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Immanuel Kant's Theory of Judgment - What are, and what are the differences between, judgments of perception and judgments of experience for Kant. Understanding how the mind works has been a major goal throughout philosophy, and an important piece of this deals with how humans come to experience the world. Many philosophers have attempted to investigate this issue, and Hume successfully proposed a framework by which human understanding could be understood. This writing, however, spurred Kant’s philosophical mind, awaking him from his “dogmatic slumber” and leading him to develop his own framework to define thought....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, 2015]
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945 words
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Immanuel Kant’s Non- consequentialist Ethical Theory - 1. Introduction According to Immanuel Kant the driving force behind our actions should be dictated by what is inherently good as sole consideration and not be based upon the effects of what such actions may produce such as the case in the consequentialist theory of cause. In this essay Kant’s ethical non-consequentialist theory will be briefly investigated and a comparison drawn between the two different theories in order to establish merit in employment thereof in practice. 2. Kantian Morality Central to Kant’s morality theory is his claim that: “It is impossible to conceive anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be taken as good without qualification, except a good will...   [tags: Immanuel Kant]
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1365 words
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Immanuel Kant - He was the fourth of nine children of Johann Georg and Anna Regina Kant, German philosopher Immanuel Kant was born in Konigsberg, East Prussia in 1724. Son of a humble saddler, his family belonged to a Protestant religious group of Pietists ,religion was a very improtant part in every aspect of their lives. Even though Kant was critical of formal religion, he still admired the conduct of Pietists. Kant’s went to elementary school at Saint George’s Hospital School and then went to the Collegium Fredericianum, a Pietist school, where he studied from 1732 until 1740....   [tags: Immanuel Kant]
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711 words
(2 pages)
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Kant´s Philosophy of Ethics - In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant proposes his philosophy of ethics. In order to accurately approach this topic and present fluent deduction he begins by defining philosophy into three fields. There is “Physics” of which studies the physical world, there is “Ethics” of which is the study of morality and finally there is logic of which serves to study logical principles. Kant then divides the studying into two parts as well, separating it as either “empirical” (serving to study experiences) or “pure” (serving to study concepts)....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, physics, ethics, logic]
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1827 words
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Compare Mill and Kant’s Ethics - Kant’s Ethics may best apply to modern business. Kant said right action based on a set of moral rules, and the right action is supposed to be the one that conforms with these rules, whereas certain other types of action are morally forbidden. He also suggests that people should be treated "with respect and as ends in their own right, not solely as means to other's ends." On the contrary, Mill’s ethics only concern about the happiness of majority instead of duty itself. Thus, the question how could Kant’s “austere” system do better for business needs than Mill’s flexible business ethics....   [tags: Mill, Kant, ethics, philosophy, ] 878 words
(2.5 pages)
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Organized Being in Kant’s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals - Kant's argument that good will is the supreme purpose of man's existence based on observations of the influence that reason exerts on the will is inconsistent with what may be observed in nature. It presupposes an intentional cosmos wherein an organized being's purpose, and thus its standard of value, can be extracted from an examination of its constitution and faculties. While this presupposition is logically consistent with the rest of Kant's moral theory it does not coincide with what we can actually observe in nature....   [tags: good will, moral theory, Immanuel Kant] 1604 words
(4.6 pages)
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Kant and Deontological Theory - Kant and Deontological Theory Immanuel Kant was a moral philosopher. His theory, better known as deontological theory, holds that intent, reason, rationality, and good will are motivating factors in the ethical decision making process. The purpose of this paper is to describe and explain major elements of his theory, its essential points, how it is used in the decision making process, and how it intersects with the teams values. While Kant’s theory may seem “overly optimistic” (Johnson, 2008) now, it was ruled as acceptable and rational behavior then....   [tags: Philosophy Kant] 1240 words
(3.5 pages)
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19th and 20th Philosophy: The views of Emmanuel Kant - Kant shows in the Critique of Pure reason that there are multiple categories and he uses logic to come to these conclusions. “The same function that gives unity to the different representations in a judgment also gives unity to the mere synthesis of different representations in an intuition, which, expressed generally, is called the pure concept of understanding. The same understanding, therefore, and indeed by means of the very same actions through which it brings the logical form of a judgment into concepts by means of the analytical unity, also brings a transcendental content into its representations by means of the synthetic unity of the manifold in intuition in general, on account of wh...   [tags: emmanuel kant, understanding, logical judgement]
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2332 words
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The Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant - The Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant Criticism is Kant's original achievement; it identifies him as one of the greatest thinkers of mankind and as one of the most influential authors in contemporary philosophy. But it is important to understand what Kant means by'criticism', or 'critique'. In a general sense the term refers to a general cultivation of reason 'by way of the secure path of science' (Bxxx). More particularly, its use is not negative, but positive, a fact that finds expression in the famous expression, 'I have therefore found it necessary to deny knowledge to make room for faith' (Bxxx)....   [tags: Kant Philosophical Essays]
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2523 words
