: Modernism, Postmodernism] 2467 words
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Modernist Literature - Modernist Literature Modernism emerged at the beginning of the twentieth century, following World War I and flowing through the “roaring twenties.” Materialism, crime, depression, and change filled this era. Reflecting the revolutionary time period, modernism itself was a revolution of style. Musicians, artists, and writers broke away from traditional, conventional techniques to create new, rebellious art. Modernism, in other words, was a change in how artists represented the world in their works....   [tags: Ftizgerald Modernism Literature Essays] 2353 words
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Towards a New and Integrated Language: A Rejection of Post-Modernism - The term post-modernism has gradually become popular with music commentaries since the phrase was first coined in the early mid 1960's. It was adopted as a way of explaning the rise of so called 'populist' music in the era of the avant garde. The history of the term can be traced to the upsurge in parodying the past in art and architecture and was thought to be a new aesthetic which would eventually replace modernism. In music, this apparently new aesthetic was first represented by composers like Rochberg who were disaffected with serialism and a so called allienation between the composer and the audience by modernist music....   [tags: language, post-modern,] 1241 words
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Early 20th Century Eugenics as part of Modernism - ... Karl Pearson, one of Galton’s disciples used the example of the Boer War (in which he attributed British difficulties to degeneration), to illustrate that a Eugenics program was necessary to revitalize the white and British race. Darwin’s theory was combined with the re-discovered and re-interpreted work of Gregor Mendel in 1900 by Hugo De Vries and Carl Correns. Mendel originally cross-bread plants and found a simple system of inheritance, called heredity (Paul). His ideas were re-interpreted into genetics....   [tags: Eugenics]
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Modernist Opera - Modernist Opera Modernism, a major artistic movement of the first half of the twentieth century, is traditionally a classification of the visual arts, including such schools as Abstraction, Impressionism, and Expressionism. In architecture, too, was Modernism recognized, in the work of people like Frank Lloyd Wright. Even in literature, with the increasing use of symbolism, Modernism was an influence. Modernists in all of these art forms are consciously engaged in the expansion of the boundaries of their art, and in asking their audiences to reject the status quo, both of the art and of some aspect of society or culture the art form addresses....   [tags: Modernism Music Art Opera Essays]
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The Modernist Attributes of C.L.R. James’s Minty Alley - The Modernist Attributes of C.L.R. James’s Minty Alley Born in Trinidad and later expatriating himself first to London and then the United States, C.L.R. James was a key figure of the West Indian literary scene during the 1930s. Today he is primarily associated with his nonliterary writings in sociology and politics, and his fiction seems to have dropped from critical attention. Part of this shortsightedness stems from the fact that little of his fiction is readily available to a reading public in this country....   [tags: Gender Sexuality Modernism Essays]
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Enlightenment, Romanticism, Realism, Modernism, and Postmodernism - Enlightenment, Romanticism, Realism, Modernism, and Postmodernism Literature: the enlightenment, romanticism, realism, modernism, and postmodernism…. Where does one begin. To some, those words can be as scary as the word computer is to others. This essay is designed to help you become a great literary interpreter. Getting the motivation is three fourths of the battle to getting into the heads of the artists. To begin, an outline of some of the literary movements has been provided. The enlightenment was also called the Age of Reason....   [tags: Enlightenment Romanticism Realism Essays] 612 words
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Modernism vs. Traditionalism in The Mayor of Casterbridge - An Essay on Modernism vs. Traditionalism in The Mayor of Casterbridge During the first half of the 19th century English society was making the difficult transition from a pre-industrial Britain to ‘modern' Victorian times. In agriculture, most of the transition took place around 1846 with the repeal of the corn laws. This allowed foreign grain to be imported into England for the first time. Consequently, the entire structure and methods of agriculture in Britain were greatly altered. Much of the action in Thomas Hardy's novel The Mayor of Casterbridge takes place during the years surrounding 1846....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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World War I and The Literary Transition Into Modernism - World War I and The Literary Transition Into Modernism World War I was the culmination of many things. On the surface, it was the ultimate in international disputes. Never before had the nations of the civilized world boiled over on such an enormous level. So large was the scale of World War I that there were few countries who did not feel its effects. On a more profound level, the human being had never before exacted such damage upon themselves in the name of warfare. Due to the absolute horror of the violence, man became shell-shocked psychologically and disillusionment filled many people....   [tags: American History Essays] 969 words
