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Your search returned over 400 essays for "Immanuel Kant"
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Immanuel Kant's Theory of Judgment - What are, and what are the differences between, judgments of perception and judgments of experience for Kant. Understanding how the mind works has been a major goal throughout philosophy, and an important piece of this deals with how humans come to experience the world. Many philosophers have attempted to investigate this issue, and Hume successfully proposed a framework by which human understanding could be understood. This writing, however, spurred Kant’s philosophical mind, awaking him from his “dogmatic slumber” and leading him to develop his own framework to define thought....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, 2015]
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945 words
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Immanuel Kant’s Non- consequentialist Ethical Theory - 1. Introduction According to Immanuel Kant the driving force behind our actions should be dictated by what is inherently good as sole consideration and not be based upon the effects of what such actions may produce such as the case in the consequentialist theory of cause. In this essay Kant’s ethical non-consequentialist theory will be briefly investigated and a comparison drawn between the two different theories in order to establish merit in employment thereof in practice. 2. Kantian Morality Central to Kant’s morality theory is his claim that: “It is impossible to conceive anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be taken as good without qualification, except a good will...   [tags: Immanuel Kant]
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1365 words
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Immanuel Kant - He was the fourth of nine children of Johann Georg and Anna Regina Kant, German philosopher Immanuel Kant was born in Konigsberg, East Prussia in 1724. Son of a humble saddler, his family belonged to a Protestant religious group of Pietists ,religion was a very improtant part in every aspect of their lives. Even though Kant was critical of formal religion, he still admired the conduct of Pietists. Kant’s went to elementary school at Saint George’s Hospital School and then went to the Collegium Fredericianum, a Pietist school, where he studied from 1732 until 1740....   [tags: Immanuel Kant]
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711 words
(2 pages)
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Immanuel Kant's Theory - Immanuel Kant's Theory Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) discussed many ethical systems and reasoning’s some were based on a belief that the reason is the final authority for morality. In Kant’s eyes, reason is directly correlated with morals and ideals. Actions of any sort, he believed, must be undertaken from a sense of duty dictated by reason, and no action performed for appropriateness or solely in obedience to law or custom can be regarded as moral. A moral act is an act done for the "right" reasons....   [tags: Papers Immanuel Kant Morality] 761 words
(2.2 pages)
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Immanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant was born, lived and passed away in his home town of Konigsberg. He lived from 1724 to 1804. He studied at the local university and later returned to tutor and lecture students. It wasn’t until he met an English merchant by the name of Joseph Green that Kant learned of David Hume and began to develop his ideas of morals and values. Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (1781) is believed by many to be his greatest work. Kant’s was known mainly, however, for his moral code The Categorical Imperative....   [tags: Immanuel Kant Deontology Ethics] 430 words
(1.2 pages)
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The Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant - In Immanuel Kant’s Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, he discusses his fundamental principle of morality. This is also known as his “categorical imperative”. His principle of morality basically states that all actions are moral and “good” if they are performed as a duty. Such an idea is exemplified when he says, “I should never act except in such a way that I can also will that my maxim should become a universal law” (Kant 14). Kant also seeks to apply his principal to suicide, as well has helping others in distress....   [tags: philosophy, categorical imperative] 674 words
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The Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant - ... Categorical imperatives, however, are ends in of itself. He says that actions are only good if they are carried out "just because," which would be a categorical imperative. However, he argues that actions are usually not assumed for the sake of duty alone but because of some self-interest, which forces them to act out that action where they wouldn't have otherwise. This is evident when Kant states that "in fact, there is absolutely no possibility by means of experience to make out with complete certainty a single case in which the maxim of an action that may in other respects conform with duty has rested solely on moral grounds" (Kant, 19)....   [tags: philosophy, actions, moral values]
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1151 words
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Immanuel Kant and The Hypothetical Imperatives - Immanuel Kant an influential philosopher of deontological, or duty based, ethics. Kant believed actions are given moral worth, not by the outcome, but by the motive behind it, and the only way to act morally is one that comes about based on universal laws. There is a class of imperatives that we must do, despite the outcome. Kant called these "categorical imperatives," we can call these moral actions. We do them because we feel obligated, they are our duty, and we do so whether we like the outcome, or not....   [tags: personal experience, volunteering] 1148 words
(3.3 pages)
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What is Enlightenment? by Immanuel Kant - ... This is what he called tutelage (Kant, 1). According to Kant tutelage is man's lack of ability to make use of his or her understanding without direction from another person. He understands that most people are very content of following the guideline set by people such as the Church or the Royals in that are in charge. They are so content with this that does want to throw off their naiveté due to the lack of wanting to be independent. This is why he thinks it hard for individuals to accomplish enlightenment (Kant, 1-3)....   [tags: article, philosphical analysis]
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615 words
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Immanuel Kant and The Enlightenment Era - ... Freedom in terms of enlightenment means the ability to publicly use ones reason in all matters. Furthermore, in the text he mentions “Nothing is required for this enlightenment, however, except freedom; and the freedom in question is the least harmful of all, namely, the freedom to use reason publicly in all matters”(Kant, 2). What Kant tries to explain in this writing is that people need to exercise their reason in public stages/arena’s such as public debating without the “guardians” interference....   [tags: freedom, reason, philosophy] 1069 words
