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Your search returned over 400 essays for "Economic inflation"
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The Best Economic Environment for Inflation Targeting - Introduction: In the past two decades, a multitude of countries, including Canada and Australia have instituted “explicit inflation targeting” (Svensson, 1996, p.1) for fear of the high cost of “volatile inflation” (Freedman&Laxton, 2009, p. 6).Mishkin offered the definition of inflation targeting (IT). It is a monetary policy strategy intended to achieve price stability within a specific range (Mishkin,2000).As is concisely demonstrated by Mishkin, IT “establishes a transparent and credible commitment” to the precision of the future “numerical objective”(Mishkin,2008).Nonetheless, it is not a prudential policy....   [tags: Monetary Systems, Global Finance]
:: 11 Works Cited
1121 words
(3.2 pages)
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Investingating the Growth-Inflation Nexus in Africa - Every macroeconomic policy aims at keeping the output growth rate at a high and sustainable level, and the inflation rate at a stable, desirable level. Price level stability is crucial in determining the output growth rate. This led central banks in a number of countries to implement inflation targeting regimes. Such decisions give rise to the important question: what is the most suitable inflation target. The literature regarding the nature of the relation between inflation and growth goes back to the 1960s....   [tags: regression model, inflation, economic growth]
:: 30 Works Cited
1506 words
(4.3 pages)
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The Relationship between the Repo Rate, Disposable Income, Inflation and In Turn Economic Growth in South Africa - ... Figure 1.0 (Tradingeconomics.com, 2014) Figure 1.0 shows how the inflation rate has been recorded since 2011. Form the graph it can clearly be seen that there has been an upward trend. Inflation is used here as it relates more directly to economic growth rather than the repo rate. To see how the inflation rates increased/decresed one must look at the transmission mechanism. The transmission mechanism is the way that the fluctuations in the repo rate effect inflation and economic growth (Riksbank.se, 2011)....   [tags: economic analysis]
:: 13 Works Cited
1916 words
(5.5 pages)
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To What Extent is Inflation a serious Economic Problem - To What Extent is Inflation a serious Economic Problem ====================================================== Before considering whether Inflation has serious Economic Problems, we have to get to grasp what it exactly is. Inflation is defined as a sustained general rise in prices in the Economy. Obviously the government can't measure every single price change for every single good in the economy, so therefore they take a basket of goods and by using a price index measure a change in it. The basket of good has a representative range of goods and services and it needs to be recorded at a regular basis, to measure how inflation is changing....   [tags: Economics] 1667 words
(4.8 pages)
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Fiscal and Monetary Policy Behavior over the Business Cycle - ... - From then, to balance out the economic outlook, the CBR should be slightly decreased till August 2012 the CBR should be about 13%. - The easing of the monetary policy is being in response to improve the inflation outlook. - If we increase the CBR, M2 will be increased but M1 will be decreased so that the price will drop and the inflation rate will decline. - But when we raise the interest rate too high, the money supply from the CB won’t be enough, even cut down, which will lead to M1 at the trough, the AD will decrease as well as the GDP....   [tags: inflation prevention, economic analysis] 620 words
(1.8 pages)
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Consumer Good Are on the Rise - ... “ (Consumer Price Index) “The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased 0.2 percent in March on a seasonally adjusted basis, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the last 12 months, the all items index increased 1.5 percent before seasonal adjustment. Increases in the shelter and food indexes accounted for most of the seasonally adjusted all items increase. The food index increased 0.4 percent in March, with several major grocery store food groups increasing notably....   [tags: inflation, economic analysis] 1763 words
(5 pages)
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Effects of a Pluralistic Democracy - The function our pluralistic democracy is the cause of America’s recurring economic problems and contributes to growing income inequality. Inflation/stagflation (inflation with slow economic growth) perpetual trade deficits and perpetual federal budget deficits which contribute to the U.S. national debt are the major recurring economic problems that threaten the prosperity of the nation. These recurring problems are largely the unintended consequences of pluralism, the interaction of many groups in the American political process....   [tags: economic problems, American economy, inflation] 1292 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Causes and Effects of a Recession - Average cost is total cost divided by total output at a specific point. For instance if 100 units are produced and total cost incurred is 200 then average cost of one unit would be 2/unit. Whereas Average revenue is calculated same as average cost however, instead of total cost we take total revenue. Marginal cost is cost of producing one additional unit of output or in other words a rise in total cost when output rises by one unit. Similarly marginal revenue is the rise in total revenue when output rises by one unit....   [tags: inflation, economic recovery, macroeconomics]
:: 26 Works Cited
2723 words
(7.8 pages)
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Rising Inflation in the UK - Inflation; ‘a situation in which prices rise in order to keep up with increased production costs… result[ing] [in] the purchasing power of money fall[ing]’ (Collin:101) is quickly becoming a problem for the government of the United Kingdom in these post-recession years. The economic recovery, essential to the wellbeing of the British economy, may be in jeopardy as inflation continues to rise, reducing the purchasing power of the public. This, in turn, reduces demand for goods and services, and could potentially plummet the UK back into recession....   [tags: Economic Theory, Monetary Policy]
:: 2 Works Cited
1391 words
(4 pages)
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Inflation and Oil Prices - Inlfation and Oil Prices Inflation refers to persistent increase in the price level over time and is one of the most dangerous threats to an economy because if unchecked it will erode the purchasing power of a currency and if the monetary system of the country is destroyed, can ultimateky force the indivduals to adopt foreign currency. There are two kinds of Inflation: Demand Pull and Cost Push Inflation. Cost Push Inflation: A situation when inlfation persists in the economy becuase of initial decrease in aggregate suppky caused by an increase in the rela price of an important factor of production i.e wgaes and energy....   [tags: economic and financial analysis]
