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Your search returned over 400 essays for "Descartes"
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Descartes' Failure - Descartes' Failure In his Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes strives first and foremost to provide an infallibly justified foundation for the empirical sciences, and second to prove the existence of God. I will focus on the first and second meditations in my attempt to show that, in his skepticism of the sources of knowledge, he fails to follow the rules he has set out in the Discourse on Method. First I claim that Descartes fails to draw the distinction between pure sensation and inference, which make up what he calls sensation, and then consider the consequences of this failure to follow his method....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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4855 words
(13.9 pages)
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Descartes’ Cogito - Descartes’ Cogito It is the purpose of this essay to examine both Descartes’ Cogito argument and his skepticism towards small and universal elements, as well as the implications these arguments have on each other. First, I will summarize and explain the skepticism Descartes’ brings to bear on small and universal elements in his first meditation. Second, I will summarize and explain the Cogito argument, Descartes’ famous “I think, therefore I am” (it should be noted that this famous implication is not actually something ever said or written by Descartes, but instead, an implication taken from his argument for his own existence)....   [tags: Philosophy small universal elements] 1535 words
(4.4 pages)
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Descartes' Meditations - Descartes' Meditations Descartes' meditations are created in pursuit of certainty, or true knowledge. He cannot assume that what he has learned is necessarily true, because he is unsure of the accuracy of its initial source. In order to purge himself of all information that is possibly wrong, he subjects his knowledge to methodic doubt. This results in a (theoretical) doubt of everything he knows. Anything, he reasons, that can sustain such serious doubt must be unquestionable truth, and knowledge can then be built from that base....   [tags: Papers] 1022 words
(2.9 pages)
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The Existence of God – A Very Brief History - The subsequent essay will cover a brief history on the existence of God from René Descartes through Immanuel Kant. First, section (1), examines Descartes’ ontological argument for the existence of God. Following this, in (2), I consider G.W. Leibniz’s view which seeks to rectify some of Descartes shortcomings. Descartes and Leibniz believed that the existence of God could be proved via reason. The remainder of the essay then examines two additional philosophers, David Hume in section (4) and Immanuel Kant in (5), who content that God’s existence cannot be rationally proved....   [tags: Analysis, Descartes, Leibniz] 973 words
(2.8 pages)
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Rene Descartes - Rene Descartes Once upon a time we were told of the earth being the center of the universe. The sun, moon, and all planets even unknown were all revolving around our planet. We now look at that statement and wonder in amazement how our species could have pondered such a thought. Through advanced mathematical and persistently working to prove his theory, Rene Descartes transformed yet another one of these worldly assumptions and proved it all wrong. Rene Descartes Method of Doubt was simply his mathematical method in discovering the unanswered questions about the universe....   [tags: Papers] 401 words
(1.1 pages)
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Descartes Meditations - Meditations is a discussion of metaphysics, or what is truly real. In these writings, he ultimately hopes to achieve absolute certainty about the nature of everything including God, the physical world, and himself. It is only with a clear and distinct knowledge of such things that he can then begin understand his true reality. Descartes starts by looking at our usual sources for truth. Authority, which is churches, parents, and schools, he says, are not reliable sources for truth because time shows we all die, and that we are eventually proved wrong, much in the same way the accepted truths of science have changed dramatically over the course of history....   [tags: essays research papers] 1326 words
(3.8 pages)
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Rene Descartes - Rene Descartes was born on March 31, 1596 in La Haye Touraine, France. Descartes was considered a "jack of all trades", making major contributions to the areas of anatomy, cognitive science, optics, mathematics and philosophy. He has been referred to as the father of modern rationalism, soldier of fortune, scholar, pilgrim, traveler, and a firm adherent of the Roman Catholic faith. He was educated at the Jesuit college of La Fleche in Anjou. He entered the college at the age of eight years, just a few months after the opening of the college in January, 1604....   [tags: Biography Biographies Bio] 1725 words
(4.9 pages)
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The Cartesian Circle is Wrong - Rene Descartes meditations on the existence of God are very profound, thought-provoking, and engaging. From the meditations focused specifically on the existence of God, Descartes uses the argument that based on his clear and distinct perception that cannot be treated with doubt, God does exist. In the beginning of the third meditation, Descartes proclaims that he is certain he is a thinking thing based on his clear and distinct perception, and he couldn’t be certain unless all clear and distinct perceptions are true....   [tags: rene descartes, god exists]