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Characteristics of Modernism in Jewel in the Crown and Heart of Darkness - Characteristics of Modernism in Jewel in the Crown and Heart of Darkness         A Modern novel, Jewel in the Crown, by Paul Scott, depicts the latter stages of imperialism's erosion and explores it through the lives of individuals and their relationships as symbolic of larger societal conflicts and political events.  Jewel was written well into the 20th Century and employs thematic concepts and literary forms characteristic of Modernism, as well as being significant in its literary-historical context of the decline of British Imperialism/post- colonialism in India....   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays]
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Modernism In Works of T.S. Elliot And James Joyce - Introduction: Modernism is a word that is generally used to understand "new and distinctive features in the subjects, forms, concepts and styles of literature and the other arts in the early decades of the present century, but especially after World War I." (Abrams 167) More often than not "Modernism" engages in "deliberate and radical break" (Abrams 167) with some of the more traditional foundation of art and culture. Peter Childs in his book Modernism remarks "Modernism has almost universally been considered a literature of not just change but crisis" (p....   [tags: Literature] 1757 words
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An Examination of Modernism with Reference to Several Works of Art - An Examination of Modernism with Reference to Several Works of Art The terms 'modern', 'modernity' and 'modernism' are commonly used to specify a break in history, marking a definition between the present and the past, between the fashionable and the out of date, and carry as part of their meaning an almost criticism of tradition. By calling himself a 'modernist', the artist is instantly free to work on a clean plate, without the limitations of tradition with its set of rules or its fixed criteria....   [tags: Arts Paintings Art History Essay]
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Musical Modernism with Claude Debussy, Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg - ... He was known as the “…Most original and most adventurous” by many, especially in the Western world. From the beginning of the 20th century, anyone who grew up in the Western world not only knew his name, but also started to recognize his distinctive sound, the ‘Debussy element’ in the music that reached to their ears. With his many interesting and unfamiliar ideas, Debussy gave many contributions to musical modernism. His use of unusual modes, going against to the expectations of ones ears with unresolved sevenths and ninths, his frequent use of sevenths and ninths–which comes from Wagner’s influence over Debussy, (for example, in his composition ‘Premiere Arabesque’s, with the F natural in the bar 63, the French composer created the F Major 7th chord) Premiere Arabesque, bars 63-64 his common and steady use of parallel fourths, fifths, sevenths, eighths, ninths, - which was stated as strictly forbidden rule of counterpoint (and also followed by many known composers like Mozart and Haydn) in the book entitled ‘Gradus Ad Parnassum’, written by Johann Fux with the words,“From one perfect consonance to another perfect consonance one must proceed in contrary or oblique motion” - polyharmony, polychords and ear catching scales ( i....   [tags: Music History ] 2014 words
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Walter Benn Michaels' Our America: Nativism, Modernism, and Pluralism - Walter Benn Michaels' Our America: Nativism, Modernism, and Pluralism Walter Benn Michaels is an active literary theorist, and is currently a Professor of English at the University of Illinois, Chicago. In Our America: Nativism, Modernism, and Pluralism, Michaels examines American literary modernism, emphasizing its “participation in a crucial shift in American conceptions of race [and identity]” (Lee). While Progressivist racism is based upon a “racial hierarchy and the assimilation of non-Negro ethnicities” (Lee), a nativist perspective focuses upon the determination of identity through racial difference, thereby refuting any form of assimilation because of the importance of preserving racial purity....   [tags: Sociology Sociological Essays]
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Humanity of the Primitive in Heart of Darkness, Dialect of Modernism and Totem and Taboo - Humanity of the Primitive in Heart of Darkness, Dialect of Modernism and Totem and Taboo     The ways in which a society might define itself are almost always negative ways. "We are not X." A society cannot exist in a vacuum; for it to be distinct it must be able to define itself in terms of the other groups around it. These definitions must necessarily take place at points of cultural contact, the places at which two societies come together and arrive at some stalemate of coexistence. For European culture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries this place of contact—this new culture by which to define itself—came from Africa, from those "primitive" cultures whose society was being studied and in some ways appreciated for the first time....   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays]
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Modernism Defined in T.S. Eliot's The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock and James Joyce's The Dead - Modernism is by no means easy to define. In fact, no one is exactly sure if the movement has even ended yet. But that’s befitting of the period, as well as the pieces of literature that serve to define Modernism. Two pieces, T.S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and James Joyce’s “The Dead”, are epitomes of this modernism. In both, the main characters are paralyzed by an inability to communicate, even while speaking. Whether through Prufrock’s musings concerning love life, or Gabriel’s inability to evoke certain feelings out of his wife, both men experience this effeminization of the intellect and communication....   [tags: The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, The Dead] 1519 words
