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Your search returned over 400 essays for "Middle-East History"
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Middle East Conflict - There is no set definition for the area known as the Middle East since shifts in global power over the years have affected the topography. Now, however, the region can expansively be said to contain “the area from Libya E to Afghanistan, usually including Egypt, Sudan, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the other countries of the Arabian peninsula” (dictionary.com). This geographical definition can be said to contain both the ‘Near East’, ‘Middle East’, and even farther to the East and into Africa be described as the ‘Greater Middle East’, so the Middle East can only be loosely defined, and it is important to know that these countries are separate and do not truly form one cooperative unit....   [tags: Middle East History] 861 words
(2.5 pages)
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The Middle East Peace Process - The Middle East Peace Process 'For too long, the citizens of the Middle East have lived in the midst of death and fear. The hatred of a few holds the hopes of many hostage. The forces of extremism and terror are attempting to kill progress and peace by killing the innocent. And this casts a dark shadow over an entire region,' President George W. Bush in his June 24, 2002 address to the nation. The conflict between Israel and Palestine is just one of the many facets that have shaped modern day politics in the Middle East....   [tags: Politics Middle East History Essays]
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5575 words
(15.9 pages)
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The Influence of Religious History in the Middle East - The Influence of Religious History in the Middle East For the past 5 months I have been studying the religious history of each country we have become apart of. My project consists of tracing the religious developments in each of the four countries and the role religion plays in the social, political, and moral elements in each destination. I explored the history of the nation and what major figures or events shaped the religious scope of each respective country. I learned about each religion while I was in each country and made connections of how their culture is shaped by this religious aspect....   [tags: Essays Papers] 2334 words
(6.7 pages)
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Shi'ite Sunni Conflict - Iraq and Iran have been subjected to a civil war since the seventh century (Murphy 1). This existing problem began because of political and theological divergence, but with the help of outside forces such as Britain, Russia, and North America, it developed into a more complex crisis. Many non-Muslims believe the cause of the Shi’ite and Sunni violence originated from their religious differences. However the differences in tradition, education, law, and religious practices are a small factor in this escalating problem....   [tags: Middle East History]
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1846 words
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The Israel-Palestine Conflict - Judaism and Islam are two of the world's oldest, and largest monotheistic religions. These religions share a variety of customs, beliefs, and practices. At the same time, there are enough differences that make these two clash. Even those similarities between the two have been the source of conflict for thousands of years. Although there are many conflicts going on in this particular moment in the middle east, I have chosen the ongoing conflict involving Israel and Palestine, primarily due to the death of Yasser Arafat....   [tags: Middle East Politics History] 1214 words
(3.5 pages)
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Suez Crisis - Suez Crisis The Suez Crisis marks major shift in the power relations of western Europe, signalling the rising importance of cold war politics in international crises, The Crisis has a big impact on Canada and our peace keeping ability's.Lester Pearson's idea to stop the crisis hepls show that we are a peacefull nation. Firstly, The Suez Crisis began on 26 July 1956, when United States' decision to withdraw its offer of a grant to aid the construction of Egypt's Aswan High Dam, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal.(1) The governments of Britain and France secretly began planning for an invasion of Egypt....   [tags: Middle East History] 1018 words
(2.9 pages)
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Arthur James Balfour and the Balfour Declaration - Arthur James Balfour and the Balfour Declaration Highly recognised for his continuous support of the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine and the Balfour Declaration, Arthur James Balfour is one of the most prominent individual figures that contributed to the seemingly inevitable declaration of the State of Israel in 1948. The Balfour declaration added a new dimension and even greater complications to the conflict between the Arabs and Jews in Palestine. The declaration was issued on November 2nd, 1917 on behalf of the British government announcing its support in the formation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine....   [tags: Middle East History] 1045 words
(3 pages)
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Islam's Appeal - Islam's Appeal Islam revolutionized the way people thought in the Middle-East. The Prophet spewed forth “The Word of God” (Cleveland 8) amid reflection, whether his own or that of God, concerning “the problems which afflicted Meccan society” (8). The subsequent production of the Quran fostered discipline and promoted spiritual growth. Mohammad, under the banner of Islam, united nomadic, feuding tribes in the barren plains of Arabia. The Seal of Prophets brought new rights to women and renewed a commitment to aid the destitute....   [tags: Islam Middle East Islamic Essays History]
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483 words
(1.4 pages)
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Afghanistan - Afghanistan Afghanistan has been in a constant state of chaos for twenty years. The Soviets invaded in 1979 and installed a puppet regime. After they withdrew their troops in 1989, rival mujahideen (tribal) groups began to fight for the capital. By the time the Taliban came into the picture around 1994, the country had been devastated by war. Many Afghanis had fled to neighboring countries like Pakistan. An estimated 1 million lives had been lost. Now, bad conditions still persist. Afghanistan has one of the world's worst literacy rates; only three percent of women and less then twenty percent of men can read and write (Rashid, 107)....   [tags: History Essays Middle East] 3050 words
(8.7 pages)
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The Persian Gulf War - The Persian Gulf War War was inevitable in the Gulf and it was a war in which Iraq was inevitability to lose. There were several reasons why this was and became a reality. How, when, where did this process of self destruction begin. It was quite evident that Saddam Hussein. the president of Iraq, was becoming a military giant in the Middle East and therefore a threat to the stability of the entire region. His war with Iran was proof of this. The U.S. and other industrialized Western nations could not risk the loss of oil from the area....   [tags: History Iraq Middle East Papers]
:: 2 Works Cited :: 1 Sources Cited
2189 words