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Kant: Metaphysical Exposition of Space - Kant: Metaphysical Exposition of Space Explain and asses what you think to be the best argument Kant gives as his “Metaphysical Exposition of Space” (B37-40) that space cannot be either and actual entity (Newtonian concept) or any independent relation among real things (Leibnizian concepti be on). In other words, is he successful in arguing that space must be (at least) a form of intuition. Do any of his arguments further show that space must be ONLY a form of intuition and not ALSO something Newtonian or Leibnizian....   [tags: Space Kant Philosophy Essays] 2558 words
(7.3 pages)
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Reasoning According to Kant - Reasoning According to Kant Kant believes that, reason thinks of all cognition as belonging to a unified and organized system. Reason is our faculty of making inferences and of identifying the grounds behind every truth. It allows us to move from the particular and contingent to the global and universal. Each cause, and each cause's cause, and each additional ascending cause must itself have a cause. Reason generates this hierarchy that combines to provide the mind with a conception of a whole system of nature....   [tags: Kant Philosophy Reasoning Essays] 725 words
(2.1 pages)
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Metaphysics as Addressed by Kant and Hume - Metaphysics as Addressed by Kant and Hume In the Prolegomena, Kant states that reading David Hume, "awakened him from his dogmatic slumber." It was Hume's An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding that made Kant aware of issues and prejudices in his life that he had previously been unaware of. This further prompted Kant to respond to Hume with his own analysis on the theory of metaphysics. Kant did not feel that Hume dealt with these matters adequately and resolved to pick up where Hume had left off, specifically addressing the question of whether metaphysics as a science is possible....   [tags: Papers Kant Hume Philosophy Essays] 1383 words
(4 pages)
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Moral Law According To Kant - Moral Law According To Kant      Immanuel Kant was a deontologist from Germany in the eithteenth century. He believed that the only test of whether a decision is right or wrong is whether it could be applied to everyone. Would it be all right for everyone to do what you are doing. If not, your decision is wrong. It would be wrong, for example, to make a promise with the intention of breaking it because if everyone did that, no one would believe anyone's promises. In ethics, Kant tried to show that doing one's duty consisted in following only those principles that one would accept as applying equally to all....   [tags: Morality Ethics Kant Philosophy Essays] 554 words
(1.6 pages)
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Kant's Theory of Deontology and Euthanasia - I am going to apply the theory of Kant’s Deontology to the case regarding assisted suicide for psychological suffering. Based on Kant’s theory, I have found suicide morally unjust. This case is about euthanasia and assisted suicide. On September 28, 1991, Dr. Boudewijn Chabot administered a sufficient amount of sleeping pills and a liquid drug mixture to a patient with the intentions of assisting the patient with death. The patient, Hilly Bosscher, was suffering from depression, and psychological pain....   [tags: Kant Assisted Suicide Mercy Killing] 472 words
(1.3 pages)
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Immanuel Kant's Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals - Immanuel Kant's Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals In his publication, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant supplies his readers with a thesis that claims morality can be derived from the principle of the categorical imperative. The strongest argument to support his thesis is the difference between actions in accordance with duty and actions in accordance from duty. To setup his thesis, Kant first draws a distinction between empirical and “a priori” concepts. Empirical concepts are ideas we reach from our experiences in the world....   [tags: Kant Philosophy Metaphysics Essays] 1572 words
(4.5 pages)
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Kant's Theses: Unknowability and Non-Spatiotemporality - Kant's Theses: Unknowability and Non-Spatiotemporality In the present paper is analyzed the relationship between Kant's theses concerning unknowability and non-spatiotemporality of things in themselves. First of all, it is argued that even by taking for granted that the Unknowability Thesis does not contradict the Non-Spatiotemporality Thesis, because the former can be thought as a consequence of the latter, this is not enough to avoid another problem, namely, that the Non-Spatiotemporality Thesis is not sufficient to abolish the possibility of thinking consistently of space and time as empirical or material....   [tags: Kant Argumentative Argument Papers]
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4430 words
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Immanuel Kant's Theory - Immanuel Kant's Theory Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) discussed many ethical systems and reasoning’s some were based on a belief that the reason is the final authority for morality. In Kant’s eyes, reason is directly correlated with morals and ideals. Actions of any sort, he believed, must be undertaken from a sense of duty dictated by reason, and no action performed for appropriateness or solely in obedience to law or custom can be regarded as moral. A moral act is an act done for the "right" reasons....   [tags: Papers Immanuel Kant Morality] 761 words
(2.2 pages)
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Kant's Humanity Formula - Kant's Humanity Formula      “Few formulas in philosophy have been so widely accepted and variously interpreted as Kant’s injunction to treat humanity as an end in itself”(Hill, 38). Immanuel Kant’s views, as elucidated in his book, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, are based on the belief that “people count” by prohibiting actions which exploit other individuals in order for self-prosperity or altruistic ends. Ethics then, are confirmed by the dignity and worth of the rational agency of each person....   [tags: Kant Philosophy Philosophical Essays] 1637 words
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Kant's Second Analogy - In the Second Analogy, Kant argues that we must presuppose, a priori, that each event is determined to occur by some preceding event in accordance with a causal law. Although there have been numerous interpretations of this argument, we have not been able to show that it is valid. In this paper, I develop my own interpretation of this argument. I borrow an insight offered by Robert Paul Wolff. In Kant's argument, our need to presuppose that the causal determination of each event rests not upon our need to impose a 'necessary' and 'irreversible' temporal order upon representations of the states of an object, as Kant is usually interpreted, but upon our need to generate a comprehensive represe...   [tags: Kant Philosophy Behavior Papers]
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4263 words