:: 3 Works Cited
760 words
(2.2 pages)
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Relationship between Inflation Rate and Unemployment in Malaysia - ... In the other words, two variable are integrated of order one. Besides that, the Johansen cointegration was used to determine the long run relationship between inflation and unemployment rate in time series data. We could observe that there is a long run relationship between inflation and unemployment rate in the time series data. Furthermore, the Vector Error Correction Model also has been used to examine long run relationship between inflation and unemployment rate. It indicates a residual one period lag of the cointegrating between this variable....   [tags: economic variable correlation study] 1103 words
(3.2 pages)
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Economic Analysis of India - ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF INDIA The Indian Economy is the tenth largest in the world by nominal Gross Domestic Product and the third largest in terms of purchase power parity. India after the growth of over 9% during 2005-08, moderated to growth of 6.7% in 2008-09 because of the global financial crisis due to the fiscal and monetary space, but with time the economy recovered to growth of 8.4% in 2009-10 and 2010-11. The slowdown in the economy began in the second quarter of 2011-12, when the growth rate declined to 6.70% from level of 8%....   [tags: growth, inflation, GDP] 1874 words
(5.4 pages)
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Economic Issues of QE2: Quantitative Easing - ... Analysing the percentage of people unemployed, we could see that before the recession in 2008, only 4.4% of the people were unemployed. During recession, this number was increased to a huge 10% during October 2009. Now the unemployment rate has again come down to a value of 6.7%. Though this is not considerably a large improvement, a 3.3% was rectified over the years. But the contributor for this is QE2 supported by various other bills and activities carried out by the government (“Bureau of Labour Statistics”, 2014)....   [tags: unemployment, inflation, interest rates]
:: 6 Works Cited
713 words
(2 pages)
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Austrialia´s Economic Growth - Economic Growth Economic growth involves an increase in the value of goods & services that an economy produces over a period of time caused by changes in the level of aggregate supply & demand, measured by the annual rate of change in real GDP. Since Australia’s 1991 recession characterised by negative -0.2% growth, continuous growth stabilised over the past two decades averaging 3.5% per annum but slowed to 3.1% during the 2000s. As the engine of global growth shifted from USA to China during the 2000s, demand for Australian mineral resources such as coal & iron ore increased by 50% & 80% respectively underpinning growth since 2004 & improving the TOT from 88.6 in 2003 to 153.2 in 2010....   [tags: supply, demand, inflation] 2055 words
(5.9 pages)
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Economic Growth and Economic Indicators - ... The CSI can thus illustrate how willing consumers are to consume and how willing they are to save. Low confidence levels can result in less consumption of goods and services as consumers may feel that they are not financially stable or the current economic situation is not conducive to spending. Consumers may thus save more money. If consumers spend less then a decrease in real GDP will occur as consumer spending makes up two-thirds of the GDP. The PCE measures the total spending on goods and services by consumers in the survey period.The change in PCE can thus illustrate consumer confidence because a decrease in spending is indicative of decreased spending....   [tags: goods and services, inflation] 711 words
(2 pages)
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Pakistan's Economic Performance oer the Last 20 Years - ... GDP, which is also coincident) o Lagged (e.g. unemployment rates) o Coincident (e.g. CPI) Indicators may be categorized as ‘coincident,’ ‘lagging,’ or ‘leading’. But fact remains that each can have a circle-back effect. That is, a lagging indicator such as exchange rates might end up affecting another indicator, such as stock prices. Therefore this categorization is never concrete, and in each of the analyses presented below, it goes without saying that a negative indicator serves to further aggravate the conditions that caused it in the first place....   [tags: indicators, taxation, inflation] 1283 words
(3.7 pages)
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Taxation on Inflation in Ireland - ... since they are part of a membership of the e.u. they have nontariff barriers on agriculture and manufacturing. Subsidies quotas import bans and restrictions for some services and goods, they have some market access restrictions in some service sectors. Also, nontransparent and restriction standards and regulations. The welfare and safety wealth at work general application regulation 2007 contains an widespread list of unambiguous workroom health plus safety instructions that each company must bear by....   [tags: economic analysis] 615 words
(1.8 pages)
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Understanding Latin America's International and Economic Relations with Import Substitution Industrialization Model - ... On a negative note, these nations led to become greatly dependent on technology, there was an increase of external capital control over developed areas, an under qualified labour force for factory jobs, increase in prices of manufactured goods and inflation, migration from rural to urban areas and as a result an increase in social problems, and finally, the industrial sector did not bother to conquer external markets which essentially contradicted the whole purpose of ISI. For these reasons ISI was seen as a short-term solution, leading to rapid economic growth that was unsustainable in the long run....   [tags: politics, borders, inflation] 1530 words
(4.4 pages)
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Making Money From Inflation - Making Money from Inflation Inflation is the all-encompassing and continued rise taken together level of prices measured by an index of the cost of various goods and services. Recurring price increases erode the purchasing power of money and other financial assets with fixed values, creating grave economic distortions and uncertainty. Inflation results when actual economic pressures and anticipation of future developments cause the demand for goods and services to exceed the supply available at existing prices or when available output is restricted by faltering productivity and marketplace constraints....   [tags: Economics Inflation Strategy] 1359 words
(3.9 pages)
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Inflation - Inflation defines as an increase in the price you pay or a decline in the purchasing power of money. In other words, price inflation is when prices get higher or it takes more money to buy the same item. Interest rates are increased to moderate demand and inflation and they are reduced to stimulate demand. Monetary policy aims to influence the overall level of monetary demand in the economy so that it grows broadly in line with the economy's ability to produce goods and services. This stops output rising too quickly or slowly....   [tags: Economics Economy Price Inflation] 951 words