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1602 words
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Descartes Knowledge - Descartes Knowledge The question of our existence in reality is a question which philosophers have tackled throughout time. This essay will look at the phrase, cogito ergo sum or I think therefore I am, a phrase brought about by Rene Descartes. This phrase is the backbone of Descartes whole philosophy of our existence in reality. As long as we are thinking things, we exist. When we look at this approach to our existence we must first deny that any sensory data that we receive is believable or it is conceivable that it is false....   [tags: essays research papers] 1087 words
(3.1 pages)
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Descartes' Views on the Topic of Philosophy of Mind - Descartes' Views on the Topic of Philosophy of Mind Descartes has indeeed made some notable contributions towards the philosophy of mind. It is the aim of this essay to discuss these contributions. Descartes is well known for being an avid dualist. This is the view that the mind and body are understood to be seperate and distinct from each other, but in some way causally connected. Descartes was no exception and believed the mind and body to be two completely different substances....   [tags: Papers] 749 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Deceiving Power of God - In Meditations III, one of the six meditations in his book Meditation, Objections, and Replies, René Descartes acknowledges the existence of God. Descartes says, “Indeed I have no choice but to conclude that the mere fact of my existing and of there being in me an idea of a most perfect being, that is, God, demonstrates most evidently that God too exists.”(28) Descartes believes that he did not come into existence by himself, but some higher being, God, had to be in existence already and had to create Descartes....   [tags: Perfection, Examples, Descartes] 955 words
(2.7 pages)
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René Descartes and Thomas Hobbes : A Dialogue - René Descartes and Thomas Hobbes: A Dialogue As one embarks on the incredible journey through Descartes’ meditations, a plethora of doubts, criticisms and seemingly fundamental problems arise and block one’s progress. No doubt, many of these can be attributed to the fact that we of the twenty-first century come more than three and a half centuries after the brilliant mind of Descartes (or shall we say, ‘that was Descartes’) spawned the immense framework of philosophy that is contained within The Meditations....   [tags: Politics Philosophy Sociology]
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1588 words
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Descartes philosophy - Descartes’ “evil genius scenario” provides the possibility for the existence of an evil genius that is in control of our world in place on an omnipotent god. By in control, I mean that he would in some magical way compose our lives by his own will, thus making any certain knowledge about material objects impossible. This scenario presents some real questions with Descartes’ argument because it basically completely rules out the possibility of any god. We are imagining that Dr. Spiritus has invaded a small rural hospital and has stolen the brains of several babies....   [tags: essays research papers] 775 words
(2.2 pages)
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Rene Descartes - Essay # 2 Rene Descartes was a French philosopher. His theory is that reality consists of mind and matter. Descartes answers the question or attempts to answer the question of “what is real?” using dualism. Dualism is defined as the view that reality is composed of two different substances, so that neither one can be related to the other. Such examples being; spirit/matter, mind/body, good/evil. Descartes feels that the human can be broken down into two separate substances; a mind having no physical attributes and a body having a shape....   [tags: essays research papers] 404 words
(1.2 pages)
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Descartes First Meditation - Descartes&#8217; first meditation, his main objective is to present three skeptical arguments to bring doubt upon what he considers his basic beliefs. Descartes believes this to be an intricate part of his complete epistemological argument. Descartes skeptical arguments are not intended to be a denial of his basic beliefs. On the contrary, he uses these arguments to help prove one of his main theses, which is the existence of God. One of the main premises that Descartes uses in his proof for the existence of God comes from the evil demon argument, which he proposed, in the first meditation....   [tags: essays research papers] 909 words
(2.6 pages)
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René Descartes' Argument on the Existence of God - René Descartes' Argument on the Existence of God The problem with René Descartes' argument about the existence of God has to do with his rationalist deductive reasoning. Descartes deduces that truth about the existence of God lies within his idea of a perfect God and God's essence (as a perfect being who must exist in order to be perfect). A rationalist philosopher, Descartes discounts human knowledge as a product of our sensory data (our senses) but supports the epistemological stance that our knowledge is obtained through the reasoning processes of our own minds....   [tags: Philosophy God Existence Religion Essays]