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Kant’s Categorical Imperatives - In order to evaluate whether one’s actions are moral, we use many moral dilemmas. One of them is Kant’s categorical imperative. This essay presents Kant’s project of categorical imperative. Then, I will explain that rulers should appeal to Kant’s categorical imperative when making foreign policy decision. In order to support my point of view, I will give importance to the reasons of why rulers appeal to categorical imperative when making foreign policy, so I have two reasons for this. One of them is that states depend on each other in economically and politically....   [tags: Kant's Moral Philosophy] 975 words
(2.8 pages)
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Kant's Moral Principles - Kant's Moral Principles      In the Foundation of the Metaphysics of Morals, the author, Immanuel Kant, tries to form a base by rejecting all ethical theories that are connected to consequences, and then focusing on our ethical motivations and actions. Kant wants to derive good characters out of contingently right actions. He believes that everything is contingent (everything can have good or bad worth, depending on how it is used). So he is trying to find the supreme principal of morality in all his reasoning....   [tags: Kant Immanuel Philosophy Morals Essays] 1156 words
(3.3 pages)
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Immanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant was born, lived and passed away in his home town of Konigsberg. He lived from 1724 to 1804. He studied at the local university and later returned to tutor and lecture students. It wasn’t until he met an English merchant by the name of Joseph Green that Kant learned of David Hume and began to develop his ideas of morals and values. Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (1781) is believed by many to be his greatest work. Kant’s was known mainly, however, for his moral code The Categorical Imperative....   [tags: Immanuel Kant Deontology Ethics] 430 words
(1.2 pages)
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An Interpretation of Kant’s Metaphysical Deduction of the Categories - In what appears to be an important section of the Critique of Pure Reason, when Kant attempts to show the natural connection between the table of judgment and the table of categories, there is a cryptic little paragraph: The same function that gives unity to the different representations in a judgment also gives unity to the mere synthesis of different representations in an intuition, which, expressed generally, is called the pure concept of understanding. The same understanding, therefore, and indeed by means of the very same actions through which it brings the logical form of a judgment into concepts by means of the analytical unity, also brings a transcendental content into its represent...   [tags: Kant Philosophy Philosophical Essays] 2447 words
(7 pages)
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Kant's Categorical Imperative - Kant's Categorical Imperative Deontology is the ethical view that some actions are morally forbidden or permitted regardless of consequences. One of the most influential deontological philosophers in history is Immanuel Kant who developed the idea of the Categorical Imperative. Kant believed that the only thing of intrinsic moral worth is a good will. Kant says in his work Morality and Rationality “The good will is not good because of what it affects or accomplishes or because of it’s adequacy to achieve some proposed end; it is good only because of it’s willing, i.e., it is good of itself”....   [tags: Philosophy Categorical Imperative Kant Essays]
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1532 words
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Hume Vs Kant -      Hume’s ultimate goal in his philosophic endeavors was to undermine abstruse Philosophy. By focusing on the aspect of reason, Hume shows there are limitations to philosophy. Since he did not know the limits, he proposed to use reason to the best of his ability, but when he came to a boundary, that was the limit. He conjectured that we must study reason to find out what is beyond the capability of reason.      Hume began his first examination if the mind by classifying its contents as Perceptions....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Hume Kant Essays] 1749 words
(5 pages)
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Kant’s Formula of the End in Itself - Kant’s Formula of the End in Itself ABSTRACT: Is Kant’s "Formula of the End in Itself" overly demanding. In addressing this question, I sketch a conception of co-obligation, that is, a sort of moral requirement that holds, not of persons distributively, but of persons collectively. I then raise a problem of devolution: How does a co-obligation for all persons devolve upon me. For instance, given that we must maximize happiness, it does not seem to follow that I must always act so as to maximize happiness....   [tags: Ethics Kant Formula End Itself Essays]
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2932 words
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Kant's Moral Constructivism and his Conception of Legislation - Some hold that Kant’s conception of autonomy requires the rejection of moral realism in favor of "moral constructivism." However, commentary on a little noticed passage in the Metaphysics of Morals (with the assistance of Kant’s Lectures and Reflexionen) reveals that the conception of legislation at the core of Kant’s conception of autonomy represents a decidedly anti-constructivist strand in his moral philosophy. I. Summary: the Meaning of "Kant's Moral Constructivism" A. John Rawls In A Theory of Justice, although Rawls's method of generating principles of justice from a choice in the Original Position is described as "constructive", in the sense of "helpful to settle disputes", the idea...   [tags: Philosophy Kant Argumentative Argument Papers]
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4338 words
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Hume vs. Kant - Many different philosophers have their own way of looking at not only the world, but society as a whole. This is clearly seen with the two philosopher’s Kant and Hume. Though totally different styles of philosophizing and looking at an ethical theory, it is not to say that one’s theory is better or more justified than the other. It is perhaps a different point of view or another opinion to take in. We must not directly rule out either Hume or Kant because both of their ethical theories have been approved by numerous philosophers and scholars alike....   [tags: Hume Kant Compare Contrast Philosophy Essays] 1110 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Beautiful in Kant's Third Critique and Aristotle's Poetics - The Beautiful in Kant's Third Critique and Aristotle's Poetics ABSTRACT: I argue that Kant's analysis of the experience of the beautiful in the third Critique entails an implicit or potential experience of the sublime, that is, the sublime as he himself describes it. Finding the sublime in the beautiful is what I call philosophical beauty. I then consider some aspects of Aristotle's analysis of tragedy in the Poetics, specifically his identification of the key elements of tragedy as those involving the experience of fear and pity, which leads to a catharsis of these emotions....   [tags: Kant Third Critique Aristotle Poetics Essays] 3443 words