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Peace in the Middle East - Peace in the Middle East There will never be peace in the Middle East. The idea of peace in a certain region is a silly notion. What region has truly ever known peace. Allow me to rephrase my thesis: There will never be peace in the Middle East as long as western powers intervene into Arab affairs. It is common knowledge that throughout history western powers have colonized, occupied, and exploited indigenous people in the name of national interest, national security, and manifest destiny. The Middle East is not exempt....   [tags: Middle East]
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1981 words
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Peace in the Middle East - ... Take the Wars of the Hellenistic Monarchies in Syria in 318-170 B.C. for example. This is a demonstration of generations of war between the Seleucids and Ptolemy’s in an effort to gain control of Syria. Does this differ in comparison to the decades long Palestinian/Israeli war. Not much. The only difference is that peace is on the world’s radar as something to strive for and ultimately achieve. As the Middle East continues to repeat history for very similar principles, the rest of the world is left wondering when it will all end; when in fact, the rest of the world’s countries and continents have all had a very similar history of conflict as well....   [tags: History and Changes]
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1081 words
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There Will Never Be Peace in the Middle East - ... Later, when a city north of Mecca needed a strong leader, their outlooks changed, and the native people of Mecca looked to Muhammad, promising to convert and defend Muhammad with their lives. Muhammad refused, and ultimately escaped from Mecca in the year 622, a journey now written within the Qu 'ran as Hijira. Outside of the territory of Mecca, the Muslim religion began to expand and eventually reached out to all of Arabia, with Muhammad's face regarded as one of a true prophet. ("Post Axial" 2010)....   [tags: History and Perspective]
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1253 words
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Transition From Empire to Modern State System in the Middle East - ... Economically : ottoman empire’s economics was mostly subsistence to agriculture, but with help of traders and some farmers they were able to enter a new phase of business in agricultural production, and start selling them to other countries. At the same time the living standard of the poor people did not change, which was the pressure of being under taxes and elites exploitation (Milton-Edwards, 2000) . Corruption and mismanagement as well, were big part of the reasons why Ottoman Empire collapsed....   [tags: world politics, middle east]
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1969 words
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The Middle East is an Invention - ... By the late eighteenth century, geographical institutes in France in their race to gain superiority against their Prussian adversary further distanced themselves from ‘speculation’ to providing justification of colonialism based on racial theories . Admittedly the initial definitions of the ‘Middle East’ appeared as the merging of geography and greed. The term Middle East first appeared at the beginnings of the ninenteenth century at an article written by Alfred T. Mahan concerning the strategic importance of control over the major naval routes ....   [tags: National Identity, Middle East]
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1653 words
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Major Demographic Changes in the Middle East and North Africa - The major demographic changes in the Middle East and North Africa have been the massive increase in population, and urbanization which has seen the emergence of many large cities throughout the region. The reasons for this have been because of better health care, greater mobility of the population, economic opportunities in the cities and political changes. During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, a number of European families started moving to the Middle East and North Africa, with many French and other Europeans settling in Algeria from the 1830s....   [tags: world history]
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915 words
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Societial Changes in the Middle East in 600 B.C.E. - From the time of the Agricultural revolution till 600 B.C.E, many changes were being made in society. New tools and weapons were developed, new types of writing, and new art forms were all being discovered and altered. But one societal element that is crucial to everyone is politics. The politics of a society effect the citizens day to day lives, and set boundries for all people. Between the time of the Agricultural Revolution and 600 B.C.E, the Middle East experienced political changes such as; the dimensions of government, and the land that was conquered and controlled....   [tags: Politics, world history, Mesopotamia] 413 words
(1.2 pages)
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The History of the Terrorist Group Hamas - Terrorism in the Middle East has brought the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to the attention of the world. These terrorist groups use murder, bombs, threats, and other violent acts to get their way politically. Hamas, the organization that has replaced Fatah as the representative of the Palestinians, is a leading sponsor of terrorism. The Hamas are the leading reason there is not peace in the middle east as they strongly embrace terrorism. This group was created in 1978 and continues to expand its power today....   [tags: hamas, terrorism, middle east,] 1171 words
(3.3 pages)
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The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict in the Middle East - The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict in the Middle East The Arab world is not in a compromising mood… Nations never concede; they fight. You won’t get anything by peaceful means or compromise. You can, perhaps get something, but only by the force of your arms…But it’s too late to talk of peaceful solutions” (Bard 1). The Arab League Secretary Azzam Pasha said this statement on September 16, 1947, eight months before the state of Israel was established. The Arabs held this mentality in a time when Israel was not yet a fact....   [tags: Palestine Israel War History Essays]
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3514 words
(10 pages)
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Usama, The Middle East, and The Crusades - The selection from Usama Ibn Munqidh’s Kitab al-l’tibar otherwise know in English as the Book of Contemplation is a book in which Usama provides a series of short vignettes as a testimony to his experiences in the medieval Middle East and the Crusades. Through his writings the reader is able to get a Muslim account of the Crusades. It is largely a personal account so many details are left out and much background knowledge is assumed. It also is not the most unbiased source as supported by Usama’s frequent utterence that “Allah render them [The crusading Christians] helpless” (Ibn Munqidh 197) Usama also makes no attempt at analysis or understanding and just writes exactly what he observed without asking questions or delving deeper into the myriad differences he discribes....   [tags: The Middle Ages]