(3.1 pages)
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Immanuel Kant and the Moral Law - Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher from the 18th century, widely known for his various achievements and works such as Critique of Pure Reason and Foundations of Metaphysics of Morals. Kant developed a theory of ethics that depends on reason rather than emotion called The Moral Law. Kant was not anti-religious but he wanted an ethical system that was not obscured by religion, emotion or personal interpretation. According to Kant, morality is a function of reason, based on our consciousness of necessary and universal laws....   [tags: law, duty, theory of ethics] 774 words
(2.2 pages)
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The Philosohpy of Immanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant is referred to as the “father” of deontological ethics, which is also colloquially referred to as Kantianism, which provides a sophisticated explication of deontology. His philosophy embodies capitulating to one’s maxim, which he beliefs that to be good, however, only if one’s motives are unconditional and irrespective to external reason. The maxim is referred to as the individual’s intrinsic duty or obligation to one’s self or to others, which if applicable to everyone than it is congenial to the universal law....   [tags: father of deontological ethics] 1178 words
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Autonomous Thinking and Immanuel Kant - ... Kant believed that each individual is rational and capable of making free choices; thereby relies on autonomous thinking (Wikipedia, 2009.) Kant understood that autonomous thinking in and of itself is flawed. To address these flaws, he created the three maxims known as categorical imperatives. These imperatives state: maxims should be chosen with regard to the universal laws of nature (perfect and imperfect duty), do not use humanity of ourselves or others as a means to an end, and one should "act that we may think of ourselves as a member in the universal realm of ends (Wikipedia, 2009.") The first maxim states that we should choose our 'codes of conduct' only if they serve perfect /...   [tags: philosophy, ethical thinker] 694 words
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Philosophy of Immanuel Kant - There are different views about how we gain knowledge of the world, through our senses or through our minds, and although many say that it is one or the other I believe that although we gain some knowledge through sense data not all of our ideas come from these impressions. There are those who stand on the side of empiricism, like David Hume, and those who stand on the side of rationalism, like René Descartes; then there are also those who believe that one can have a foot on both sides, like Immanuel Kant....   [tags: rationalism, empiricism]
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1411 words
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The Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant - The Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant Criticism is Kant's original achievement; it identifies him as one of the greatest thinkers of mankind and as one of the most influential authors in contemporary philosophy. But it is important to understand what Kant means by'criticism', or 'critique'. In a general sense the term refers to a general cultivation of reason 'by way of the secure path of science' (Bxxx). More particularly, its use is not negative, but positive, a fact that finds expression in the famous expression, 'I have therefore found it necessary to deny knowledge to make room for faith' (Bxxx)....   [tags: Kant Philosophical Essays]
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2523 words
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Immanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was one of the most influential philosophers in the history of Western philosophy. He was a professor of philosophy at Konigsberg, in Prussia, researching, lecturing and writing on philosophy during and at the end of the 18th Century Enlightenment. His contributions to metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and aesthetics have had a profound impact on almost every philosophical movement that followed him. This essay will attempt to explain what Kant means by Maxim and Universal Law, and whether his argument is affordable in the 21st century....   [tags: Philosopher, Maxim, Universal Law] 898 words
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Philosophy: Immanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant, like his predecessors John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, believed morality was based on standards of rationality. His influential work, The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, argues for the existence of a “foundational principle of a metaphysics of morals”. 1 Such a principle, he asserts, must account for three propositions of morality: only actions done from duty have genuine moral worth, moral value arises from the maxim its action involves, not from the purpose that is to be achieved through it, and that a duty is an obligation to act in a specific manner out of respect for the law.2 Kant names this foundational principle the categorical imperative....   [tags: Morality, Categorical Imperative]
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1083 words
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Immanuel Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals - ... Most ordinary people are apt to making decisions based on hypothetical imperatives, which are the common ‘if’ clauses: “if I will this end, I ought to do such and such.” A categorical imperative, on the contrary, is an objective formulae, which does not have a condition attached to it. It is also referred to as “apodeictic,” meaning that it is condition-less and absolute. Only a rational agent can justify a categorical imperative because the grounds for it cannot be demonstrated by subjective principles....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 966 words
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Senses to Understanding to Reason by Immanuel Kant - As Immanuel Kant once said, “all our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to the understanding, and ends with reason.” Our senses are an indispensible part of ones life. Our senses allows us receive information from our environment in order to learn, appreciate and understand our surroundings. Sense perception is defined as “any of the faculties of sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch by which the body perceives an external stimulus” (theoryofknowledge.net). It is interlaced with all areas of knowledge....   [tags: emotions, knowledge, perceptions] 586 words
(1.7 pages)
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Immanuel Kant's Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals - Immanuel Kant's Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals In his publication, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant supplies his readers with a thesis that claims morality can be derived from the principle of the categorical imperative. The strongest argument to support his thesis is the difference between actions in accordance with duty and actions in accordance from duty. To setup his thesis, Kant first draws a distinction between empirical and “a priori” concepts. Empirical concepts are ideas we reach from our experiences in the world....   [tags: Kant Philosophy Metaphysics Essays] 1572 words