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An Explication of Kant - The above quote from Kant in his “Critique of Pure Reason” is given by way of an explanation; explaining exactly why it is that previous forms of metaphysics have failed to revolutionize to a natural science to this point. The quote is the very essence of Kant's argument for the Copernican Revolution of Metaphysics. Kant will go on to explain exactly why this form could be a science, but at this line in the work, Kant is still explaining to the reader how it came to past that metaphysics, reason, “has hitherto not been so fortunate as to enter upon the secure path of science, although it is older than all other sciences and would remain even if all the rest were swallowed up in the abyss of...   [tags: philosophy, metaphysics]
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1630 words
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Immanuel Kant's Ethics Of Pure Duty and John Stuart Mill's Utilitarian Ethics Of Justice - Immanuel Kant's The Grounding For The Metaphysics of Morals and John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers who addressed the issues of morality in terms of how moral traditions are formed. Immanuel Kant has presented one viewpoint in "The Grounding For The Metaphysics of Morals" that is founded on his belief that the worth of man is inherent in his ability to reason. John Stuart Mill holds another opinion as presented in the book, "Utilitarianism" that is seemingly in contention with the thoughts of Kant....   [tags: Kant Mill Philosophy Philosophers Essays]
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2744 words
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Kant on Free Will - Do humans truly have free will or are their lives completely predetermined. This question of free will has and will always remain to be a place for argument in philosophy. Many of the great philosophers attempted to answer this question, but none did as well of a job as Immanuel Kant. He lays the basis of his argument in his Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. Kant writes this prolegomena in response to David Hume’s of skepticism, and therefore, Kant is attempting to more firmly ground metaphysics....   [tags: Philosophy, Human Nature]
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1868 words
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Immanuel Kant and The Enlightenment Era - ... Freedom in terms of enlightenment means the ability to publicly use ones reason in all matters. Furthermore, in the text he mentions “Nothing is required for this enlightenment, however, except freedom; and the freedom in question is the least harmful of all, namely, the freedom to use reason publicly in all matters”(Kant, 2). What Kant tries to explain in this writing is that people need to exercise their reason in public stages/arena’s such as public debating without the “guardians” interference....   [tags: freedom, reason, philosophy] 1069 words
(3.1 pages)
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The Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant - In Immanuel Kant’s Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, he discusses his fundamental principle of morality. This is also known as his “categorical imperative”. His principle of morality basically states that all actions are moral and “good” if they are performed as a duty. Such an idea is exemplified when he says, “I should never act except in such a way that I can also will that my maxim should become a universal law” (Kant 14). Kant also seeks to apply his principal to suicide, as well has helping others in distress....   [tags: philosophy, categorical imperative] 674 words
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Immanuel Kant and Moral Law - ... Kant considers any being that has the capacity for reason to be a rational being such as angels, God, and even aliens (Kant, Groundwork, 390). Kant states that the moral law is considered a categorical imperative. An imperative is a rule of action expressed by an “ought,” (Kant, Groundwork, 412). In other words, an imperative tells you to do what you consider to be the morally right action. A categorical imperative is more specific and tells you to do something simply because the action itself is good and no other reason is needed (Kant, Groundwork, 414)....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 1004 words
(2.9 pages)
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What is Enlightenment? by Immanuel Kant - ... This is what he called tutelage (Kant, 1). According to Kant tutelage is man's lack of ability to make use of his or her understanding without direction from another person. He understands that most people are very content of following the guideline set by people such as the Church or the Royals in that are in charge. They are so content with this that does want to throw off their naiveté due to the lack of wanting to be independent. This is why he thinks it hard for individuals to accomplish enlightenment (Kant, 1-3)....   [tags: article, philosphical analysis]
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The Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant - ... Categorical imperatives, however, are ends in of itself. He says that actions are only good if they are carried out "just because," which would be a categorical imperative. However, he argues that actions are usually not assumed for the sake of duty alone but because of some self-interest, which forces them to act out that action where they wouldn't have otherwise. This is evident when Kant states that "in fact, there is absolutely no possibility by means of experience to make out with complete certainty a single case in which the maxim of an action that may in other respects conform with duty has rested solely on moral grounds" (Kant, 19)....   [tags: philosophy, actions, moral values]
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What is Enlightenment? Emmanuel Kant - In his essay writing “What is Enlightenment?” Immanuel Kant defines enlightenment as “man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity” (Kant, 1). In order for us to completely understand this definition, we must first understand what Kant meant by “Immaturity”. In the writing Kant defines immaturity as “the inability to use one’s understanding without the guidance from another”(Kant, 1). Furthermore, Kant believes that this immaturity is self-imposed, and that it is the individual’s fault for lacking the courage and resolve to think for themselves, but instead pay others to think and understand for them....   [tags: freedom, reason, philosophy]
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analysis of Kant's Categorical Imperative - Analysis of Kant’s Categorical Imperative in Metaphysics Grounding for the metaphysics of morals is a foundation of Kant’s philosophy, in this book, Kant wants to build up a moral kingdom of metaphysical. At first, Kant extracted categorical imperative from the concepts of goodness, will and obligation and enacted some rational principles, then, he plans to map out moral metaphysic through categorical imperative. However, he failed to do so owing to that his theory is founded on purely idealism....   [tags: Philosophy] 2164 words
(6.2 pages)