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1516 words
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Nationalist Movements of the Middle East and South Asia after WW1 - The years after World War One brought about vast changes to many parts of the world. Places like South Asia and the Middle East were able to see the need for self government away from foreign control. This sparked a number of nationalist movements during the 1920’s and 1930’s. The Middle East had to Westernize to rid foreign control while India had to be united under non-violence and Hindu values. Before WW1, the Middle East was dominated by outside powers. Egypt was under British control and Persia was divided in to Russian and British spheres of influence....   [tags: world war I, world history]
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1080 words
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Will There Be Peace in the Middle East - Is peace possible in the Middle East. This question weighs heavy on the minds of many individuals and international players. Turmoil and conflict in the Middle East not only affects the people inhabiting this region, but also has global consequences. To answer this question, one must analyze the sources of conflict in the Middle East, historically, currently, and in the future. The limited amount of natural resources in this region has arguably served as the most major source of conflict in the Middle East....   [tags: World Politics ]
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1447 words
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Islam And The Middle East - The current state of governance in Middle Eastern countries is one that demonstrates numerous examples of human rights being violated and preposterous actions being taken in the name of Islam, the most widely practiced religion in the region. In light of these instances the question posed is whether or not religious beliefs should be excluded from the consideration of public policy in the area. Despite the current state of affairs in the Middle East, this paper asserts that religious beliefs should not be excluded from the consideration of public policy as this would involve ignoring the undeniable fact that Islam plays a major role in Middle Eastern public life, it would lead to the better protection of ethnic and religious minorities and it would result in development since the objectives of Islam and public policy coincide more often than not....   [tags: Politics Religion]
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2451 words
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Struggles Within the Middle East: United States Supplying Israel During the Yom Kippur War - In October of 1973, a war between the Arabic states of Egypt and Syria and the state of Israel broke out known as the Yom Kippur War. Being vastly overwhelmed by the Arabic states in terms of sheer volume of troops and equipment, Israel turned toward its ally in the West, the United States. With profound diplomatic pressure from multiple Arabic states, the United States found itself in an increasingly difficult position. In an effort to create the best outcome for America in both the Middle East and the global theatre, the United States made the decision, knowing full well the possible consequences, to help supply Israel during the Yom Kippur War....   [tags: U.S. History]
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2162 words
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The Nature of Sacrifice in the History and Ideology of Gush Emunim - The Nature of Sacrifice In The History And Ideology Of The Gush Emunim There can be no argument that by living in small settlements in the hostile and explosive West Bank and Gaza Strip, Gush Emunim settlers are making some sort of sacrifice. Surrounded no doubt by hostile Palestinians who feel that the Israelis are occupying their home, religious settlers face the potential for violence and death on a daily basis. In what is becoming a more perilous state of affairs in Israel with each suicide bombing, shooting spree, or IDF incursion into the Palestinian territories and refugee camps, perhaps no one on the Israeli side faces as constant a risk of danger than the Gush Emunim....   [tags: Israel Middle East Political Essays]
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7586 words
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The History of Turkey - Throughout history, the middle east has often been the focus of news reporters. A middle eastern country that has not been exempt from this, is Turkey. Turkey has not only been a focus, but it also has had a very long, complicated history. The history of turkey is a very long and detailed one. Turkey was originally settled by groups of farmers probably thousands of years ago. Today, historians call these people the Hittites. During their time, the Hittites were ruled by kings, and had their high officials buried in shaft tombs....   [tags: turkish history, middle eastern history] 1585 words
(4.5 pages)
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Nationalism In The Middle East - The study of international relations is very broad and complex. It is the study of nations and states and how they are formed. It is also the study of measures, such as revolutions and wars, that create different nations and states and the reasons behind such measures. One important concept in international relations is the view of nationalism. Nationalism is a part of every nation and state and thus is relevant to each country. An important geographical area where nationalism relates directly to the events occurring today would be in the Middle East where nationalistic views of two different nations, that of Jews and Arabs, coincide to create a very volatile conflict that has run its course for nearly a whole century....   [tags: essays research papers] 1568 words
(4.5 pages)
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Ethnic Conflict in the Middle East - Ethnic Conflict in the Middle East Ethnic conflicts are well rooted in the world's history and perhaps inherent in human nature. This type of conflict is difficult to resolve as is evident in the situation in the Middle East. The ethnic conflict theory explains that it is not territory, politics, or economics that prevents the achievement of peace between the Israeli and Palestinian peoples, instead, it is a deep-seated hatred of one another that neither group can overcome. The Camp David Summit in July 2000, the most recent attempt at fostering a lasting peace is a clear example of how ethnocentrism can prevents success....   [tags: Papers] 1673 words
(4.8 pages)
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The Annapolis Summit - This year a summit is occurring in Annapolis, Maryland. This summit, aptly named the Annapolis Summit consists of the current Prime Minister of Israel, Ehud Olmert and the President of Palestine Mahmoud Abbas and Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State of the United States to act as mediator between the two other parties. Analysts say this meeting between the two opposing parties could lead to great progress in stabilizing one of the catalysts of violence and instability in the Middle East today. The article relates to several themes discussed in History 20: the Israel-Palestinian conflict, which was a direct result of the Second World War; after Israel was founded it was an area where proxy wars were fought between the United States and the Soviet Union during the cold war; the plentiful amount of oil in the Middle East and subsequent oil wars, and the use of guerilla and counter-insurgency tactics....   [tags: Middle East ]