(2.7 pages)
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The Issue of Inflation Control as an Objectice of Central Banks - The Issue of Inflation Control as an Objectice of Central Banks This paper looks at the issue of inflation control as an objective of central banks. Viewing the British Commonwealth and Continental European models of ‘zero inflation’ in contrast with the moderate inflation policy of the US provides a case against zero inflation as a policy objective. A variety of issues that surround inflation; e.g., the inflation/unemployment relationship, etc, will be brought to the fore. In the final analysis, it is clear that efforts to eradicate inflation are misguided and more moderate inflation is preferable in an era where steady economic growth is desirable....   [tags: Hyper Inflation Economy Economics Essays]
:: 8 Works Cited
4401 words
(12.6 pages)
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Jamaics's Economic Downfall - ... Policy makers hope by focusing on such issues that it would create an environment that is conducive to increasing production and exports. Characteristics of the Programs In general, the design of stabilization programs places emphasis on reforming the tax system, making the exchange rate more competitive, liberalizing the trade regime, increasing privatization and reducing the external account and fiscal deficits. By focusing on these issues, policy makers hope to create an environment that is conducive to increasing production and exports....   [tags: oil crisis, trade regime, inflation] 1452 words
(4.1 pages)
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Germany and the Inflation - The road to the inflation era started with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The main clauses of the treaty stripped Germany of her overseas colonies as well as took chunks of German territory from the west and east. It also aimed to demilitarize the country by forcing her to downsize her navy to only six battleships, as well as reduce the army from around seven hundred fifty thousand troops to only one hundred thousand. In additional the country was forbidden from making or using heavy artillery or tanks....   [tags: History] 1872 words
(5.3 pages)
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Global Inflation and Unemployment - Article summary This article by Andrew McCathie posted in EarthTimes and titled “European inflation climbs unemployment at 12-year high was posted on Friday July 30 2010. The article reports that food and energy costs have played a critical role in driving up inflation in the 16-member eurozone. The rates of unemployment remained stagnant to its highest level during this time. Introduction The recent global financial crisis that affected not only America but also Europe and other parts of the world resulted in massive unemployment....   [tags: Economics, Unemployment Essays]
:: 5 Works Cited
1280 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Inflation - The impact of the Global Financial Crisis on inflation After the onset of the global economic recession in 2008, inflationary pressures were relieved. Slower economic growth and incomes growth lessened the ability of businesses to increase consumer prices, while also decreasing demand for labour and materials trimmed down inflationary pressures on business costs. By 2009, both headline and underlying inflation fell to the lower end of the Reserve Bank’s inflation target band between 2-3% where the Treasury forecasted inflation (CPI) to be 1.5% in 2008-09....   [tags: Economics ]
:: 7 Works Cited
356 words
(1 pages)
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The Effect of Commodity Prices on Inflation - The effect of commodity prices on inflation is considered in the following literature. Commodity prices are thought to be leading indicators of inflation for two reasons. The first is that in general commodity prices respond to economic shocks quicker than macroeconomic variables. The second is that commodity prices reflect global shocks such as floods, which may lead to agricultural price rises and therefore, leads to higher consumer prices, (Furlong, 1996). 2.1 Oil Prices on Inflation Fluctuations in oil prices are usually found to have an impact on macroeconomic variables....   [tags: economy, oil, food] 1888 words
(5.4 pages)
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The Effects of Inflation in Malaysian Economy - ... The consequence of inflation is people will expect prices to rise, then they will consume more to avoid higher costs. Because local trader will hide the stocks or take advantages in the situation that the oil price increase to increase the prices of good. Increase of crude oil price make Malaysia soared to a 26-years high inflation in year 2008, June (Lesova, 2008). In that time, the oil price has increased to USD 145 a barrel (Crude Oil Price History, n.d.), and caused Malaysia to face 7.7 percent inflation in year 2008, June and increase again to 8.5 percent in year 208, July (ssquah, 2008)....   [tags: drop in investment, financial uncertainty] 661 words
(1.9 pages)
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The Philippine Inflation this Year - Introduction The Article discussed inflation in the Philippines this year, its effect to the economy and how the country handle it over time. The analysis looks into the macroeconomic issues that affects economics. It focuses on the main points about inflation. This will cover how inflation are being measured, the effects on demand and supply and analyse the relationship of inflation to the Philippine economy. Analysis All government’s ultimate goal is to maintain a strong and sustainable economy but there are so many factor to consider in making it work right....   [tags: macroeconomic analysis]
:: 4 Works Cited
1071 words
(3.1 pages)
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Our Individual Economic Life - Our individual economic life is impacted by the decisions made in our economic policies. Thus making the country’s economic performance significant. Some of South Africa’s macroeconomic objectives are: inflation between 3% -6%, relative price stability, low unemployment, sustainable economic growth, exchange rate constancy and balance of payments stability. The biggest challenge for any economy however is to achieve these goals all at the same time.These objectives prompt for government to intervene in the economy, to try and achieve most of these objectives at the same time....   [tags: Economic Policies, Monetary Policies, Banks]
:: 2 Works Cited
1353 words
(3.9 pages)
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The Issue of Grade Inflation - The Issue of grade inflation Introduction This essay deals with the specific term of grade inflation by working with three texts on that issue seeing grade inflation from different perspectives and discussing terminology. Every country has its own grading system. In some countries from 0-10 in others the scale is 1-5 or 0-20 an there are many others. However, this is by far not the only thing that can be said about grading. The question also is the practical application of the grading scheme. Are more higher grades given or lower....   [tags: texts, ask critical questions, grading problems] 2711 words