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Immanuel Kant and Moral Law - ... Kant considers any being that has the capacity for reason to be a rational being such as angels, God, and even aliens (Kant, Groundwork, 390). Kant states that the moral law is considered a categorical imperative. An imperative is a rule of action expressed by an “ought,” (Kant, Groundwork, 412). In other words, an imperative tells you to do what you consider to be the morally right action. A categorical imperative is more specific and tells you to do something simply because the action itself is good and no other reason is needed (Kant, Groundwork, 414)....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 1004 words
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Kant´s Philosophy of Ethics - In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant proposes his philosophy of ethics. In order to accurately approach this topic and present fluent deduction he begins by defining philosophy into three fields. There is “Physics” of which studies the physical world, there is “Ethics” of which is the study of morality and finally there is logic of which serves to study logical principles. Kant then divides the studying into two parts as well, separating it as either “empirical” (serving to study experiences) or “pure” (serving to study concepts)....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, physics, ethics, logic]
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1827 words
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Immanuel Kant: A Philosopher Who Influenced Society - One of the philosophers that impact society is Immanuel Kant; he was a philosopher in the 18th century. Immanuel Kant was born in April 22, 1724 in Kingdom of Prussia, German and died on February 12, 1804 at age 79. Philosopher Immanuel Kant composed different point of views to courage that we understand the world better. Kant is trying to tell us that there are many things that evolve around this world and that every little single element that we do makes the world what it is. Kant is well known for his work in the philosophy of ethics and metaphysics; also, he made an important astronomical discovery on the nature of Earth's rotation....   [tags: world, ethics, problems] 829 words
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Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804) - Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804) Author of Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). "The Enlightenment was a desire for human affairs to be guided by rationality than by faith, superstition, or revelation; a belief in the power of human reason to change society and liberate the individual from the restraints of custom or arbitrary authority; all backed up by a world view increasingly validated by science rather than by religion or tradition." (Outram 1995) In the eighteenth century, people started questioning the authority and knowledge of the church....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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1089 words
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Summary of Immanuel Kant's Life - Summary of Immanuel Kant's Life Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) spent all of his life in Königsberg, a small German town on the Baltic Sea in East Prussia. (After World War II, Germany's border was pushed west, so Königsberg is now called Kaliningrad and is part of Russia.) At the age of fifty-five, Kant appeared to be a washout. He had taught at Königsberg University for over twenty years, yet had not published any works of significance. During the last twenty-five years of his life, however, Kant left a mark on the history of philosophy that is rivaled only by such towering giants as Plato and Aristotle....   [tags: Papers] 1089 words
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Premises Based on Immanuel Kant's Perspective on the Metaphysics of Morals - ... 109) B. “Act that use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means.” (Kant pg112) 4. Conclusion: “Therefore Always treat a human being (yourself included) as an end, and never as a mere means” (Kant pg. 169 FE) Body: In Kant’s first premise, he introduces an important element called good will, one of his key features of his moral philosophy. He describes good will as “ the only thing possessed of unconditional value: it is valuable in its own right, in every possible circumstance.” (Kant pg....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 717 words
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Introduction to Immanuel Kant’s Theory of Deontology - ... This example is later used to describe a fault in Kant’s theory. One person may ask, “how do we know if our will is good or not”. Kant provides us with an answer that is quite simple; he says “imagine your intentions as a general law for everyone. Now imagine other people doing to you what you are planning to do to them” (Rosenstand, 285). Kant is suggesting that if you can see other people doing the very same thing that you plan on doing to them without causing harm to you or society then your will can be considered morally good....   [tags: morals, consequences, rationality] 1389 words
(4 pages)
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Analysis of Immanuel Kant´s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals - ... Good will is a form of moral law because it’s a genuine attitude behind an action. Anything that is naturally good is morally good which sums up to be good will. Actions of good will do the right thing for the reason of simply being the right thing to do. There is no qualification, benefactor or incentive its good will and no personal gain, inclination, or happiness included. As humans we must act out of duty, acting in agreement with the moral law. Therefore it is our duty to do the right thing for the reason of good will....   [tags: Will, Actions, Morality]
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926 words
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Immanuel Kant's Labors on Defending the Rights of Women - ... By good here we mean the objective universal good, otherwise known as morality. So we have then that Kant believes reason enables human beings to understand morality. We already established that nature gave reason to all human beings, and it is beyond doubt that women are also human beings. Therefore, women have reason in the same way men do. Yet, despite equal ability to reason, women are “sunk below the standard of rational creatures” . Since “reason is, consequentially, the simple power of improvement; or, more properly speaking, of discerning truth” , if women are deprived of reason, they are also deprived of a chance for improvement, development, or understanding morality....   [tags: virtue, morality, respect] 1239 words