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Immanuel Kant and the Moral Law - Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher from the 18th century, widely known for his various achievements and works such as Critique of Pure Reason and Foundations of Metaphysics of Morals. Kant developed a theory of ethics that depends on reason rather than emotion called The Moral Law. Kant was not anti-religious but he wanted an ethical system that was not obscured by religion, emotion or personal interpretation. According to Kant, morality is a function of reason, based on our consciousness of necessary and universal laws....   [tags: law, duty, theory of ethics] 774 words
(2.2 pages)
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Morality via Kant and Hegel - 1. Introduction Human beings have moral inclinations that affect our actions. Few would deny as a fact of human life a perpe-tual strive to do right and good concordant with one’s particular moral beliefs (while concomitantly judging others by them). For most, this strive is accompanied by a questioning of the very nature of the moral: Is there an impartial criterion that enables us to know objectively what one ought to do, or do our moral intuitions rest solely on subjective, arbitrary grounds....   [tags: Philosophy] 1718 words
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Emmanuel Kant and Moral Theory - ... Kant identifies this condition as "the good will", or the ability of individuals to choose their actions and why, and argues that people with a good will do what is right. The concept of "right" here is not consequential but is instead based on a moral obligation derived inexcludibly from moral values inherent to all rational beings. It measures moral worth by one's commitment to the obligations of their moral duty, not by the result of their actions, and therefore establishes a non-causal relationship between intent, action, and consequence is derived from an ideal, absolute concept of moral law....   [tags: phylosophical anaysis] 1575 words
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Kant and Crash: An Ethics Analysis - Many great philosophers have attempted to tackle the issue of ethics and, consequently, have come up with various ethical theories in order to define ethical and moral situations. In this paper, I will be summarizing a scene from the 2004, Academy Award winning film, Crash, and further analyzing it in terms of the ethical theories of Immanuel Kant. In terms of this scene, I will be arguing that Kant’s ethical theory provides a satisfactory analysis of its ethicality. One of the most memorable and dramatic scenes of the film, Crash, occurs when Ryan, a personally racist police officer, happens upon an car accident in which a woman is trapped in her overturned vehicle....   [tags: film analysis, ethical theories]
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1130 words
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Immanuel Kant and The Hypothetical Imperatives - Immanuel Kant an influential philosopher of deontological, or duty based, ethics. Kant believed actions are given moral worth, not by the outcome, but by the motive behind it, and the only way to act morally is one that comes about based on universal laws. There is a class of imperatives that we must do, despite the outcome. Kant called these "categorical imperatives," we can call these moral actions. We do them because we feel obligated, they are our duty, and we do so whether we like the outcome, or not....   [tags: personal experience, volunteering] 1148 words
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Autonomous Thinking and Immanuel Kant - ... Kant believed that each individual is rational and capable of making free choices; thereby relies on autonomous thinking (Wikipedia, 2009.) Kant understood that autonomous thinking in and of itself is flawed. To address these flaws, he created the three maxims known as categorical imperatives. These imperatives state: maxims should be chosen with regard to the universal laws of nature (perfect and imperfect duty), do not use humanity of ourselves or others as a means to an end, and one should "act that we may think of ourselves as a member in the universal realm of ends (Wikipedia, 2009.") The first maxim states that we should choose our 'codes of conduct' only if they serve perfect /...   [tags: philosophy, ethical thinker] 694 words
(2 pages)
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Kant - In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant undermines many of our moral certainties. Our Western philosophical tradition teaches that choosing the right path to virtue is in ones own hands. Aristotle’s understanding of virtue comes from our moral bearings, which are taken from exemplars of virtue. Kant’s idea of morality is sought from a single individual. Only few people are universally accepted as this ideal conception of morality, such figures like Gandhi or Jesus. Kant believes that we cannot derive this idea of morality simply from examples of those around us but we can only decide morality from a specific principle....   [tags: Psychology, Human Reasoning] 1967 words
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Mills and Kant Moral Philosophy - Another motive for action is when something is done in accordance to duty, and actually wants to do it – this is also called immediate inclination. An example of this principle would be a man who is happily married. However, at the office, there is an attractive new intern that constantly hits on him. He does find the intern to be physically attractive but does not actually desire to be with her. He reflects that he could indeed have an affair with this intern if he wanted to but he wont in a million years because he is extremely happy with his wife....   [tags: marriage, happiness, philosophy] 549 words
(1.6 pages)
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Kant and Mills on Morality - Dorothea thought Casaubon was an intelligent and she thoughts that she could learn many things from him. Thus, she decides to marry him. However, this marriage left her with a sense of futility. Casaubon is proven to be petty and selfish. He has an authoritative manner that at times is almost arrogant. Also, he treats Dorothea in an authoritarian way. He is restrictive and discouraged Dorothea. She controls her feelings during her marriage life. It is a far from happy marriage. In chapter 48, Casaubon’s health has deteriorated....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 678 words
(1.9 pages)
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Kant’s Antidote to Idealism - Immanuel Kant’s doctrine of transcendental idealism contends that all we can know about external things lies in their appearances as they are presented to us and affect our sensibility. Initially, this may seem to be the same principle found in traditional idealism. However, unlike traditional idealists, Kant does not deny the existence of the external things. He believes that these objects are indeed real. However, we cannot know anything about their existence independent of us, how they may truly be in themselves; we can only know about their appearances, which are represented in us (Kant 40)....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1207 words
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Kant, and Causal Laws Analysis - In the Second Analogy, Kant also explains what makes it possible to infer the objective succession from the subjective succession. He argues that objective succession must stand under a causal rule. The subjective order of perceptions is always successive, but we cannot immediately infer objective succession from the subjective succession. To make this inference possible the object's states must be subject to a rule that determines them as successive. Kant mentions this requirement in the following paragraph....   [tags: casual rules, second analogy, prolegomena]