(7.7 pages)
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Credibility of an Inflation-Targeting Regime - Mishkins view (2011) before the recent crisis, inflation targeting was the standard framework for monetary policy with it being seen as highly successful in OECD countries, with low inflation and low variability of inflation. However the recent crisis not only crushed economic activity, creating the most severe world-wide economic contraction since the Great Depression, but it also seemed to destroy confidence in the ability of central bankers to effectively manage the economy. As a result central banks slashed their benchmark interest rates to what economists call ‘zero lower bound’....   [tags: Recent Crisis, Monetary Policy]
:: 5 Works Cited
1367 words
(3.9 pages)
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Effects of Inflation - Effects of Inflation Inflation is the most commonly used economic term in the popular media. A Nexis search in 1996 found 872,000 news stories over the past twenty years that used the word inflation. "Unemployment" ran a distant second. Public concern about inflation generally heats up in step with inflation itself. Though economists do not always agree about when inflation starts to interfere with market signals, the public tends to express serious alarm once the inflation rate rises above 5 or 6 percent....   [tags: Economy Economics Money Essays] 2891 words
(8.3 pages)
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Inflation In Vietnam - Vietnam’s inflation last month, 27%, reached highest position in asia. Prices of everything go all the way up, especially necessities like gasoline, food and clothes (e.g: food prices increased 74%). Overdose foreign investment and technologically backward industry seemed to be the causes. Besides, overty rate has reduced to 15% from 58% since 1993, but now it is likely to raise again. Some workers who led vietnam’s rise from poverty are suffering from expensive city life, planning to return to their rural home....   [tags: Economy Vietnam Economics] 719 words
(2.1 pages)
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Algeria's Economic History - Before taking big business decisions such as Investments, a manager must evaluate and decide what would maximize profits and be best for the company overall. Expanding business operations into other countries is full of risk. We go into more detail as we compare the two below in five different factors to see which country would be the most appropriate choice. In this report Algeria’s big risks involving limited economic freedom and, strong religious beliefs that affect just about every decision are explored....   [tags: economic, political, legal, ethics ]
:: 13 Works Cited
1008 words
(2.9 pages)
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Inflation and Currency Risk - ... For example, a strong home currency can leads to the firm’s profit when doing business in the country which have a weak currency rate. Inflation risk have very important implications for the portfolio management, cost of capital of a firm, asset pricing and currency hedging strategies, as any source of risk which is not compensated in terms of expected returns should be hedged. Therefore, it is very important to examine whether inflation risk is priced in international stock markets and particularly in the context of emerging market frame work, since their inflation rates dynamics often differ, e.g., for that of developed markets....   [tags: Malaysian stock market] 633 words
(1.8 pages)
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Economy: Inflation in Brazil - Brazil, an economy expanding in the world market is known as one of the South American countries that has a well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors. This thriving economy has been experiencing economic growth slowly but surely (World Fact Book). They have secured and maintained inflation rates in the single digits for the past ten years the lowest recorded at 2.6 in 2003 and the highest being 6.9 in 2005 (World Fact Book). Brazil’s ultimate aim is to maintain inflation rate below 6%....   [tags: south american countries, policies] 754 words
(2.2 pages)
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Inflation Rate of Euroarea - ( 1 May 2013, http://perspectives.pictet.com/2013/05/01/euro-area-deflation-is-looming/ last viewed 25 May 2014) The above diagram shows the inflation rate of Euroarea. During recession, the inflation rate of Euroarea did not fell a lot. This shows that ECB policy was successful to kept the inflation rate around the normal rate that is 2%. people and business to spend and invest more money. Since the interest rate is low, firms and people will tend to spend rather than put it into bank. This is because they think it is not worth to put their money in the bank when the interest rate is so low....   [tags: economy, government, taxes] 979 words
(2.8 pages)
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The Meaning of Inflation - The Meaning of Inflation There are four macroeconomic policy objectives that a government pursues: high and stable economic growth, low unemployment, low inflation, the avoidance of balance of payments deficits and excessive exchange rate fluctuations. Some of these policy objectives may conflict with each other depending on the priorities of the government. A policy designed to accelerate the rate of economic growth may result in a higher rate of inflation and balance of payment deficit....   [tags: Papers] 1090 words
(3.1 pages)
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Analysing the Recent Economic Recession and Its Effects - ... The labor force participation rate is calculated with people sixteen years of age and older that are employed, while the unemployment rate is measured by the percent of the total number of people sixteen years of age and older who do not have a job (Krugman & Wells. 2012). The United States assigns the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) with the task of tracking the employment and unemployment rate of the labor force in the United States (BOOK). The BLS breaks down the unemployment and labor rate much farther than just how many are working and not working and breaks the cart down to race, age, gender, and level of schooling from no high school diploma to bachelors degree and higher for t...   [tags: the business cycle, economic downturns]
:: 2 Works Cited
1120 words
(3.2 pages)
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Inflation Targeting Monetary Policy in the UK in 1992-1997: Was It Successful? - Increase in international economic integration necessitates countries to determine an appropriate monetary policy. It means the control of the money supply or interest rate by the monetary authority (Lipsey and Crystal, 2007). The main purpose of it is to provide the economic stability and growth. The mechanism that provides these changes in the monetary policy is called the monetary transmission mechanism (MTM). Therefore, the aim of this essay is to discuss and analyze the role of the MTM in solving macroeconomic problems....   [tags: Economics ]
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1282 words