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1377 words
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Middle East - The Middle Eastern culture has many different nationalities within their population including Arabians, Iranians, Iraqis, Pakistanians, Egyptians, Saudi Arabians, and many more. The most common religion found in the Middle East is Muslim. However not every Middle Easterner is Muslim, there are also other religions just as in any country such as Christian and Jewish. There are more than seven million Muslims living in America and over 1.5 billion worldwide. Many Middle Eastern Muslims who are conservative with their religion do not eat pork or drink alcohol....   [tags: essays research papers] 1495 words
(4.3 pages)
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Peace in the Middle East - ... They were placed under government protection in Sa’ana. In light of recent events in Yemen, I have concerns that if a transition does happen that number may be reduced to zero. Yemen is just one of many countries in the Middle East, but its story of lack of respect for those who are the minority is not uncommon for the region. Balance is everything, without it we lose our footing and go tumbling down. When it comes to politics, domestic and foreign policy, balance is a necessity. Egypt learned how to balance its relationship with Israel with the aid of the United States and United Nations....   [tags: Religion, Tradition, Culture]
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1506 words
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Democracy in The Middle East - The imposing of liberal democracy into foreign states and in particular into the Middle East would not necessarily create peace due to their cultural and geographical context. From a westernised perspective we may heavily associate the nature of democracy with peace but the history of international relations and theory has continue to show that this is definitely not the case. The Democratic Peace Theory itself contains weakness and vulnerabilities due to its reliance on ‘casual logic’ (Layne 1994, Pg....   [tags: Social Issues]
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1163 words
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Transformation in the Middle East - ... led invasion in 2003 the country saw a steep increase in violence between Shiite and Sunni militants as well as the Kurds becoming nearly autonomous in the north. While these events pre date the current revolutions occurring in the Middle East and Iraq is slightly different as the fall of the regime there was due to foreign intervention, they nonetheless highlight the violence typically associated with regime change. Another characteristic shared by most of the Middle Eastern countries is their strong emphasis on traditionalism and religion....   [tags: democratic reform, religion, traditionalism]
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1226 words
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Women in the Middle East - Her Highness Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al-Missned is a Muslim women married to the Emir of Qatar (a sovereign Arab state in the Middle East. Her involvement in numerous organizations aimed at social and educational reform makes her a strong figure for women across the board; both Muslim and non. She fights for reform while still remaining faithful to Islam and makes important notes about the supposed oppression caused by it. In her speech The 'Women's Issue' in Context: Reframing the Discourse on Middle Eastern Women she states, "I strongly believe that separating women's status from the larger issues of the region is so loaded with political history and so burdened with misconceptions that it has become a counterproductive methodology....   [tags: Gender Studies]
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1104 words
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The History or Middle Eastern Minority Groups - "Children are dying, but no one makes a move. Houses are demolished, but no one makes a move. Holy places are desecrated, but no one makes a move.... I am fed up with life in the world of mortals. Find me a hole near you. For a life of dignity is in those holes." The history of Middle Eastern minority groups is consistent of many accounts given by elites, however a minute number of member accounts have surfaced. Burke and Yaghoubian compiled a number of accounts from various minority group members that depicts the harsh persecutions and oppression that minority members faced in the Middle East....   [tags: World Civilization ]
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1935 words
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Middle East Countries’ Stock Markets under Contrarian and Momentum Strategies - This research aims to investigate the Middle East countries’ stock markets within the framework of momentum and contrarian strategies. Potential foreign investors, who have been able to make direct investments in the Middle East countries’ stock markets, should study the recent history of these stock markets in order to understand the risks that accompany the high returns. Accordingly this research considers the Middle East countries’ stock markets from January 1997 to December 2010 and provides an analysis of their performance under various momentum and contrarian strategies....   [tags: Economics ]
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1485 words
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National Security - ... To do this we must have adequate intelligence that supports both diplomacy and our military in times of war and peace. In the wake of the Iranian revolution of 1979, and the events of September 11, 2001, intelligence gatherers and analysts have had to develop a new paradigm to understand the role of religious and cultural issues in the Middle East for our own homeland security. Reading analyses of religious, history or political science books in English, reading English news sources or depending on English translations of Arabic texts does not allow us to understand Arab thought....   [tags: Foreign Policy, Middle East] 1233 words
(3.5 pages)
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Middle East and Other Western States - ... Islam also has a root, s-l-m, which basic meaning is safe, unharmed, unimpaired. From this root not only comes the word Islam, but others such as Salam (peace) or salam alaikum (peace be upon on you). The roots of the religion speak to the idea that Islam is a religion of peace (Lewis, Churchill, 2009, pg 7-8). Language is not the only way in which shows that it is meant to be a religion where individuals are to find peace. Within in the teachings of Islam exists pillars that are meant to point an individual's life to Allah and peace....   [tags: Islam, religion, violence, jihad, society]
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2352 words
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World War One and The Middle East - Introduction Over the course of human history, wars have always created, destroyed or enveloped nations, states or empires. Examples of these include the Final War of the Roman Republic, which culminated with the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, to the Franco-Prussian War of 1871 which created a unified German state. However, World War One is known to have had the greatest impact on human civilization. It dragged in almost every continent into the conflict, halted global trade, led to the demolition of four empires, and gave nationalism everywhere a boost....   [tags: International Conflict ]