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1537 words
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Cartesian and Platonic Philosophical Themes in The Matrix - This essay will examine the philosophical questions raised in the movie The Matrix. It will step through how the questions from the movie directly relate to both skepticism and the mind-body problem, and further how similarly those problems look to concepts raised by both Descartes’ and Plato’s philosophies. It will attempt to show that many of the questions raised in the movie are metaphor for concepts from each philosopher’s works, and why those concepts are important in relation to how they are presented in the film....   [tags: Cartesian Dualism, Descartes, Plato]
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2052 words
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Descartes' Wax Passage - Descartes' Wax Passage How do we know what we know. Ideas reside in the minds of intelligent beings, but a clear perception of where these ideas come from is often the point of debate. It is with this in mind that René Descartes set forth on the daunting task to determine where clear and distinct ideas come from. A particular passage written in Meditations on First Philosophy known as the wax passage shall be examined. Descartes' thought process shall be followed, and the central point of his argument discussed....   [tags: Papers] 1085 words
(3.1 pages)
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Christopher Grau's Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and the Matrix - In “Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and the Matrix”, Christopher Grau explains Rene Descartes argument in Meditation. What one may interpret as reality may not be more than a figment of one’s imagination. One argument that Grau points out in Descartes essay is how one knows that what one think is an everyday experience awake is not all a part of a hallucination. He uses the example of dreams to draw a conclusion about is claim based on experiences one would experience with dreaming....   [tags: Philosophy, Rene Descartes, Meditation] 548 words
(1.6 pages)
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Skepticism in The Film Matrix and The Allegory of The Cave - Skepticism deals with a person’s belief and if the person can truly trust their senses. As Plato, Descartes, and the creators of The Matrix express in their writings and movies is the possibility of a person’s senses being deceived as there is no proof that the five sense of the person’s body is not being altered as the senses are all processed within the mind. There is no proof that the whole world is real, but people have to trust in their senses in order to believe this. However, these senses of sight, smell, sound, and so forth could be tricked....   [tags: plato, descartes, belief]
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641 words
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Rene Descartes - Rene Descartes Rene Descartes was a math philosopher, he was born in Toures, on March 31 1596, and he died at Stockholm on February 11 1650. His father was forced to spend half the year at Rennes, where he was a councilman. The rest of the time he spent with his family of Les Cartes at La Haye. Rene was the second child out of four kids. At the age of eight, he was sent to the Jesuit School at La Fleche. The school had very good education and discipline. On account of his delicate health, he was permitted to lie in bed until late in the mornings....   [tags: Papers] 622 words
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The Philosophical and Scientific Methods of René Descartes - The Philosophical and Scientific Methods of René Descartes René Descartes (1596 – 1650) is one of the most widely known philosophers in history and he is frequently discussed as an inventor of the modern scientific method. Rene Descartes was born on March 31, 1596, in La Haye of Touraine. He came from a wealthy family, and thus did not have any real financial worries. At age ten, his father sent him to the College Henri IV at La Fleche. This was a newly established Jesuit school, which was considered one of the best in Europe in terms of academic quality....   [tags: Biography Biographies]
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Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy -      Descartes believes that knowledge comes from within the mind. This is a single indisputable fact to build on that can be gained through individual reflection. While seeking true knowledge, Descartes writes his Six Meditations. In these meditations, Descartes tries to develop a strong foundation, which all knowledge can be built upon. In the First Meditation, Descartes begins developing this foundation through the method of doubt. He casts doubt upon all his previous beliefs, including “matters which are not entirely certain and indubitable [and] those which appear to be manifestly false.” (Descartes, p.75, par.3) Once Descartes clears away all beliefs that can be called into doubt, he c...   [tags: Meditations on First Philosophy Essays]
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2108 words