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Modernism and Existential Loneliness Demonstrated in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness and James Joyce's The Dead - Two authors who demonstrate modernism in its rawest form are Joseph Conrad and James Joyce. Both Conrad and Joyce incorporate one of the key characteristics of modernism throughout their works, Conrad in Heart of Darkness and Joyce in The Dead. The key characteristic that each writer targets in on is existential loneliness. It is a predominant theme throughout both of their works. A working definition of existential loneliness as illustrated throughout Conrad and Joyce’s works is the inability of one character to feel accepted by his or her peers, regardless of the close proximities that he or she is resides in....   [tags: Heart of Darkness, The Dead] 856 words
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Paul's Case - Conflict of Social Class - It is a widely known idea that times change and people change. After major world events, there are often changes in the world's popular culture. After the Great War, writers began a new style of literature that came to be known as modernism. Modernism deals with conflicts between social classes, eclecticism for the past and the finer things in life, and the further advancement of society. All of these aspects of modernism are present in the short story "Paul's Case," by Willa Cather, and they all affect the evolution of the plot....   [tags: American Literature Modernism Willa Cather]
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The Modern Experience in Jean Toomer’s Cane - Sophisticated Life: The Modern Experience in Jean Toomer’s Cane 2 Jean Toomer’s Cane elucidates the complicated racial plight of early twentieth century America. His assumably conscientious attempt to consider a social panacea is belied only by the appearance that the entire work fails to provide any direct solution to the modern experience. There exists, however, a referential significance that realigns his project with messages of Sherwood Anderson’s Winesburg, Ohio, an earlier work from the modernist canon....   [tags: Toomer American Modernism]
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The Fourth Dimension in Modernist Art and Literature - The Fourth Dimension in Modernist Art and Literature O God, I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself a king of infinite space, were it not that I have bad dreams (Hamlet 2.2.258-60). Near the end of Edwin A. Abbott's novel Flatland, a Romance of Many Dimensions (1884), a curious conversation occurs between two shapes, a two-dimensional Square and a three-dimensional Sphere: Sphere. But where is the land of Four Dimensions. Square. I know not: but doubtless my Teacher knows. Sphere....   [tags: Modernist Art Literature Essays]
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James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Flann O'Brien's At Swim-Two-Birds and Modernist Writing - James Joyce's 'A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man' and Flann O'Brien's 'At Swim-Two-Birds' and Modernist Writing The Twentieth Century found literature with a considerably different attitude and frame-of-mind than had the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Two hundred years is, of course, a long time to allow change within genres, but after the fairly gradual progression of the novel as a form, its change in the hands of modernism happened rapidly in comparison. Explaining how texts within the framework of modernist writing are “different” require laying out from what they are different, how, and why....   [tags: Joyce Portrait O'Brien Modernist Essays]
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Heart of Darkness as a Modernist Novel - Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is a great example of a Modernist novel because of its general “darkness” portrayed throughout the entire novel. The language that is used to describe the setting and important scenes is very thick and unclear. The novel is jam packed with words such as: inconceivable, inscrutable, gloom, etc. Rather than defining characters in black and white terms, like good and bad, they entire novel is in different shades of gray. The unfolding of events takes the reader through many events that can be read as unclear and the action in the book and not just the language echoes tones of gray....   [tags: conrad, literary analysis] 591 words
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The Aesthetic Innovations in a Modernist Context - ... Also innovative with regarding to his books having an emotional tie being formed by the audience due to the fact that Faulkner had recurring characters. Moreover, it is a similar hook as to the present soap opera viewers whereby they return day-after-day to see how a specific character is doing. Therefore, this is brilliantly innovative on the behalf of Faulkner to have created an emotional connection of his audience to his characters. Also, he writes by way of pathos to create a connection to his audience....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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Exploring Modernist Literature - Modernism was born during the later half of the 19th Century. The Modernists became overwhelmed with the Victorian Age Machine and disillusioned by the Civil War. They felt the frailty of mankind and the devastation that mercantilism and war had done to society. They were looking for a new vision and challenged the Victorian Era; "Modernists broke away from the Victorian, staunch literary style and experimented with new forms and techniques in architecture, dance, literature and others" (Murfin;Ray 221)....   [tags: American Literature] 546 words