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1858 words
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Israel: The Vanguard of Middle East Stability - The Middle East is a power keg about to burst. There are countries in the Middle East where their national stability is in question due to various terrorist and malicious attacks while others promote the inhalation of nations. If these fuses are allowed to spark, it would lead to a cataclysmic array of international consequences including skyrocketing oil prices, increased acts of terrorism, and even WWIII. But, there is a hope to quell this situation. The country of Israel has safeguarded the complete collapse of the Middle East to violence and chaos....   [tags: International Government ]
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1435 words
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U.S.-Middle East Relations - The United States has had some international issues with Middle Eastern countries in the past. It goes without saying; the most recent is the current gulf war led by George W. Bush and of course the previous gulf war led by his father George H.W. Bush. With neighboring Iran, there have been quarrels such as the Iran-Contra affair. This involved a political scandal in which Ronald Reagan's administration sold military arms to Iran. At this time they were in the midst of the Iran-Iraq War, while the United States had hostages held in Lebanon by Hezbollah....   [tags: Current Events] 721 words
(2.1 pages)
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Women in the Middle East and Greece - Women in the Middle East and Greece Historically, women were long considered naturally weaker than men, squeamish, and unable to perform work requiring muscular or intellectual development. In most pre industrial societies, for example, domestic chores were relegated to women, leaving heavier labor such as hunting and plowing to men. Women generally have had fewer legal rights and career opportunities than men as well. Wifehood and motherhood were regarded as women's most significant professions....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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3945 words
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The Middle East: Conflict in Journalism - The Middle East: Conflict in Journalism Before beginning my essay, “The Middle East, Conflict in Journalism”, I would like the reader to read a few terms. These are merely food for thought, do whatever with them you wish. Conflict: A state of disharmony between incompatible or antithetical persons, ideas, or interests; a clash. (The American Heritage) War: A state of open, armed, often prolonged conflict carried on between nations, states, or parties. &The period of such conflict....   [tags: War Writing Essays]
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1620 words
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Terrorism and Culture of the Middle East - Terrorism and Culture of the Middle East Introduction In 1993, a Harvard political scientist named Samuel P. Huntington wrote a controversial article entitled “The Clash of Civilizations” in Foreign Affairs. At this point the Gulf War was still fresh in the minds of most Americans. The most poignant issues at the time were the threat of Suddam Hussein, nuclear weapons, and the establishment of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. Also months later, the World Trade Center was bombed, which left six people dead and many more injured....   [tags: Muslim Cultural Religion Iraq Essays]
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4764 words
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Imperialism in the middle east - http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mckay/western_society/7e/students/outlines/ch26.html Western penetration of Egypt Muhammad Ali built a modern state in Turkish held Egypt that attracted European traders. He drafted the peasants, reformed the government, and improved communications. The peasants lost out because the land was converted from self-sufficient farms to large, private landholdings to grow cash crops for export. Ismail continued the modernization of Egypt, including the completion of the Suez Canal, but also drew the country deeply into debt....   [tags: essays research papers] 1314 words
(3.8 pages)
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Middle East Art and Society - Middle East Art and Society This is how I feel when trying to understand art from nothing. The codes of communication, the means by which we understand language are not clear. Art is a language, but a symbolic one. I am trying to understand the reasons and the culture that produces this language. My learning plan, written a few months before we departed for our program, was focused in trying to understand the relationship between culture and art in the Islamic countries. An Islamic art definition that I have repeated before and as presented by Eva Baer is the following: "Islamic arts refers not only to the art made for Islamic practices and settings but also to the art made by and for the people who lived or live in lands where most-or the most important -people were or are Muslims, that is believers of Islam." (Baer: 1998) By this we understand an encompassing definition that refers to the arts of all Islamic cultures and not just related to the religion of Islam....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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2550 words
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The Iran-Iraq War - The Iran-Iraq War While the Iran-Iraq War during the 1980's may have permanently altered the course of progress in Iran and Iraq, the war also altered the resulting permanent involvement of the rest of the world in the middle-east. The rich and complicated history in Iraq has established numerous cultural and ethnic traditions that all play a part in where the country is today. The Iran-Iraq War brought into focus some of those traditions and how they conflicted, while also bringing Iraq and its economic situation into the spotlight....   [tags: War Middle East Essays]
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3026 words
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The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Protecting Democracy in the Middle East - Standing in front of the Knesset, the Prime Minister-designate gives a stern welcome to his fellow legislators. “I do not stand here with the glee of victory, but with a sense of grave responsibility in testing times,” he says. What has brought Benjamin Netanyahu to the head of government in Israel is the need to bring peace, to bring about an end to violence, and to erase the misdeeds of the past and renew the spirit of cooperation and harmony in the Middle East. It is a task of mammoth proportions, rife with possibilities for failure, but one which is the responsibility of any government that is to be taken seriously by the international community to undertake....   [tags: International Politics ]
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3829 words