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1517 words
(4.3 pages)
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What is Enlightenment? by Emmanuel Kant - “Everything changed, and will go on changing. But will the changes of the past and those that are to come be useful to humanity. Will they give man one day more peace, more happiness, or more pleasure. Will his condition be better, or will it be simply one of constant change?” (526) This quote by Abbé Gaillaume Thomas Francois Raynal, from the Philosophical and Political History of European Settlements and Trade in the Two Indies, eloquently exemplifies the rational of the 18th Century philosophes....   [tags: to dare, to know, social contratct, rousseau]
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942 words
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Mill and Kant: Utilitarian Morality - ... He agrees that the majority of humanities actions involve self in the performance of duty. He believed that as autonomous and rational beings we have the capacity to rise above inclination. He further states that when moral value is being considered, it is not as important what is seen, the act itself, but, what is taking place inside the individual. 3. In his discussion of the second formulation of the categorical imperative (Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or the person of another, always as an end in itself, and never merely as a means) Kant draws a distinction between perfect and imperfect duties....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 1069 words
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The Philosohpy of Immanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant is referred to as the “father” of deontological ethics, which is also colloquially referred to as Kantianism, which provides a sophisticated explication of deontology. His philosophy embodies capitulating to one’s maxim, which he beliefs that to be good, however, only if one’s motives are unconditional and irrespective to external reason. The maxim is referred to as the individual’s intrinsic duty or obligation to one’s self or to others, which if applicable to everyone than it is congenial to the universal law....   [tags: father of deontological ethics] 1178 words
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Philosophy: Kant´s Free Will - Do humans truly have free will or are their lives completely predetermined. This question of free will has and will always remain to be a place for argument in philosophy. Many of the great philosophers attempted to answer this question, but none did as well of a job as Immanuel Kant. He lays the basis of his argument in his Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. Kant writes this prolegomena in response to David Hume’s of skepticism, and therefore, Kant is attempting to more firmly ground metaphysics....   [tags: freedom, antithesis, argument] 1223 words
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Kant on Moral Duty - ... He goes on to specify the conditions that could justify a lie. For example, a situation in which, “ he finds himself in a difficulty from which he can escape in no other way.” (Kant 432) All in all, if you cannot consistently apply the maxim to society, then it is considered to be unsound. The next imperative discusses the ideology that “an action from duty does not have its moral worth in the purpose which is to be attained by it, but in the maxim according to which is has been formed.” (Kant, pg.430) This means that moral value cannot be determined by the purpose of the action or the effects the actions have as ends....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 1056 words
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Kant and Gay Marriage - Background All decisions we make are guided by an influenced belief or a maxim. A maxim is an individual rule that we use in our negotiations to steer our conduct. Maxims contain our principles and intentions; they point toward our general character. A solid and well intentioned maxim is universalizable. The precise significance of universalizability is contentious, but the most widespread interpretation is that the categorical imperative asks whether the maxim of your action could become one that everyone could act upon in similar circumstances....   [tags: Homosexuality ]
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Kant's Views on Morality - Morality has been a subject of many philosophical discussions that has prompted varied responses from different philosophers. One of the most famous approaches to morality is that of Immanuel Kant in his writing Groundwork of Metaphysics of Morals. Kant in this work argues that the reason for doing a particular action or the drive to do good things is a fundamental basis of defining moral quality in a person. To him, an action could be considered morally right only if the motivation behind doing that action was out of ‘goodwill’....   [tags: phylosophy analysis]
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Kant, Second Analogy,and Causation - ... Now connection is not the work of mere sense and intuition, but is here rather the prod­uct of a synthetic faculty of the imagination, which determines inner sense with regard to temporal relations. This, however, can combine the two states in question in two different ways, so that either one or the other precedes in time; for time cannot be perceived in itself, nor can what precedes and what follows in objects be as it were empirically determined in relation to it. I am therefore only conscious that my imagination places one state before and the other after, not that the one state precedes the other in the object; or, in other words, through the mere perception the objective rel...   [tags: critique of pure reason, philosophy] 949 words
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When Tolstoy Meets Kant - ... The thinking of Ivan Ilyich is polluted by a series of commissions and omissions. To begin with the former, Ivan does not value people for their own sake. Rather, he treats them as a means to serve a particular end. Even though he treats people with respect, the respect exhibited is grounded in social expectations. Ivan lacks a sense of empathy. His actions are driven by social standards. For example, Ivan is not in love with his wife. Rather, he marries her because that is what society expects of him (BDII11)....   [tags: moral philosophy]
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578 words
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Immanual Kant's Moral Philosophy - The philosopher Immanuel Kant in “Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals” in his chapter I, brings to us a magnificent explanation about moral philosophy where analyze and critics the conduct, acts of the human beings. Kant states, “Nothing can possibly be convinced in the world, or even out it, which can be called good, without qualification, except a good will”. I agree with this affirmation because everything we do must be doing it by good will. If we do this we reach happiness according with the author in his words, “Thus a good will appears to constitute the indispensable condition even of being worthy of happiness”....   [tags: duty, honest, ethics]