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Inflation and Its Effects on Investment - Inflation and Its Effects on Investment For world economic markets, inflation is a fairly new experience as for much of the pre-twentieth century there had been little upward pressure on prices due to gold and other metallic standards. These backed currencies limited governments’ abilities to create new money. So at the end of the gold standard strong political pressures often caused governments to issue more money increasing the money supply and therefor the price level. Inflation reflects a situation where the demand for goods and services exceeds their supply in the economy(Hall, 1982)....   [tags: Finance Financial Economics Essays]
:: 5 Works Cited
1361 words
(3.9 pages)
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Relationship Between Inflation and Unemployment - Inflation and unemployment are two key elements when evaluating a whole economy and it is also easy to get those figures from National Bureau of Statistics when you want to evaluate it. However, the relationship between them is a controversial topic, which has been debated by economists for decades. From some famous economists such as Paul Samuelson, Milton Freidman etc to some infamous economists, this topic received a lot of attention. However, it is this debate that makes the thinking about it evolve....   [tags: Economics]
:: 8 Works Cited
1860 words
(5.3 pages)
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The Evolution Of Inflation In Romania - The Evolution of Inflation in Romania (Charts not available) As in other centrally planned economies, most consumer prices in Romania were fixed before the 1989 revolution. However, with the liberalization of economic policy dramatic changes occurred and high inflation was, and still is, expected to remain one of Romania¡¦s key short-term economic concerns....   [tags: Economy Economics] 1969 words
(5.6 pages)
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Inflation Indexing and its Macroeconomic Effects - ... The Federal Reserve Bank (FRB) has utilized the PCE as its primary inflation measure because it is thought to be more accurate than the CPI (Miller, R., 2008). The FRB uses PCE to determine anticipated inflation. The FRB adjusts monetary policy in an attempt to smooth inflation rates and prevent spikes of inflation or deflation. As to whether or not these attempts are fruitful depends on which school of economic you follow. The United States government, on the other hand, uses the CPI to set cost of living adjustments (COLA) for many entitlement programs as well as adjustments in tax brackets (Miller, J.,2013)....   [tags: price levels, cost of living, production costs]
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1215 words
(3.5 pages)
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Inflation - Inflation INFLATION CAN OUR ECONOMY GROW WITHOUT IT. INFLATION CAN OUR ECONOMY GROW WITHOUT IT. What is inflation. The definition of inflation, according to Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, is “an undue expansion or increase, from overissue.” Although, Webster’s is considered by most to be the overall best dictionary, WordNet states the meaning of inflation a lot clearer by saying, “it’s a general and progressive increase in prices.” It occurs when the value of goods rises faster than the value of money....   [tags: Economics]
:: 4 Works Cited
1098 words
(3.1 pages)
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Inflation - By the beginning of the 1980s, double-digit rates of inflation had become so pervasive among industrialized economies that they were viewed as a major deterrent to global economic growth. Since then, an explicit policy goal of low inflation has become a mantra for policymakers, and many countries, such as the U.K., New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Sweden, and the eleven countries under the European Central Bank (ECB), have enacted fundamental reforms to achieve that goal. Specifically, they have made their central banks more independent and thus insulated them from the temptations of inflationary finance; furthermore, in most of these cases, as well as in the U.S., central banks have practiced...   [tags: Economics Economy] 1903 words
(5.4 pages)
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Socio-economic and Political Consequences of Neoliberalism in Latin America - In the article “Successes and Failures of Neoliberalism” Evelyne Huber and Fred Solt describe economic, social and political consequences of the introduction of neoliberalism in Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s. To contrast the positive and negative impacts of neoliberalism Huber and Solt have taken into account five indicators: growth, economic stability and absence of volatility, poverty, inequality and quality of democracy (Huber and Solt 151). In a wide view of the regions' situation, growth performances reflect an increase in the first half of the 1990s but a decrease in the second half due to the effects of financial crises (Huber and Solt 151); which also had an e...   [tags: economic stability, poverty, social conditions]
:: 2 Works Cited
1358 words
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Government Budgets on Inflation - Government Budgets on Inflation Problems with format ?Since Greece and Italy are in the European Union and have both joined the European Monetary Union, one might think that they would have fairly stable economies, and Turkey would be the unstable one of the three.. But that is not necessarily true.. Although Turkey does have more of an unsteady economy, Italy and Greece?s were not doing so well in the recent past.. Looking at each country separately then comparing the three is the best way to see how the government budgets affect the inflation rates of Greece, Italy and Turkey.....   [tags: Economics Economy Essays]
:: 5 Works Cited
1720 words
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Money And Inflation - Money and Inflation The nation's economic stability has many factors which amount to inflation. Inflation may be caused by a number of problems, but there are some specific examples which have direct control over which way the prices and spending sway. Inflation simply means that the American dollar, in this case, is less valuable on the foreign exchange market and the gold standard is moved to higher prices; which simply means that more currency is needed to exchange for gold. Any slight change in investments or a company's cost premium could change the entire economy because of the domino effect acting on the rest of society....   [tags: essays research papers] 569 words
(1.6 pages)
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Inflation Targeting - It widely recognized that the monetary policy within a country should be primarily concerned with the pursuit of price stability. However, it is still not clear how this objective can be achieved most effectively. This debate remains unsettled, but an increasing number of countries have adopted inflation targeting as their monetary policy framework. (Dr E J van der Merwe, 2002) This topic of Inflation targeting is a subject which immediately conjures different perceptions from different people. Many feel that low inflation should be a main aim of monetary policy, while others (such as trade union activists) believe that a higher growth rate to stimulate jobs should be the main concern....   [tags: Economics] 1838 words
(5.3 pages)