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Turkey and the Arab World: Follow our lead! - Historically, the nation of Turkey has been a major player on the international political front. With its geography situating Turkey at the interstices of Europe and the Middle East, the Turkish state has held a unique and highly fluctuating role in both regions. Despite long-standing allegiances to the West, during the last decade; dominated by the Islamist Justice and Development Party (AKP), a large Muslim population, and a charismatic leader (Prime Minister) Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Turkey has witnessed growing trade and relations with its Middle Eastern neighbors, significant economic growth, and an apparent growing appetite for combative international affairs....   [tags: Middle East ]
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Is Peace Possible? - The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been one of the defining political issues in the Middle East for decades. The conflict itself can be dated to 1948, when the state of Israel established independence, but the underlying problems responsible for the creation of Israel, and as a result, the conflict, can be traced back as far as the 19th century. While these days, the heart of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict takes place at a domestic level, its roots, as well as the frequent failed attempts at peace that spanned the 20th century, stemmed from international interference and mismanagement....   [tags: Middle East ] 1466 words
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The Pleas of Palestinians - The Pleas of Palestinians Freedom, a common concept that is taken for granted by most people living in developed countries. However, the idea of freedom is still wanted in developing countries and non-recognized countries, such as Palestine. Palestinians have always lived in the current country of Israel; however, they were never able to obtain the land of their ancestors, therefore many different Palestinian groups from the Palestinian Liberation Organization, an observer in the United Nations, to Hamas, a multi-country terrorist cell, have all been involved in helping free Palestine....   [tags: Middle East]
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Hizballah Role In A Unified Middle East - The Monroe Doctrine was developed because the United States and Britain were concerned over the possibility of European colonial expansion in the Americas. Hizballah, or party of god, was developed along the same lines of separationism, because originally the Shiite Muslims began the organization as a revolt against Western influences and the Israeli’s occupation of Lebanon. The future of the Hizballah and the Islamic Resistance (the parties militant wing) is unclear as well as the future of the entire Middle East....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Ruling Elite and the Development of the Middle East - Many dynasties and kingdoms have ruled the area of what we now call the Middle East. In almost all of the societies, it is the wealthier, educated, and a particular race or ethnicity that ruled. These positions were usually acquired through power, either by a civil war or an overthrow of the previous government. From the late eleventh century to the reign of Mohammed Ali in the early to mid nineteenth century, whoever were the ruling elite was able to shape the direction and development of country or territory in three different ways; socially, economically and politically....   [tags: essays research papers] 591 words
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Government and Politics - No Peace for the Middle East - No Peace for the Middle East Since its inception the State of Israel has been at war with the Arab countries surrounding it. Dating back to biblical times when the Israelites left Egypt after two hundred years of bondage there, they began forty years of wandering the desert in which they encountered many enemy tribes such as their sworn enemies, the Amalekites. Thousands of years later, the Arabs and Israelis are still fighting. The State of Israel began with the War for Israeli Independence in 1948....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays]
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The Cause of Hatred and Distrust in the Middle East - The Cause of Hatred and Distrust in the Middle East The war in Iraq is further poisoning the already noxious political atmosphere between Arabs and Americans. It has intensified and increased dangerous feelings of humiliation and outrage among the Arab public, while paranoid rhetoric about Western attacks against Islam elsewhere is spreading from the religious fringe to the mainstream. It is simplistic and self- serving for political leaders in the West to tell us that the terrorists attacks happen because they "hate freedom," or "hate our democratic values" or "they despise our love of liberty." Many, in fact, hate what they perceive as materialistic Western values, but this is not what leads them to kill themselves in suicide bombings, or to murder thousands of innocent civilians....   [tags: Papers] 1604 words
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Family Values and Structures in the Middle East - Family Values and Structures in the Middle East At the end of our program, classes are ending, and events are winding down, but emotions remain powerful. We will all face reentry, and deal with it in different ways, and I'm sure that all of us are thinking about what this means personally. I do not know what the first thing is that may come to your mind when you think of home. Maybe you are scared that your little sibling took over while you were gone, and you will have to resolve this in a civil manner....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Middle Ages vs Renaissance - Life during the middle ages (1066-1485) was dictated by how much money you had. Were you a noble. Or were you a peasant. Your quality of life was in direct proportion to your status. Lords of the Noble class ruled territories, also known as villages. These villages mainly consisted of one room houses, with maybe a church and a blacksmith shop. Peasants or serfs lived in these villages and worked under said Lord. Daily life was all about survival. The days were spent planting and growing food, harvesting the crop, sewing clothes, and making any supplies that were needed to survive....   [tags: History] 2265 words
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Drinking Water and Irrigation Water Shortages in the Middle East - One would think there are enough conflicts to be had in the Middle East. The area is simply a breeding ground for turmoil, and has been for centuries. Of the many conflicts that revolve around the areas history, politics, religion, territory or ethnicity, one more can be added to the group: water. These societies all need water, but not all have the same resources to get to that water. What is the hotbed of vice in this situation is only a few of the countries in the Middle East have total control over their own water, leaving most of the others to depend on the graces of those few countries to manage their water magnanimously enough to supply them with what they need....   [tags: Geography Economics Papers]
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The Reasons Behind the Difficulties of Bringing Peace to the Middle East - The Reasons Behind the Difficulties of Bringing Peace to the Middle East A major source of conflict in the Middle East during the last fifty years has been the dispute between Arabs and Jews over Palestine. For hundreds of years, the great majority of the people living in Palestine were Arabs. But at the end of the nineteenth century some Jews in Europe were becoming increasingly bitter about growing anti-Semitism. They started to talk about setting up a state of their own where they would be free from persecution....   [tags: Papers] 1193 words