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Albert Carr, Milton Friedman and Immanuel Kant - ... Moreover, Carr believes that being perfectly honest in business atmosphere would be harmful to its success.. He demonstrates his point of view by referring to a poker game. He claims “we can learn a good deal about the nature if business by comparing it with poker. While both have a large element of chance, in the long run the winner is the man who plays with steady skill” (p.138). The people playing poker are not following the same moral rules then they would in other situations. This is how Carr is trying to prove his point of view showing how in typical day to day environments lying is considered unacceptable and unethical, whereas in the poker game lying is valued and rewarded....   [tags: theory of business ethics] 983 words
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Analyzing the Political Thoughts of Immanuel Kant and G.W.F. Hegel - Director Steve McQueen, in his 2013 film “12 Years a Slave” provides four examples of the philosophical arguments of both Immanuel Kant and G.W.F Hegel. Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit argues two forms of consciousness. His categorization on the codependent relationship between lord and bondsman is complementary to Kant’s political thought on the categorical imperative. Kant argues in The Grounding of Metaphysics of Morals, that in the categorical imperative, law of morality, human beings are not subjective ends but rather objective ends within themself....   [tags: 12 years a slave, consciousness, bondsman]
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1563 words
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Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason - The Transcendental Deductions of the pure concept of the understanding in Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, in its most general sense, explains how concepts relate a priori to objects in virtue of the fact that the power of knowing an object through representations is known as understanding. According to Kant, the foundation of all knowledge is the self, our own consciousness because without the self, experience is not possible. The purpose of this essay is to lay out Kant’s deduction of the pure concept of understanding and show how our concepts are not just empirical, but concepts a priori....   [tags: transcendental deductions, aesthetics]
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1389 words
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Role of Happiness in Ethical Decisions - “All our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to the understanding, and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason” (Kant 1). The usage of reason as a representation of one’s intellect is a common trait in the 21st century. Happiness, a positive emotion, tends to blur one’s judgement and coerces philosophers to look upon its relevance when formulating ethical decisions. When considering the role of emotion in ethical decisions, one must consider the contrasting views of Immanuel Kant, an 18th Prussian philosopher that focussed his philosophies around the doctrine of reason, in comparison to that of John Stewart Mill, a 19th century British philosopher that followed the...   [tags: Immanuel Kant]
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1221 words
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Immanuel Kant Beliefs - ... Simply put, emotions have no moral worth. Therefore, a person cannot act based on emotion because their duty would lack reason. Care ethics, however, follows the sentiment that morality is rooted in feeling. Noddings states that morality is an active virtue that requires two feelings of care. Morality requires both natural caring, i.e., the innate desire to care (I want to), and ethical caring, i.e. caring rooted in obligation (I must). Contrary to deontology, the rightness or wrongness of an action is based on our response to these feelings of care....   [tags: moral actions, philosophy, deontology] 786 words
(2.2 pages)
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Immanuel Kant - Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 Immanuel Kant was born on April 22, 1724 in Konigsberg, East Prussia. He was the son of a saddler. At age 8, he entered the Collegium Fredericianum, a Latin school, where he remained for 8 1/2 years and studied the classics. He then entered the University of Konigsberg in 1740 to study philosophy, mathematics, and physics. The death of his father halted his university career so he became a private tutor. In 1755, he returned to Konigsburg where he later resumed his studies....   [tags: essays research papers] 3187 words
(9.1 pages)
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Immanuel Kant - Kant is a deontological philosopher; that is, in examining morality he says that the ends must not be looked at, only the means. Kant began by carefully drawing a pair of crucial distinctions among the judgments we do actually make. The first distinction separates a priori from a posteriori judgments by reference to the origin of our knowledge of them. A priori judgments are statements for which there is no appeal to experience in order to dertermine what is true and false. A posteriori judgments, on the other hand, are statements in which experience determines how we discover the truth or falsity of the statement....   [tags: essays research papers] 683 words
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Immanuel, Kant (1724-1804) - Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in the East Prussian town of Königsberg and lived there practically all his life. He came from a deeply pious Lutheran family, and his own religious convictions formed a significant background to his philosophy. Like Berkeley, he felt it was essential to preserve the foundations of Christian belief. Kant became Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at the University of Königsberg in 1770 and taught there for most of his life. He was also greatly interested in science and published works on astronomy and geophysics....   [tags: essays research papers] 1191 words
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Immanuel Kant’s Metaphysics - Immanuel Kant’s Metaphysics THEME In regard to Metaphysics, Kant’s results were seemingly the opposite to what he strove to achieve, cf. the claim, in his Introduction, that “In this enquiry . . . I venture to assert that there is not a single metaphysical problem which has not been solved, or for the solution of which the key has not been supplied.” In the summing up of his Prolegomena, he records with evident pride in achievement: “Anyone who has read through and grasped the principles of the CPR ....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Comparing David Hume and Immanuel Kant - Comparing David Hume and Immanuel Kant David Hume and Immanuel Kant each made a significant break from other theorists in putting forward a morality that doesn’t require a higher being or god, for a man to recognize his moral duty. Although Hume and Kant shared some basic principals they differed on their view of morality. In comparing the different views on human will and the maxims established to determine moral worth by David Hume and Immanuel Kant, I find their theories on morality have some merit although limited in view....   [tags: Philosophy Morality Papers]
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1368 words
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Organized Being in Kant’s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals - Kant's argument that good will is the supreme purpose of man's existence based on observations of the influence that reason exerts on the will is inconsistent with what may be observed in nature. It presupposes an intentional cosmos wherein an organized being's purpose, and thus its standard of value, can be extracted from an examination of its constitution and faculties. While this presupposition is logically consistent with the rest of Kant's moral theory it does not coincide with what we can actually observe in nature....   [tags: good will, moral theory, Immanuel Kant] 1604 words