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Globalization Perpetuates Economic Interdependence between Countries - ... Global competition allows nations with the comparative advantage to produce goods at a cheap cost, which keeps prices low for consumers. By keeping prices low, counties are able to decrease the opportunity for inflation to derail economic growth. Furthermore, globalization spurs innovation and presents the market with new innovative ideas formed to global collaboration. Technological innovation is among the many benefits of globalization. Globalization and unfettered capital flow, grants the United States access to foreign investment and allows the interest rates to remain low; in turn, allowing consumers to invest more in the economy....   [tags: world trade, global market, economic advancement]
:: 6 Works Cited
995 words
(2.8 pages)
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The effects of inflation on the labor market - Objective: The effect of inflation on the job market The Effects of inflation on the Job Market In the major industrial countries, low unemployment usually creates inflationary pressures. But during the recent economic expansion in the United States, prices have held steady despite low unemployment. Inflation is generally defined as an upward directional increase in the average of prices. Most people tend to be concerned about it because it reduces the purchasing power of the income earned by households....   [tags: essays research papers] 822 words
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Inflation in Thailand and Indonesia and the Asian Financial Crisis - There is a close relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the unemployment rate as it will relate to the decrease or increase of inflation rate. The inflation rate will increase when GDP and unemployment decreases, because it will affect the purchasing power of the people of a particular country. From 1997 to1998, both countries : Thailand and Indonesia reached their highest peak of inflation, which is 9.24% and 75.27% respectively. It is caused by the Asian financial crisis which hit most of the asian countries....   [tags: Stock, Market, Economy] 522 words
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Economic Overview - Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development - ... Most notably, fiscal consolidation and budget sequestration could be to blame (Hamshere, 2013). These two decisions reduced government spending and in the case of sequestration stopped spending for a temporary period of time. Although these policies are not directly economic, meaning they weren’t made with the economy in mind, they do effect the economies performance. The largest part of any governments job is to enforce the laws that allow businesses to operate and maintain rights over their real and intellectual property....   [tags: agricultural commodities, economic health]
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Features of the International Economic Environment - ... For foreign investors every country set some rules and regulations. Investor need to maintain these rules and regulation to do business on certain country. Political factors can influence the government to change these regulations. So investors need to know the regulations and get the proper knowledge about political environment. The features of international economic environment are complex in structure. There are different aspects of these features which affect business environment. Now-a-days use of technology is increasing....   [tags: economic activities and wealth] 694 words
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Inflation Targeting: Central Banks Should Not Go For It - A Project Report on Inflation Targeting: Should Central Bank go for it. Economic Environment and Policy INFLATION TARGETING Definition Inflation targeting framework refers to a set of economic policies adopted by the central bank wherein it announces a projected or "target" inflation rate and strives to achieve that figure using measures like interest rate changes and other monetary tools. Elements of Inflation Targeting[1] · Announcement of an explicit quantitative inflation target or range for some period of time....   [tags: Economics] 1100 words
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Journal: Decentralization and Economic Performance in Indonesia - The process of choosing this article begins by searching an article which I found interesting. I have decided that the topic will be decentralization since I am interested in the positive effect of decentralization, as being constantly discussed by academics and public policy practitioners in recent years. The article is found using the ANU Library’s website by searching on scholarly and peer review journal listing about decentralization, and limiting it to policy/political science field. Moreover, I decided to be more precise by combining it with another topic which I reckon interesting such as economic development, and choosing the country which I best known, Indonesia....   [tags: indonesia,decentralization,economic performance]
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Role of Federal Rate in Economics - The Federal Funds Rate is the interest rate that Federal Reserve uses to trade funds with banks. Changes in this rate can trigger a chain of events that can be beneficial or devastating to the economy. If a bank is charged a higher interest rate to trade money or take out a loan, then the increase will be passed on to their customers, causing them to pay higher transaction fees or more interest. Each month, the Federal Open Market Committee meets to determine the federal funds rate. This in turn affects other short term interest rates....   [tags: Recession, Money Flow, Inflation]
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Far East Asia's Economic Data - While the growing downside risks for advanced economies grow, Asia’s economic data has been holding up relatively well, with resilient domestic demand and a surprisingly strong bounce. The primary conduit in which Asia will be affected is the export-driven economies. The July export growth numbers released so far by three countries – China (+20.4% year-over-year), Korea (+27.3%) and Taiwan (+17.6%) – all significantly exceeded expectations, indicating a sharper month-over-month acceleration of final demand and was consistent with the earlier view that some of the temporary drags to final demand – Japan supply disruption and previously higher gas prices – were reversing....   [tags: Trade, Economic Growth] 1050 words
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The Relationship Between Inflation and Unemployement with the Long-run Phillips Curve - ... For example, based on Table 1 and Table 2 in (Appendix A), 2013-07 and 2013-08 the inflation rate increase from 1.8% to 2.0% while the unemployment rate decrease from 3.3% to 2.8% showing an inverse relationship that proved Philip Curve Theory. Factors affecting increase in inflation rate and decrease in unemployment rate in the short run: Increase in Government spending Increase in Aggregate Demand Increase in Output Increase in Price Figure 5: Shifting of Philip Curve Source: http://www.bized.co.uk As cited from Department of Economics of IOWA State University, the world economy tend to be stable from the 1950,s and 1960, the Philips Curve provided a true relationship for man...   [tags: government spending, ecomomist, stagflation] 1058 words