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Women’s Roles in Independence Movements Throughout the Middle East - Women’s roles in independence movements throughout the Middle East were as varied as their male counterparts’, though arguably not as well remembered. Many women rebelled from within traditional feminine spaces, as defined by colonizers and male nationals, rather than vying for roles in the traditional political sphere. Female and male revolutionaries risked the same dangers, but almost invariably women did not hold any significant leadership positions within nationalistic movements. Colonial powers often did not differentiate between male and female enemy combatants, punishing both with equal severity....   [tags: Women's Rights] 840 words
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Universal Health Care in America: A Middle East Perspective - Universal Health Care in America: A Middle East Perspective My project over the course of the program abroad was a focus on the health care systems of the countries we visited. This project was chosen for personal reasons, as I aimed to analyze the feasibility of a universal health care system in America. In order to understand the practicality of such an issue, I had to first understand the encompassing components: economy and politics. The intrinsic nature of the program itself helped me to understand the politics and the history that set the precedent for contemporary issues, but exploring the economy took a bit more work....   [tags: Papers] 1999 words
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The Biblical and Historical Origins of the Problems in the Middle East - The Biblical and Historical Origins of the Problems in the Middle East The present day situation in Israel may be the most difficult political situation in world history. It dates back to thousands of years before Christ, and deals with a large number of issues including political, religious, and cultural issues. In order to understand the current day issues, we must first understand the Biblical and historical issues. In this paper, I will first explore what the later books of the old testament, specifically the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Zechariah, and Malachi, and than talk about the modern day issues....   [tags: Religion Palestine Israel Essays] 1303 words
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What Is Balance - ... In result of stepping down from power Mubarak established himself as a skilled leader for taking the advice of his people and putting the wants of his people before himself in order to do what was best for his country. The possibility of continued protest would have resulted in the devastation of his country. Hitler, the notorious ruler of Nazi Germany, was anything but a gracious man. Hitler cast aside the Jews of Germany to concentration camps where Nazis would burn thousands of Jews in gas chambers and kill thousands of others who were “deemed ‘unworthy of life’ because of mental illness or physical disability” (“Gassing” 1)....   [tags: Political Unrest, Middle East]
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Radical Islam vs. Islam - ... As a religiously tolerant civilization, the Western people seem to have a difficult time comprehending such destruction to fellow human beings in the name of a religious cause. When we examine the more fanatic teachings of Islam, it is easy to read between the lines and realize that the religion of Judaism is not only perceived as standing in the way of the Islamic cause, but it is seen as a dangerous enemy, posing a great threat to the Islamic god, Allah. History is rich with tales of bloodshed within this struggle for power over a land divided between two beliefs....   [tags: Peace in the Middle East]
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The Outbreak of Iran-Iraq - ... 413). To add insult, the attacks on Iraqi citizens on the 4th of September were from hilltops that were meant to be in Iraqi control. The power of Iraq and Iran are represented below (Parasiliti, 2003, p. 158) and are relative to the seven Gulf states which include Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Israel and Jordan. Due to the sharp shifts in the relative power of the two states whose critical points overlapped in 1980, Hussein initiated what he thought was a well thought out strategic capture of Iranian power - the oil rich region of Khuzistan....   [tags: war,middle east, geopolitical]
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Arab - ... Preferences and Patterns It is part of the Arab culture to associate nurturing, acceptance, and trust with the offer of food. It is considered an act of reaching out to offer or share with them tea, coffee, or chocolate. Arabs have specific rules and patterns that accompany each of their meals. A usual daily meal pattern consists of three meals a day. The largest meal is usually consumed around 1400. If a client is a new immigrant to the United States, they may have to be educated on the routines of meals in the hospitals or care settings (Lipson & Dubble, 2007)....   [tags: culture, middle east]
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Benefiting Off Religious Ignorance - “The Jewish people have no claim whatsoever to sovereignty over this holy site, which is under Islamic authority, nor over any other holy site.” -Rabbi Zonenfeld One who believed ignorance is truly bliss must have thought nothing about the future or what may occur due to their ignorance. It is bliss, for a period of time at least, because it is impossible to worry and bring stress to yourself over something you know nothing about. It is not until the truth is revealed, changes are made, and it is too late to change what is done, is ignorance not so bliss after all....   [tags: The Middle East]
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Iraq: One of the Most Highly Influential Areas of the World - Throughout its long and varying history, Iraq has undergone vast changes in all areas and aspects of study. However, despite these changes, Iraq has certainly earned its spot as a region that will forever be regarded as one of the most highly influential areas of the world. Iraq began as a small collection of nomads around 7200 BCE during the late-Neolithic Era. It was not until around 3500 BCE that Iraq, back then called Mesopotamia, formally established itself between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the Fertile Crescent, becoming the first known civilization in the world....   [tags: Middle East ]
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Middle Ages vs. Today - ... The United States is known for its free enterprise with cities like Las Vegas and New York where a man could be poor one minute and be rich the next. It is this that makes our country so wonderful, but why is there such poverty. Can we compare the United States with the free trade era of the middle ages or is it more suiting to compare it to manorial days. Well it is true that almost anyone can own their own business, become a millionaire off an idea or even become president. But are the chances true that you will become any of these things....   [tags: World history, Comparative Essay]