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Moral Ethics: Emmanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant believes that we act wrongly when we treat people merely as a means and not as an end in itself. According to Kant, “every rational being exists as an end in itself, not merely as a means to be used by this or that will at its discretion.” Every person is a rational being who can make his/her own choices. This makes everyone intrinsically valuable because everyone has his/her own free will. As a result, people should not be used merely as tools so that others can achieve their own objectives....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 972 words
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Kant's and Aristotle's Ethics - To be good is good but it has to be done for the right reason. Aristotle and Kant are two famous philosophers who have different ethical theories. The theory’s of virtue and duties rest not only on laws and obligations but from what comes from the inside. Morality comes from inner strength, character and how we live our life to the best end. Aristole 384-322 b.c.e. Aristotle conceptualized the branches of philosophy and contributed to the theories in logic, metaphysics, ethics and political philosophy (book 237)....   [tags: Philosophy, Philosophers]
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Revolution: Locke vs Kant - Who gives the best account of revolution, Locke or Kant. The writings of Locke on the subject of revolution in his second treatise of government were one of the founding and seminal texts on the “right” of a populace to resist the power of the state if a government was to overstep its defined power and become an unjust tyranny. Kant, however, took what could be labelled a surprising view for a republican and made the denial of the logical and legal coherence of this “right”, as well as the potential harm caused by the rejection of what Kant saw as an individual's moral duty in maintaining the rule of law by the preservation of a government....   [tags: Philosophy] 2600 words
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Political Philosophy: Kant's Hypothesis - Kant's hypothesis could be ordered as a deonotological on the grounds that "movements are not surveyed to be ethically allowable on the premise of outcomes they handle, yet rather on the manifestation of the operator's will in acting," (Schweickart, 35) consequently his activities are focused around obligation and not noteworthy. Kantianism is focused around three standards: proverbs, willing, and the unmitigated basic. Kant states that a saying is a "general guideline or standard which will clarify what an individual takes himself to be doing and the circumstances in which he takes himself to be doing it" (Schweickart, 42)....   [tags: utilitarianism, kantianism]
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Philosophy of Immanuel Kant - There are different views about how we gain knowledge of the world, through our senses or through our minds, and although many say that it is one or the other I believe that although we gain some knowledge through sense data not all of our ideas come from these impressions. There are those who stand on the side of empiricism, like David Hume, and those who stand on the side of rationalism, like René Descartes; then there are also those who believe that one can have a foot on both sides, like Immanuel Kant....   [tags: rationalism, empiricism]
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1411 words
(4 pages)
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Business Ethics and Kant - ... Ethical Issues and Morality The major ethical question that the Adelphia Communications case raises is: by lying and stealing, did the Rigas family act in a morally despicable way that caused public distrust or were their actions morally acceptable in order to prevent negative consequences for their investors. We will begin by examining the first act committed: lying. Some may argue that John Rigas was attempting to protect his investors by increasing present capital and future profits by lying about the financial health of his company....   [tags: Adelphia scandal]
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1469 words
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Kant as a Philosopher - Kant as a Philosopher How does one label Kant as a philosopher. Is he a rationalist or an empiricist. Kant makes a distinction between appearances and things in themselves. He also says that things in themselves exist, and that we have no knowledge of things in themselves. This could be labeled "CLOSE TO NONSENSE", but we know Kant better than that. No matter how many laps on the track of metaphysics Kant takes us through, he is still widely held as one of the greatest modern philosophers of our time....   [tags: Papers] 1257 words
(3.6 pages)
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Immanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was one of the most influential philosophers in the history of Western philosophy. He was a professor of philosophy at Konigsberg, in Prussia, researching, lecturing and writing on philosophy during and at the end of the 18th Century Enlightenment. His contributions to metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and aesthetics have had a profound impact on almost every philosophical movement that followed him. This essay will attempt to explain what Kant means by Maxim and Universal Law, and whether his argument is affordable in the 21st century....   [tags: Philosopher, Maxim, Universal Law] 898 words
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Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals by Emmanuel Kant - ... In attempting to develop an a priori concept of morality based on reason, as opposed to empirical observations, Kant comes to the conclusion that “a free will and a will under moral laws are one and the same” (Kant 114). This statement ties together Kant’s aim in the Groundwork, in that the supreme principle of morality is developed through the notion of freedom, as it, then, provides a basis for morality. Kant arrives at the conclusion that “a free will and a will under moral laws are one and the same” (Kant 114) through exploring the concepts of “a free will” and “a will under moral law”....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 581 words
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Philosophy: Emmanuel Kant - ... The Good is that which is universal"( In a nutshell). Kant also believed that "it's our duty to align our intentions with the good as identified by the application of the Categorical Imperative" ( Immanuel Kant). Kant also stated, that " to do the right thing because it's the right thing" ( Immanuel Kant) isn't particularly inadequate, but brings us to another question from the man himself, " if it's not the right thing because of the consequences, then what makes it right. ( Immanuel Kant)....   [tags: deontological ethics, capital punishment] 945 words