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Inflation and Absolute Power - Throughout the years the government has gained complete control over money and its development. The government wanted control because it believes that it is easier to acquire monetary assets if they have the control over all money and, at the same time, eliminate the middle-man of trade. With the ever growing population the government came up with a way to counterfeit money to keep up with the demand of money. This counterfeiting of money created inflation. Inflation happens when there is more and more money being created, this lessens the value of each individual dollar....   [tags: power] 712 words
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Money Supply and Inflation - Money Supply plays an important role in macroeconomic analysis, especially in selecting an appropriate monetary and fiscal policy. Considerably, I am yet to come across theoretical work that has been done on this topic (analysis money supply and its impact on other variable i.e. inflation, interest rate, real GDP and nominal GDP). However some other topics similar to this one have been done by AL-SHARKAS, Adel, where he uses the same technique and models on the topic ‘out put response to shocks to interest rate, inflation and stock returns....   [tags: Economy, Macroeconomics] 1726 words
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What´s Macro Policy: The Adaptive Expectations Theory - A theme that dominates modern discussions of macro policy is the importance of expectations, and economists have devoted a great deal of thought to expectations and the economy. Change in expectations can shift the aggregate demand (AD) curve; expectations of inflation can cause inflation. For this reason expectations are central to all policy discussions, and what people believe policy will be significantly influences the effectiveness of the policy. Expectations complicate models and policymaking enormously; they change the focus of discussions from a response that can be captured by simple models to much more complicated discussions....   [tags: economy, inflation] 1501 words
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Stop the Tuition Inflation - Higher education costs have been increasing at a rapid pace, faster than inflation for the economy as a whole, for the past fifty years. It started in the 1960’s when the federal government passed the Higher Education Act to increase the amount of people able to afford and attend college. Regardless of the Unites States Government efforts to increase the affordability of college, federal aid programs have not risen to expectations due to the ever-increasing college prices. To lower the price of college, the government needs to cut back on student financial spending to go only to the lowest income families and create tax incentives for families to start saving up on their own....   [tags: Higher Education, college]
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A Country's Income: Economic Freedom and Doing Business - Introduction Different countries’ economies can be broken down into subsections based on a number of factors. One of these sections is based on their income. The first of which is lower-income economies. In these economies, the average income is at $1,035 or less. There are middle- income economies with incomes falling between $1,036 and $12,615. And lastly there are higher-income economies which bring in $12,616 or more. We have chosen to study and analyze economies in each income level: Kenya from the lower-income economy, Jamaica from the middle-income economy, and Netherlands from the higher-income economy....   [tags: international economic indexes]
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The Affect of Political Instability and Inflation on Pakistan - ... According to the weak form FTPL inflation is a monetary phenomenon which is created by fiscal authorities and not the central bank. Therefore, there is a dominance of fiscal authorities in the creation of money and the incentive for the creation of money is the revenue through the printing of money i.e. seignorage. While the strong form FTPL argues that fiscal policy independently affects the price level and hence the inflation rate. It is independent of the changes of money growth and dependent on the changes in government debt or budget deficit....   [tags: stabalization, budget, phenomenon ] 1447 words
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Theories of Exchange Rate Determination - Before discussing the economic literature on the relationship between interest rates and exchange rates in full, it will be useful to briefly discuss some of the important theories of exchange rate determination. There are many theories such as the theory of Purchasing Power Purchase Agreement (PPP), the Flexible Price Monetary Model (FPM), Sticky Price Monetary Model (SPM), Real Interest Rate Differential Model (RIRD), and Portfolio Balance Theory (PBT) of exchange rate determination. The PPP to maintain equality between domestic and foreign prices are based on the domestic currency through commodity arbitrage....   [tags: economics, interest, inflation] 837 words
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The Great Inflation - The Great Inflation In late-1922 the German government were forced to ask the Allies for a moratorium on reparations payments; this was refused, and she then defaulted on shipments of both coal and timber to France. By January of the following year, French and Belgian troops had entered and occupied the Ruhr. The German people, perhaps for the first time since 1914, united behind their government, and passive resistance to the occupying troops was ordered. A government-funded strike began as thousands of workers marched out of their factories and steel works....   [tags: American History Essays]
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U.S. Economic Crisis - The United States is currently experiencing the biggest financial crisis after the Great Depression, in this paper we will discuss what caused the current economic crisis and why. Two What is the relationship between mortgages, the housing crisis and Wall Street. Third, how has this crisis affected fiscal policy and what are some of the drawbacks of government intervention. Four, what is the recession doing to GDP, economic growth and inflation and how are other countries faring. Five, discuss the different types of unemployment and why is underemployment becoming an economic issue and lastly, what should be done to get the economy back into expansion mode....   [tags: Economics] 871 words
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The Importance of Low Aggregate Volatility in the US Economy - ... Summers believes that monetary policy did not have a direct consequence on lower output volatility. He is not going so far to say that monetary policy had no part in the end result of The Great Moderation, but it was not the root cause. “The idea holds that monetary policy may have been important in reducing output volatility to the extent that policy changes have resulted in lower and more stable inflation” Summers, 12). Having an economy with low and stable inflation is beneficial for the economy....   [tags: business cycle, low inflation] 2078 words