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Understanding Modernist Writing - Around 1906, modernist writing was used, but did not yet have a name. James Joyce was the first person to write in a modernist way. It was not until later that the name modernism was established. It was mainly involved with language and how it is used. Modernism is known as a result of the struggle families went through during a certain period of time. Many other authors use modernism in a similar way. To fully understand modernist poetry, a definition and a break down is needed. Modernism is better known as a reflection of historical events....   [tags: essays research papers] 1293 words
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Death of a Modernist Salesman - Death of a Modernist Salesman        The modernist movement in writing was characterized by a lack of faith in the traditional ways of explaining life and its meaning.  Religion, nationalism, and family were no longer seen as being infallible.  For the modernist writers, a sense of security could no longer be found.  They could not find any meaning or order in the old ways.  Despair was a common reaction for them.  The dilemma they ran into was what to do with this knowledge.  Poet Robert Frost phrased their question best in his poem “The Oven Bird.”  Frost’s narrator and the bird about which he is speaking both are wondering “what to make of a diminished thing” (Baym 1103).  The modernist writers attempted to mirror this despair and tried to superimpose meaning on it or find meaning in it.  The old frames of reference were no longer meaningful.  Newer ones had to be sought.  This belief gave them license to create new points of reference, which at least held some meaning for them, or to comment on the remains of the old.  These writers referred often to shattered illusions, feelings of alienation, and the fragmentation of the remains of tradition.  Although society was making technological advances, many of these writers felt that it was declining in other ways.  They saw this progression as being made at the expense of individuality and the individual’s sense of true self-worth....   [tags: Death Salesman essays]
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What is ‘Modernist’ about Cather’s My Antonia? - ... The last wave of the Tramp creates a sympathetic connection with the audience which makes the suicide more emotive than the cold and lonely suicide of Mr. Shimerdas. On the other hand, Antonia’s complaint that ‘the machine ain’t never worked since’ could show a detachment from the reality of the situation, alluding that she values the machine over the man. This reflects society’s reliance on machinery over manpower in capitalism. However, Millington agrees with the first statement and feels that: The story of the tramp in the threshing machine is there not to be moralized upon or applied as a life lesson; it is there to be witnessed, a modernist exemplification of meaning’s creation rather than a Victorian espousal of a moral truth....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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Unreliable Narration and Its Effects in a Modernist Text - ... The dialogue present tenses expresses the depiction of the now creating the narrator to be reliable. The snippets of dialogue such as, ““Come on, kid”… “let’s get moving”…”Sweating plenty?”…”Sure is hell keeping it down, Joe”…”Oh, to hell with it,”” (Hemingway 115-117) aides in the present-day narration and speech amongst people. The narrator captures these pieces of dialogue to show the current time, and gives its character’s a mind. Kristin Davidse, and Lieven Vandelanotte talks about the direct and indirect tenses in speech in their article “Tense Use in Direct and Indirect Speech”....   [tags: Literature]
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When Modernist Tools Go PoMo - When Modernist Tools Go PoMo Since the internet is a tool largely founded in modernist thought it possesses the ability to eradicate social and historical diversity of style in composition. However, due to the shift of thought entailed in Postmodernism, and the fact that making a website grows easier every day, the shift towards global uniformity of style might be slowing or even reversing. A variety of examples support the argument that the internet is, in fact, not restricting or reducing the development of diversity within composition, but rather is promoting diversity and enforcing the Postmodernist concept of a convoluted reality that defies attempts at classification....   [tags: Internet Style Essays] 2007 words
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Theme of Haunting in the Following Modernist Works: Rebecca, A Haunted House and The Painted Veil - Modernism as a new genre emerged as a reaction to the previous one-Realism- and took its own place in literary canon. As being introduced to the literary world upon facing the brutal facts of life and its chaotic realities, it brought different aspects to the world of the writers. Its difference existed as a result of its newness not only in content but also in form. The genre of Modernism brought new dimensions to the literature by means of new techniques that are unconventional and unusual.In the field of art and literature, Modernism caused a shift in aesthetic and cultural sensibilities with the period of post World War One....   [tags: virginia wolfe, ] 1884 words