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Kant's Perspective on Crime, Punishment, and Justice - Punishment is the suffering, pain, or loss that serves at retribution. Others also say it is “the authoritative imposition of something unpleasant on a person in response to a behavior deemed to be wrong by an individual or group” (Hugo & McAnany, 2010). Some question when and why we should punish. Though easy to state, this question is difficult to answer and has lead to a variety of models of punishment. In Kant’s article Metaphysics of Morals, he discusses the importance of punishment and its correspondence to crime, the right to punish, and when to grant clemency....   [tags: Psychology ] 1829 words
(5.2 pages)
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Kant on the Locus of the Moral Worth and Utility - ... For that reason one, is required to act on the maxim. Goodwill should be treated as a universal law and every individual has to act on it. Conferring to Kant’s adage, actions that always emerge from the act of goodwill are always a responsibility that anyone is required to accomplish. Anything done to achieve the positive benefit has got no any moral value in it. Denis in his article Kant and Hume on Morality argues that Kant’s emphasis on the need for grounding morality in specific order principles....   [tags: philosophical analysis]
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The Impracticality of Kant's Discussion of Will: Consequences of Actions - In this paper, I will argue that Kant’s discussion of the will is not always practical because it is the consequences that actually matter, especially in certain situations. The main reason in support of this claim is that everyone is eventually caught in a situation where they have to choose between the lesser of two evils, which means that people should carefully think about all possible outcomes before making decisions. I. Kant and the Categorical Imperative: It is generally understood that society would tear itself apart if people suddenly stopped following a few fundamental laws; such as, arson, theft, and murder....   [tags: Categorical Imperative, Analytical Evaluation]
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2091 words
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Immanuel Kant Beliefs - ... Simply put, emotions have no moral worth. Therefore, a person cannot act based on emotion because their duty would lack reason. Care ethics, however, follows the sentiment that morality is rooted in feeling. Noddings states that morality is an active virtue that requires two feelings of care. Morality requires both natural caring, i.e., the innate desire to care (I want to), and ethical caring, i.e. caring rooted in obligation (I must). Contrary to deontology, the rightness or wrongness of an action is based on our response to these feelings of care....   [tags: moral actions, philosophy, deontology] 786 words
(2.2 pages)
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How to get to Heaven according to Kant - When man dies where does he go. This is a question humanity has been pondering over since the beginning of time. Deep within humanity’s being mankind as the ability of reason. Reason explains that this world is not the end of everything. Man cannot fathom the concept of ceasing to exist. Therefore over the years countless people have come up with ideas to life after death. Christianity calls it salvation. Buddhism calls it enlightenment. But no matter what the name is, it all deals with what follows death....   [tags: Religion] 1552 words
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Kant: Moral Theories - Kant's moral theory According to Timmons, the field of philosophy is not complete without the mention of Kant whose contributions were major (205). This, he adds, was influenced by his originality, subtle approach and the difficulty of his works. Timmons cites that moral requirements are a requirement of reason, which is the ideology of Kant’s Moral theory; hence, immoral act is an act against reason. Consequently, speaking on the terminologies of Kant we visualize moral requirements as Categorical Imperatives (CI) grounded on reason and can, therefore, get derived from a supreme moral principle....   [tags: philosophy, happiness, wellfare]
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Philosophy: Immanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant, like his predecessors John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, believed morality was based on standards of rationality. His influential work, The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, argues for the existence of a “foundational principle of a metaphysics of morals”. 1 Such a principle, he asserts, must account for three propositions of morality: only actions done from duty have genuine moral worth, moral value arises from the maxim its action involves, not from the purpose that is to be achieved through it, and that a duty is an obligation to act in a specific manner out of respect for the law.2 Kant names this foundational principle the categorical imperative....   [tags: Morality, Categorical Imperative]
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1083 words
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Kant and Causal Law in Pure Reason - Kant, and Causal Law Introduction In the critique of pure reason, Kant states, “All alternations occur in accordance with the law of the connection of cause and effect.”1 This statement is interpreted in two different ways: weak readings and strong readings. Weaker readings basically suggest that Kant's statement only refers to “All events have a cause”; however, the strong readings suggest that “the Second Analogy is committed not just to causes, but to causal laws as well.”2 To understand the difference between the readings, it is helpful to notice Kant's distinction between empirical laws of nature and universal transcendental principles....   [tags: Philosophy, Hume]
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1668 words
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Euthanasia and Ethics: Kant and Stewart Mill - The issue of euthanasia is one surrounded by much controversy. Here we will look at the moral system of Immanuel Kant and John Stewart Mill, the argument for euthanasia, and how each philosopher would respond to that argument. Immanuel Kant and John Stewart Mill have different ethical views therefore they view the issue of Euthanasia differently. Immanuel Kant holds a deontological, or duty based, ethical view. This means that for something to have moral value it must be done from duty. The basis of this view is the categorical imperative, which Kant explains is to, “Act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law” (412)....   [tags: moral standpoints]
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Questions and Answers on Kant's Philosophical Reasoning - ... Having said this, the second proposition is easier to address. It states that an action must not be done for sake or something or depend on an outcome. This means that an action from duty must be done unconditionally and without regard to consequences, or ends. It is good not because of its consequences, but because it is good in the conception of it. The goodness is in the principal behind an action and not in the consequences of that action. Regardless of the outcome of the action, it is always good in itself....   [tags: good, nonconsequentialist, categorical imperative] 1102 words
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