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Analysis of Immanuel Kant's Arguements in The Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals” - ... In the first section he calls attention to common sense morals. Characteristics such as wit or intelligence can help make rational decisions which bring about best result; however, the action can be only ethical if it was based on a good will alone because duty alone is not enough to judge an action as immoral or moral. In the second section Kant shifts point of view from moral philosophy to a metaphysical study of morals. In this section alone to him, human nature of reason helps people recognize the morality of actions....   [tags: philosophy, common sense, reasoning]
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When is Lying OK? Rejecting All Lies: Immanuel Kant by Sissela Bok - ... Kant believed that lying was bad and that “truthfulness is statements which cannot be avoided is the formal duty of an individual to everyone, however great may be the disadvantage.” He believed lying was always bad no matter the situation. Kant said that lying “vitiates the source of law,” or makes the source of law weaker. Our whole purpose of the government is to serve justice and if everyone is lying in court, it gets harder to serve justice. The purpose of the government would not be fulfilled if people lie....   [tags: bad, weakens justice ] 677 words
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Contrasting the Ethical Theories of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill - ... So Kant sees in general terms that all men are ends in themselves and not “merely as means” So it is incumbent upon us to “act as to treat humanity, whether in thine own person or in that of any other, in every case as an end withal, never as means only.”(Scalet &Arthur, 2012) to satisfy a particular arbitrary desire of another. The ethical theory of John Stuart Mill is most comprehensively expressed in Utilitarianism, which he argues is the basis of morality. Utilitarian principle is the philosophy that states, “Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to promote the reverse of happiness....   [tags: catagorical imperative, ethics, truth] 1957 words
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Moral Actions by Philosophers Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill - In the making of my own argument on the elements that justify a right or wrong action, I will reference two of the most influential philosophers, Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. In order to make this paper easy to follow, I intend to focus on one of the arguments formed by each of these men. I will evaluate how both of Kant and Mill’s principles fits into the morals of right and wrong. Kant gives us a categorical imperative that urges one to Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law (Kant), and Mill states that actions are right as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness (Mi...   [tags: Right, Wrong, Philosophy] 957 words
(2.7 pages)
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Judging One's Moral Worth in Enemy of the People by Henrik Ibsen Uses - To judge one’s moral worth for his or her actions is a very important task. In the play, Enemy of the People by Henrik Ibsen, the main character, Dr. Stockmann performs in what many would consider a good, but moral worth is not determined by someone making a 10 second analysis of the actions and determining it. In order to determine moral worth, one can use Immanuel Kant’s book, Grounding for a Metaphysics of Morals. Within this book, Kant describes how one’s actions can be determined for the purpose of moral worth....   [tags: the baths, contamination, immanuel kant]
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Deontology and Utilitarianism: Ethical Theories for Nurses - Deontology and Utilitarianism: Ethical Theories for Nurses Ethics is not a concept that is thought about often, but it is practiced on a daily basis. Even while unconscious of the fact, people consider ethics while making every choice in life. There are many theories to which people allude, but two radically different theories that are sometimes practiced are deontology and utilitarianism. Deontology deals with actions in a situation while utilitarianism examines the consequences of those actions....   [tags: immanuel kant, philosophy]
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1121 words
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What is Enlightenment? by Immanuel Kant and The Elimination of Irrational Thought - What is Enlightenment. by Immanuel Kant and The Elimination of Irrational Thought In his essay ‘What is Enlightenment?’ Immanuel Kant discusses the nature of Enlightenment and how it can be brought to the general public. According to Kant, “Enlightenment is man’s release from his self-incurred tutelage.” By this, Kant means that Enlightenment is when one man is able to make use of his understanding without guidance from another man. Kant sees an Age of Enlightenment as a time when the human society can be liberated from their nature of discharge, which is a need for someone to be their director....   [tags: Papers] 388 words
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Cheating is Against The Rules - I only have two hours to study for tomorrow’s math midterm due to the additional three essays and two presentations I have to turn in for my other classes. I have divided my available hours and for this exam, I could either study for two hours and not get a good grade, or break the rules by using the notes during the exam, therefore getting a guaranteed A. What should I do. Cheating is against the rules of all corporations, institutions, and life. It is not viewed as morally correct because as one cheats, one is taking the easy way out and disrespecting those who work hard for the same outcome, therefore breaking binding contract of respecting others around you....   [tags: moral action, immanuel kant] 1032 words
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Truth and Goodness in Immanuel Kant and St. Thomas Aquinas - Immanuel Kant and St. Thomas Aquinas account for the existence of truth in sharply contrasting ways. Kant locates all truth inside the mind, as a pure product of reason, operating by means of rational categories. Although Kant acknowledges that all knowledge originates in the intuition of the senses, the intelligibility of sense experience he attributes to innate forms of apperception and to categories inherent to the mind. The innate categories shape the “phenomena” of sensible being, and Kant claims nothing can be known or proved about the “noumena,” the presumed world external to the mind.1 Aquinas agrees that all knowledge comes through the senses, but disagrees with Kant in argui...   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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The Categorical Imperative Of Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy - The Categorical Imperative Of Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy What would you do if you saw a little old lady with a cane walking slowly across a busy street without remembering to look both ways. Most people would answer that they would run out into the street to save her. However, why would these people do this. The rescuer may have not had any relation whatsoever to the little old lady, yet they still decide to risk their life for her. Was it because of basic, natural instinct. Did the rescuer just instantly react to what he/she saw and just let his reaction take over his body....   [tags: essays research papers] 1606 words