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The History of the Ottoman Empire Osman Ghazi Khan I’s Dream - We human beings need to sleep to let our body to relax and gain back the energy we are spending during daytime. By the same token, sometimes we sleep to get away from reality and fall into a totally different world that we dream of. Dream is a divine gift to all human beings. We dream, there’s no sleeping without a dream, whether it’s a nightmare or a joyful daydream. Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung define dreams as “an interaction between the unconscious and conscious asserting that the unconscious is the dominant force of the dream and it conveys its own mental activity to the perspective faculty.”[ ] Moreover, most of the time our dreams are just reflections of our subconscious, which are inevitably a series of thoughts, images, and sensations occurring in a person’s mind....   [tags: World History ]
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Gertrude Bell: The Watershed of Iraqi Archaeology - ... The former will be addressed directly, and the latter near the end of this paper. Working in the field, Bell published many books and articles as a result of her excavations and studies. Her focus was broad: it included Roman, Byzantine and early Islamic architecture, but what was particularly innovative for her time in regards to her architectural technique was that she combined her knowledge from previous explorations with her archaeological study, travelled alone except with Arab companions, and in quite remote and dangerous areas (Asher-Greve, 2004, p.168)....   [tags: biography, Middle East, wartime, Arab]
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Orientalism - Missing Works Cited Orientalism is a study of language and traditions of the people and their culture in the Middle East. These studies are mostly done by people outside of the culture that is being looked at, and mostly the studies are being performed by white western men. Edward Said believed that there was a problem with the way in which other people were studying and writing about his culture....   [tags: Middle East Studies, Informative, Culture] 2394 words
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Israel Immigration Policy and the Messianic Jews - ... Rabbi Walter Jacob of the Central Conference of American Rabbis, the Reform rabbinic organization, has stated, "For us in the Jewish community, anyone who claims that Jesus is their savior is no longer a Jew and is an apostate. Through that belief she has placed herself outside the Jewish community. Whether she cares to define herself as a Christian or as a 'fulfilled Jew,' 'Messianic Jew,' or any other designation is irrelevant; to us, she is clearly a Christian."8 This conclusion has obstructed countless Messianic Jews from returning to their rightful homeland....   [tags: Democracy, Middle East, Current Events]
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Gothic Architecture During the Middle Ages - Gothic architecture a new style developing from an old style of architecture with similar characteristics and in a way different. Architects wanted to build bigger buildings with stronger walls something that could not be found elsewhere. The old buildings did not have windows they were dark places that in order to get light they needed many candles. Not even the candles could give the right amount of light the buildings needed. The middle ages architects wanted big windows on the buildings and this new style made their wish come true....   [tags: architecture, world history]
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The Wounds Of Peace, by Connie Bruck - The basis of this paper is to review and examine specific principles and theories of cooperation and argument management as reflected by a specific story of the Middle East peace process within the named article. The article is entitled "The Wounds Of Peace," by Connie Bruck. This, of course, is one individual author's perspective, yet, nevertheless, it is the view of this author that much of the content is historically factual and accurate, with a definite sense of individual perspectives as purported by the author....   [tags: Middle East Peace Process]
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Iranian Education - Iranian Education: From Modernization to Traditionalism An education system, because of its purpose as the shaper of the future, is a good indicator of what is going on within a country politically and culturally. The history of the Iranian education system showed change as the ideological values of the country shifted with each new regime change in the mid twentieth century. Iran, as a country, went from a country focused on modernization and secularization under the Reza Shah, to a country focused on traditional Islamic values under the new government established after the Islamic Revolution of 1977-791....   [tags: Iran Middle East]
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The Sculptures of the East and West Pediments of The Temple of Zeus at Olympia - Use of Movement and Characterisation in the Sculptures of the East and West Pediments of The Temple of Zeus at Olympia The architectural sculpture of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia dates from between 465 and 457BC. Putting the temple into historical context, this was a somewhat flourishing time in Greek history, drama, and philosophy. In 490BC, the Athenians won a great victory at Marathon against the Persians, and in 480BC the Persians sacked Athens but were eventually defeated in a naval victory for the Athenians at Salamis....   [tags: Art History] 1746 words
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Early Roman History - Early Roman History As Greece reached the height of its prosperity Rome which lye slightly to the west slowly began its rise as a civilization. The Greeks centered their culture around Art and literature whereas opposed to the Romans who settled their culture upon warfare and leadership. Without planning, would rise very steadily as an empire. Shortly before Christ most of the surrounding cities and nations were at peace under Rome's rule. Early Romans kept no written records. Their history is so mixed up with fables and myths that historians have difficulty distinguishing fact from fiction....   [tags: History] 933 words
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The History of Cantonese and Putonghua - The varieties of Chinese According to Bernard Comrie (1990: 83),’ there are more than 1,000,000,000 people are speakers of some form of Chinese.’ By seeing this figure, Chinese should have appeared long enough for its evolution and let it spread to different areas in which Chinese or its form can become the dominant language. The origin of Chinese is studied through bone and tortoise shell inscription because the earliest records were marked on them in around 1300B.C. (Chou Fa- Kao 1986:1) They are the earliest recorded founded that can be used for analysis, the development of Chinese is also base on these findings....   [tags: Chinese History, Chinese Languages] 2390 words
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The Middle Ages - The Middle Ages - During 400-1200 A.D. Music and Dancing was very popular. - In 453 A.D. Korean musicians and dancers were trained in Mainland East Asia further enriched the sources of music in the courts and temples. - As for 612 A.D. A Korean immigrant from Paekche, named Mimashi, had begun teaching Gigaku (A foreign music and dance) to youths. (William P-Malm Page 285.) - During the period 612-712 A.D. There were records of Ancient Matters. There was a dance called Utagaki, where a group dances and sings performed before sexual intercourse and related to tribal practices elsewhere in East Asia....   [tags: Papers] 646 words
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