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Modernist Works and the Fear of the Fin de Siècle - Modernist Works and the Fear of the Fin de Siècle       Fin de siècle is a term which is now used to refer to the period of the last 40 or so years of the Nineteenth Century and its art, yet at the time the word had genuine sociological connotations of modernity, social decay and reaction.  In France in particular though arguably throughout Europe, society was changing in such a way as to merit such a pessimistic term for the trend evolving.  The growing ability for the mass of the people to access all areas of society, previously only available to an appreciative elite coupled with the growing crime rate and visible decline of this elite are factors of this social phenomenon.  The modernist writers, typically the youthful offspring of the old elites, certainly used fin de siècle as a theme.  There is evidence of a conflict with the concept of fin de siècle, but it is too simple to say that they displayed a fear of fin de siècle.  As I will try to show in this essay, the modernist reaction to and interpretation of fin de siècle is not static and, as though proportional to the development of modernity as an aesthetic, develops through works of varying mediums by different authors over the period identified as 'modernist'....   [tags: Literature Essays Literary Criticism]
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Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness - A Modernist Novel - Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness - A Modernist Novel Modernism began as a movement in that late 19th, early 20th centuries. Artists started to feel restricted by the styles and conventions of the Renaissance period. Thusly came the dawn of Modernism in many different forms, ranging from Impressionism to Cubism. In order to explore new venues of creativity Modernists tinkered with the perception of reality. During the Renaissance, the depiction of a subject was very straight forward. A painting had to look like what it represented....   [tags: Joseph Conrad Heart of Darkness]
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Non-Standard Approaches to Post-modernist Literature - Non-Standard Approaches to Post-modernist Literature In the Fall of last academic year I taught a Comparative Literature 1B class entitled "Ghosts, Doubles, and Divided Selves." As the semester drew to a close we were preparing to read the final text on the syllabus, a novel by Philip Roth entitled The Counterlife. Appearing rather simple on the surface, it is in fact a novel of great complexity, especially on the level of narrative structure. In presenting a very "postmodern" novel, I wondered what approach to take to ensure that students did not become frustrated....   [tags: Graduate Admissions Essays] 566 words
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God’s Transition to a Feared, Cruel Deity in Modernist Literature and Poetry - ... Eliot highlights that why a man must run after such mortal things when he has to become a part of the same dust again. Keeping the contradiction, he stressed that this hopelessness is the outcome of isolation and solitude, and perhaps it has some deeper side. Ash Wednesday is also a description of Dante’s trip through Purgatory. Eliot uses this as a comparison to postwar Europe because the continent is repenting heavily for its sins. Audrey T. Rodgers, in her article “T.S. Eliot’s “Purgatorio”: The Structure of Ash Wednesday”, states that both “Ash Wednesday and Purgatorio emphasize the formula of doing-suffering-understanding” (97)....   [tags: Literacy Analysis ]
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Modernist Myth in Suna no Onna’s The Woman in the Dunes - Modernist Myth in Suna no Onna’s The Woman in the Dunes The Woman in the Dunes (Suna no Onna, 1964) was directed by Hiroshi Teshigahara and based on the novel by Kobo Abe and falls into the camp of modernism. It’s a faithful adaptation and has realistic and expressionistic elements. Because it is a parable and paradoxical, there are many interpretations – in other words, we’re on our own with this one. An entomologist (Niki) is walking in a stark desert-scape. Everything is shot in black and white....   [tags: Movie Film Essays]
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2004 words
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The Inward Turn of Modernist Literature - ... Eliot’s innovative form is perfect for this. By presenting the monologue as Prufrock’s stream of consciousness, Eliot is able to isolate the condition of the speaker within him, moving the experience inwards. In his collection of short stories, Dubliners, James Joyce also introduces a literary tool that is specifically used for the purpose of bringing experience into the individual. Joyce effectively uses epiphanies to demonstrate the psychological experiences which his characters take part in....   [tags: Literature, T. S. Eliot]
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A Light in the Darkness: Modernist Writing - The modernist period was a time of change. After World War II many people found themselves unhappy, lonely, and depressed. With the groundbreaking influences of Karl Marx, Freud, and Nietzsche, many people began to question their own reality. What did it mean to exist. What was life, and what was death. The modernist author reflected this change, and confronted these questions with enthusiasm. Together modernist artists became the representative voice of the people. This voice transcended all forms of art, but was most successful in the written word....   [tags: American Literature] 1053 words
(3 pages)
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Welcome to the Modernist Truman Show - Welcome to the Modernist Truman Show   From John Wayne and the western motif to William Shatner and the science fiction motif, Hollywood has been obsessed with the notion of frontier, taking this notion from an American ideology that encourages men to forge ahead into the unknown. Often, though, it seems these men are more running away from society than really running to the unknown. And in The Truman Show, that is what Truman is truly doing- running to the unknown in order to escape the responsibilities of his current life....   [tags: Movie Film Essays] 676 words
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