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Immanuel Kant Versus John Stuart Mill - Immanuel Kant Versus John Stuart Mill Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill; two opposing philosophers of their time. Even though they were living in different countries, their works have been against each other. In his book, Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant argues that there is nothing better than wanting goodwill by itself. He emphasizes the importance of goodwill over and over again and tries to show how effective moral philosophy can be if goodwill is used as the key element....   [tags: Papers Philosophy Morals Moral Essays ] 1168 words
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Happiness: John Stuart Mill vs Immanuel Kant - Happiness. People go to any means by which to obtain the many varied materials and issues that induce pleasures in each individual, and intrinsically, this emotion remains the ultimate goal, John Stuart Mill, a nineteenth century philosopher, correctly advocated the pursuit of happiness, and maintained the concept that above all other values, pleasure existed as the final destination, Mill's hedonistic views correctly and rationally identified a natural human tendency, and his Utilitarian arguments strongly support the theory that above all else, happiness is the most important dream to be fulfilled....   [tags: Utilitarianism Essays] 1354 words
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What is Kanatianism Theory? - Kantianism is a philosophical theory that was created by a man named Immanuel Kant. According to Immanuel Kant or Kantianism, his theory emphasizes the contemporary positions dealing with the philosophy of the mind, epistemology, and ethics. For example, Kant believes that people should not be treated as an end and never as a means to an end as it’s considered unethical for a person to use other people for their own personal gain simply because – according to Immanuel Kant – people possess value....   [tags: Philosophical Theory, Immanuel Kant]
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Separating Morality from Law - The idea of separating morality from law is problematic. Regardless of anyone’s desire to separate the two, it is impossible. All law is moral or, as the case may be, immoral. The real question of the law is what those morals are. Immanuel Kant seemed unable to define a universal moral, which he indeed tried to define. Kant defined it in three parts. These morals he used to explain the best regime and the duties of citizens within that regime. Even though it seemed challenging for Kant to nail down a solid definition of universal morals, which may be generally applied to all, it appears that Kant believed that law or a republic was the best regime....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, Immorality, Regime] 835 words
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What is the Meaning of Being Human? - ... Both philosophers’ theories are different to a certain extent, Kant actually chooses to reject Augustine's Doctrine totally however there are still a few likenesses between the two. Where Augustine believes that humankind is evil in light of the issues of Adam and Eve, Kant accepts that in spite of the fact that we are evil by nature, we should first sidestep moral law to be evil, in this way we must be considered answerable for our own particular cognizant acts. Due to the fact that Kant and Augustine have such opposite opinions on evil or being evil for that matter it’s easy to see why Kant rejects Augustine’s doctrine of Original sin, that being said even though the two have such oppo...   [tags: st augustine, immanuel kant, philosophy] 861 words
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Immanuel Kant's Ethics Of Pure Duty and John Stuart Mill's Utilitarian Ethics Of Justice - Immanuel Kant's The Grounding For The Metaphysics of Morals and John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers who addressed the issues of morality in terms of how moral traditions are formed. Immanuel Kant has presented one viewpoint in "The Grounding For The Metaphysics of Morals" that is founded on his belief that the worth of man is inherent in his ability to reason. John Stuart Mill holds another opinion as presented in the book, "Utilitarianism" that is seemingly in contention with the thoughts of Kant....   [tags: Kant Mill Philosophy Philosophers Essays]
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The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals - Can suicide be justified as morally correct. This is one of the many questions Immanuel Kant answers in, “The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals”. Kant discusses many questions with arguable answers, which explains why he is one of the most controversial philosophers still today. Throughout Kant’s work, multiple ideas are considered, but the Categorical Imperative is one of the most prevalent. Though this concept is extremely dense, the Categorical Imperative is the law of freedom that grounds pure ethics of the metaphysics of ethics....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, Categorical Imperative, morality]
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1055 words
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Performing Animals: The Ill Treatment of Performing Orca’s in Captivity - Immanuel Kant, an 18th century philosopher argues that human beings have an intrinsic worth that makes them valuable above all else, especially animals. In his argument, Kant postulated the soul as necessary for giving unity to the human person and found that it is not the human body that gives human beings their dignity, but their rationality and their status as rational beings and moral agents. Animals in Kant’s state of mind are a means to an end (the end being man) and overall have no importance....   [tags: rational animals, orcas, immanuel kant]
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Business Ethics: Adelphia Scandal - As the turn of the 21st Century evolved, it appeared as if Adelphia Communications Corporation was on a direct path of success; unbeknownst to their investors and the public, they were in reality on a direct path of destruction instead. Unfortunately, Adelphia is not the first major company in the history of the United States’ business world to lose the trust of the American public, but it is certainly one of the most notable ones to do so. As the events surrounding the Adelphia scandal unfolded in full view of the public eye, a multitude of media outlets were there to broadcast the destruction and distrust to the masses leaving many wondering if the term “business ethics” was actually nothi...   [tags: Immanuel Kant, Categorical Imperative, deontology]