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The Australian Government’s Implementation of the Economic Stimulus Plan - Inflation can be described as the sustained increase in the general level of prices over a given period of time, usually one year. Inflation can have negative effects on many of the key economic outcomes such as economic growth, exports, international competitiveness and income inequality. Inflation is measured in Australia by the Consumer Price Index (CPI); the CPI outlines the movement in the prices of a basket of goods and services that are weighted according to their importance for the average Australian household....   [tags: Economics]
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Overview on Inflation Targeting as a Monetary Policy Strategy - INTRODUCTION Since the 1990s, a large number of industrial countries and a growing number of emerging market and transition economies have adopted inflation targeting as their monetary policy strategy. During the implementation they face many challenges. However, there is no established pattern so countries must learn along the way from one another and more importantly from their own experience. This paper provides an overview on inflation targeting as a monetary policy strategy, necessary preconditions for its successful implementation, its advantages and disadvantages and issues and challenges that emerging market and transition economies face while defining and implementing this monetary...   [tags: transition economies, macroeconomic policy]
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CPI: Fluctuation of Price of Goods and Services in a Country - ... Shelter 31% Commodities 20% Food 14% Energy 10% Transportation 6% Medical service 5.5% There are many ways to describe CPI and how it is used. It can be referred to an economic indicator which basically is stats for the economic activity or using it as a way of adjusting dollar values. Though CPI is termed to be the cost of living index that may not hold true as it doesn’t account for some important factors that maybe it should. These factors that do not account for as a part of CPI are safety, criminal activity and supply of water quality....   [tags: Inflation, Deflation, Economy] 1074 words
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The Real Stabilization Plan of Brazil - Brazil faced many struggles with its currency throughout the last half century, eventually changing its currency five times before reaching what most would argue was their best stabilization plan. The stabilization plan that Brazil concluded with and is currently practicing is known as the Real. Each of the five currencies mentioned lasted at most three years, however since the creation of the Real Plan, the Real has been used for over twenty years. Compared to each of its predecessors, the Real Plan can easily be considered the most successful strategy followed by the Brasilian government....   [tags: inflation, brasilian economy, currency]
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Property Rights and the Economic System - ... Recently, in the works of economists increasingly common economic theory of property rights. The gist of it is that the property is not resources, and "beam rights " on the use of the resource. This "beam " includes rights : ownership - exclusive physical control of goods ; use - the use of beneficial properties for the benefit of themselves ; management - making decisions on the use of goods; income - the right to have the results from the use of goods; consumption , change, transfer or destruction of goods and etc....   [tags: transformation of property relations] 1693 words
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Understanding the Economic Recession in America - The economic recession of the late 2000s has been called the greatest economic downturn our country has faced since the Great Depression. American businesses and banks are failing, foreclosures are spreading like wildfire, and unemployment numbers have reached double digits. Under our current president, many are optimistic, but many others are fearful for the future. Economists have different speculations regarding the causes of the “Great Recession”. Some blame it on higher prices for necessities like oil....   [tags: economy, government criticism, analysis]
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The Economic Impact of Violent Crime - The Economic Impact of Violent Crime Introduction Crimes are not good for any society but an economic aspect is yet another topic of this issue. Violent crimes are expensive. Rapes, assassinations, assaults, as well as robberies and other extremist activities impose some concrete economic expenditures and outlays on the sufferers who survive over and above the families and relations of those who unfortunately lose their precious lives, in the failure of earnings as well as their physical plus psychological tolls....   [tags: brutal crimes are expensive] 2549 words
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Reasons for Zimbabwe's Economic Decline - Several decades ago, Zimbabwe was a country with good prospects, being the most rapidly developing African country. Nevertheless, few countries in Africa managed to continue prospering in XXI century, but Zimbabwe did not. Zimbabwean economy lies at the bottom of GDP ratings, faced one of the largest rates of hyperinflation in common history and does not develop due to corrupt administration and insufficient policy. Moreover, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe is responsible for printing money for government spending while Zimbabwean people are dying as a cause of famine, venereal diseases and poverty....   [tags: Economy, Africa]
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The Effects of Monetary Policy on Macroeconomics, GDP, Unemployment, Inflation and Interest Rates - Introduction Economics primarily focuses on how laws and government policies impact the economy. Much of this looks at taxes specifically and more generally the public finance, which includes the spending and borrowing the government does. The root word of economics is economy. Economy comes from the Greek oikos - home and nomos - managing. (Dkosopedia, 2006) Economy can be described as the current soundness of financial indicators such as jobs and job growth, economic productivity and output, and can also be measured by a vast range of other factors such as the trade deficit, national debt, GDP, and unemployment rates....   [tags: Monetary Policy Essays] 1607 words
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Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy - ... This policy also can order a reduction in government spending and thereby reduce the money in circulation. But with the fiscal policy the affects are not the same for everyone, it depends on the political orientation and goals of the policymakers, if there was a tax cut it would affect the middle class only, this is the largest economic group. If this were to happen because of economic decline and the rises of taxation, the middle class would have to pay more than the upper wealthier class. If a government decided to adjust it’s spending, the policy may affect a certain group of people, not just the economy as a whole....   [tags: economy, inflation, regulators] 791 words
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