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What Are Aesthetics? - When questioning something as controversial as the possibility of a standard of aesthetic judgment, one must take into account the many different perspectives that already exist on the matter. For centuries now, some of the greatest philosophers such as David Hume and Immanuel Kant have attempted to answer this timeless question. However, understandings and interpretations of art are constantly evolving. This has made a clear concise answer difficult to find. Throughout this essay, I will discuss previous opinions and beliefs on the matter, primarily focusing on the ides of philosopher David Hume, then touching on Noel Carroll’s critique of Hume’s philosophy, and then go into further detail...   [tags: David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Philosophy]
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1418 words
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Kant's Moral Principles - Kant's Moral Principles      In the Foundation of the Metaphysics of Morals, the author, Immanuel Kant, tries to form a base by rejecting all ethical theories that are connected to consequences, and then focusing on our ethical motivations and actions. Kant wants to derive good characters out of contingently right actions. He believes that everything is contingent (everything can have good or bad worth, depending on how it is used). So he is trying to find the supreme principal of morality in all his reasoning....   [tags: Kant Immanuel Philosophy Morals Essays] 1156 words
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Aristotelian versus Kantian Ethics - Aristotle's and Kant's ideas of the means and ends of moral ethics are in sharp contrast. Both have strengths and weaknesses in their arguments, but Aristotle's is superior to Kant's because it is more realistic. I will first give the basis of both philosophies, Aristotle first, Kant second. Next, I will expand and question points of both philosophies, Aristotle's end, and Kant's means. Lastly, I will explain the reasoning behind why I favor Aristotle's ethics over Kant's. Both philosophies appeals to reason, but they come to different conclusions....   [tags: Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, morals, philosophy]
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Scrutiny of Production - Karl Marx, Immanuel Kant and Aristotle have all had philosophical notations on the importance of meaningful relationships. In the late 19th century production and commodity obsession began to grow wildly and it heavily exists today particularly in North America. I’m going to show how we ought to govern our relationships according to Marx, Kant and Aristotle and that our contemporary view of production is faulty in that it is exploitation of human relationships. First, I’m going to show this through the early writings of Marx in the ‘Estrangement of Labor’ where he explains how working class people are alienated in several ways by the capitalist economics....   [tags: Karl Marx, Immanuel Kant, Aristotle, philosophy]
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A Comparison of John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant's Ethical Theories - Compare Mill and Kant's ethical theories; which makes a better societal order. John Stuart Mill (1808-73) believed in an ethical theory known as utilitarianism. There are many formulation of this theory. One such is, "Everyone should act in such a way to bring the largest possibly balance of good over evil for everyone involved." However, good is a relative term. What is good. Utilitarians disagreed on this subject. Mill made a distinction between happiness and sheer sensual pleasure. He defines happiness in terms of higher order pleasure (i.e....   [tags: Societal Order Universability] 3195 words
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Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism - Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism Ethics can be defined as "the conscious reflection on our moral beliefs with the aim of improving, extending or refining those beliefs in some way." (Dodds, Lecture 2) Kantian moral theory and Utilitarianism are two theories that attempt to answer the ethical nature of human beings. This paper will attempt to explain how and why Kantian moral theory and Utilitarianism differ as well as discuss why I believe Kant's theory provides a more plausible account of ethics....   [tags: Papers Immanuel Kant Ethics Morals]
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Euthanasia - Euthanasia is an action that result in the death of a person. There are four types of euthanasia, such as voluntary active euthanasia, nonvoluntary active euthanasia, voluntary passive euthanasia, and nonvoluntary passive euthanasia. Among the four types of euthanasia, voluntary active euthanasia or VAE is the most controversial ethical issue in the United States. It is the killing of a competent patient who decided to end his/her suffering by ending his/her life with the help of the physician....   [tags: Philosophy, Immanuel Kant] 1169 words
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Perpetual Peace - War has always been a cause of great trouble and suffering for all of humanity. It has existed from the earliest beginnings of man and continues to exist until today. From thousands of years ago and maybe even earlier, there has already been a very long tradition of attempts to end war. For Immanuel Kant and many other thinkers, the most important goal to be achieved in our world is a true and perpetual peace among states and people. In his 1795 political philosophical essay, Kant begins by setting out the “preliminary articles” to the establishment of an everlasting peace between states....   [tags: Immanuel Kant Book Review Analysis] 908 words
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Kant and Deontological Theory - Kant and Deontological Theory Immanuel Kant was a moral philosopher. His theory, better known as deontological theory, holds that intent, reason, rationality, and good will are motivating factors in the ethical decision making process. The purpose of this paper is to describe and explain major elements of his theory, its essential points, how it is used in the decision making process, and how it intersects with the teams values. While Kant’s theory may seem “overly optimistic” (Johnson, 2008) now, it was ruled as acceptable and rational behavior then....   [tags: Philosophy Kant] 1240 words
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Moral Law According To Kant - Moral Law According To Kant      Immanuel Kant was a deontologist from Germany in the eithteenth century. He believed that the only test of whether a decision is right or wrong is whether it could be applied to everyone. Would it be all right for everyone to do what you are doing. If not, your decision is wrong. It would be wrong, for example, to make a promise with the intention of breaking it because if everyone did that, no one would believe anyone's promises. In ethics, Kant tried to show that doing one's duty consisted in following only those principles that one would accept as applying equally to all....   [tags: Morality Ethics Kant Philosophy Essays] 554 words
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Kant's Humanity Formula - Kant's Humanity Formula      “Few formulas in philosophy have been so widely accepted and variously interpreted as Kant’s injunction to treat humanity as an end in itself”(Hill, 38). Immanuel Kant’s views, as elucidated in his book, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, are based on the belief that “people count” by prohibiting actions which exploit other individuals in order for self-prosperity or altruistic ends. Ethics then, are confirmed by the dignity and worth of the rational agency of each person....   [tags: Kant Philosophy Philosophical Essays] 1637 words
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Kant's Categorical Imperative - Kant's Categorical Imperative Deontology is the ethical view that some actions are morally forbidden or permitted regardless of consequences. One of the most influential deontological philosophers in history is Immanuel Kant who developed the idea of the Categorical Imperative. Kant believed that the only thing of intrinsic moral worth is a good will. Kant says in his work Morality and Rationality “The good will is not good because of what it affects or accomplishes or because of it’s adequacy to achieve some proposed end; it is good only because of it’s willing, i.e., it is good of itself”....   [tags: Philosophy Categorical Imperative Kant Essays]
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Hume Vs Kant -      Hume’s ultimate goal in his philosophic endeavors was to undermine abstruse Philosophy. By focusing on the aspect of reason, Hume shows there are limitations to philosophy. Since he did not know the limits, he proposed to use reason to the best of his ability, but when he came to a boundary, that was the limit. He conjectured that we must study reason to find out what is beyond the capability of reason.      Hume began his first examination if the mind by classifying its contents as Perceptions....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Hume Kant Essays] 1749 words
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Immanual Kant's Moral Philosophy - The philosopher Immanuel Kant in “Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals” in his chapter I, brings to us a magnificent explanation about moral philosophy where analyze and critics the conduct, acts of the human beings. Kant states, “Nothing can possibly be convinced in the world, or even out it, which can be called good, without qualification, except a good will”. I agree with this affirmation because everything we do must be doing it by good will. If we do this we reach happiness according with the author in his words, “Thus a good will appears to constitute the indispensable condition even of being worthy of happiness”....   [tags: duty, honest, ethics]
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Kant on Free Will - Do humans truly have free will or are their lives completely predetermined. This question of free will has and will always remain to be a place for argument in philosophy. Many of the great philosophers attempted to answer this question, but none did as well of a job as Immanuel Kant. He lays the basis of his argument in his Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. Kant writes this prolegomena in response to David Hume’s of skepticism, and therefore, Kant is attempting to more firmly ground metaphysics....   [tags: Philosophy, Human Nature]
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What is Enlightenment? Emmanuel Kant - In his essay writing “What is Enlightenment?” Immanuel Kant defines enlightenment as “man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity” (Kant, 1). In order for us to completely understand this definition, we must first understand what Kant meant by “Immaturity”. In the writing Kant defines immaturity as “the inability to use one’s understanding without the guidance from another”(Kant, 1). Furthermore, Kant believes that this immaturity is self-imposed, and that it is the individual’s fault for lacking the courage and resolve to think for themselves, but instead pay others to think and understand for them....   [tags: freedom, reason, philosophy]
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Morality via Kant and Hegel - 1. Introduction Human beings have moral inclinations that affect our actions. Few would deny as a fact of human life a perpe-tual strive to do right and good concordant with one’s particular moral beliefs (while concomitantly judging others by them). For most, this strive is accompanied by a questioning of the very nature of the moral: Is there an impartial criterion that enables us to know objectively what one ought to do, or do our moral intuitions rest solely on subjective, arbitrary grounds....   [tags: Philosophy] 1718 words
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Kant and Crash: An Ethics Analysis - Many great philosophers have attempted to tackle the issue of ethics and, consequently, have come up with various ethical theories in order to define ethical and moral situations. In this paper, I will be summarizing a scene from the 2004, Academy Award winning film, Crash, and further analyzing it in terms of the ethical theories of Immanuel Kant. In terms of this scene, I will be arguing that Kant’s ethical theory provides a satisfactory analysis of its ethicality. One of the most memorable and dramatic scenes of the film, Crash, occurs when Ryan, a personally racist police officer, happens upon an car accident in which a woman is trapped in her overturned vehicle....   [tags: film analysis, ethical theories]
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Kant’s Antidote to Idealism - Immanuel Kant’s doctrine of transcendental idealism contends that all we can know about external things lies in their appearances as they are presented to us and affect our sensibility. Initially, this may seem to be the same principle found in traditional idealism. However, unlike traditional idealists, Kant does not deny the existence of the external things. He believes that these objects are indeed real. However, we cannot know anything about their existence independent of us, how they may truly be in themselves; we can only know about their appearances, which are represented in us (Kant 40)....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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When Tolstoy Meets Kant - ... The thinking of Ivan Ilyich is polluted by a series of commissions and omissions. To begin with the former, Ivan does not value people for their own sake. Rather, he treats them as a means to serve a particular end. Even though he treats people with respect, the respect exhibited is grounded in social expectations. Ivan lacks a sense of empathy. His actions are driven by social standards. For example, Ivan is not in love with his wife. Rather, he marries her because that is what society expects of him (BDII11)....   [tags: moral philosophy]
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578 words
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Philosophy: Kant´s Free Will - Do humans truly have free will or are their lives completely predetermined. This question of free will has and will always remain to be a place for argument in philosophy. Many of the great philosophers attempted to answer this question, but none did as well of a job as Immanuel Kant. He lays the basis of his argument in his Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. Kant writes this prolegomena in response to David Hume’s of skepticism, and therefore, Kant is attempting to more firmly ground metaphysics....   [tags: freedom, antithesis, argument] 1223 words
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