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Rene Descartes Mathematician - René Descartes: "Father of Modern Mathematics" 1596-1650 René Descartes was born in La Haye, Touraine (France) in March of 1596 and died at Stockholm on February 11, 1650. René, the second of a family of two sons and one daughter, was sent to the Jesuit School at La Flêche at the early age of eight. Since he was of poor health he was permitted to lie in bed till late in the mornings, a custom which he always followed. When Pascal visited in 1647 he told him that the only way to do good work in mathematics and to preserve his health was never to allow anyone to make him get up in the morning before he felt like it On leaving school in 1612 Descartes went to Paris to...   [tags: Biography Biographies Bio] 1298 words
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Distinguished Ways To Achieve Knowledge: A Priori and A Posteriori. - When it comes to knowledge, the main focus of philosophers is propositional knowledge or knowing that something is or is not the case (Vaughn, 254). Philosophers believe that propositional knowledge has three necessary conditions to know a proposition: believe it, it must be true, and we must have good reasons to justify why it is true (Vaughn, 254). In other words, just because we believe in something, it does not make it true. Now in order to have knowledge, our beliefs must be true, and we must have sound reasons to believe that they are true....   [tags: descartes, rationalists, empiricists]
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Descartes Sixth Meditation - In his sixth meditation must return to the doubts he raised in his first meditation. In this last section of his sixth meditation he deals mainly with the mind-body problem; and he tries to prove whether material things exist with certainly. In this meditation he develops his Dualist argument; by making a distinction between mind and body; although he also reveals their rather significant relationship. Primarily he considers existence of the external world and whether our experience hold knowledge of this world or whether this knowledge is merely an illusion....   [tags: essays research papers] 1379 words
(3.9 pages)
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René Descartes' Meditations - René Descartes' Meditations René Descartes’ argument that he does not know his piece of wax through his senses is rather straightforward. First, his sensory perceptions of the wax are its color, scent, sound, texture, temperature and the like. However, these purported properties of the wax are not constant; if the wax is brought close to a flame, its color, sound, texture and all the rest will change. Nevertheless, Descartes claims, no one would deny that the object now by the fire is the same wax that was first away from the fire....   [tags: Philosophy Essays] 1127 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Intent of Bouwsma's Descartes' Evil Genius - The Intent of Bouwsma's Descartes' Evil Genius Bouwsma's essay critiques Descartes' use of the evil demon in his Meditations on First Philosophy through the creation of two situations in which the "evil genius" attempts to use his powers for their express purpose, that of deception. Bouwsma conveniently admits the existence of "four or five clear and distinct ideas" and goes on to show that the evil genius is capable of deceiving mankind about everything else, specifically sensory perceptions....   [tags: Papers] 808 words
(2.3 pages)
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Descartes and Knowing with Certainty of God's Existence - Descartes and Knowing with Certainty of God's Existence Descartes, Pascal, and the Rationalist Credo Pascal asserts that we can know only by the heart, whereas Descartes would have us believe through his truths that we can know with certainty of Gods existence. The factors that go into their views on reason will be compared and accented within this essay. The order of the universe is knowable to Descartes. He proves these by using certain truths. To arrive at these truths Descartes doubted everything and especially could not trust authoritarian knowledge....   [tags: Papers] 774 words
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The Relationship of the Mind and the Body: The Person - Can the mind exist without the body. Can the body exist without the mind. Surely in this day and age, there are artificial ways to keep the body alive even if the brain is pronounced dead. Likewise, the body can be completely immobilized, in a coma, yet the mind can still be alive and active. But can either really exist in its entirety on its own, performing its functions as usual, and in the same manner as if it was still in union with its partner. In his book, Discourse on the Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, Rene Descartes analyzes the mind and the body as two entirely distinct and separate entities....   [tags: philosphy, descartes, aquinas]
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1084 words
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Descartes Sixth Meditation - In the Sixth Meditation, Descartes makes a point that there is a distinction between mind and body. It is in Meditation Two when Descartes believes he has shown the mind to be better known than the body. In Meditation Six, however, he goes on to claim that, as he knows his mind and knows clearly and distinctly that its essence consists purely of thought. Also, that bodies' essences consist purely of extension, and that he can conceive of his mind and body as existing separately. By the power of God, anything that can be clearly and distinctly conceived of as existing separately from something else can be created as existing separately....   [tags: essays research papers] 1138 words
(3.3 pages)
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Comparing Rene Descartes To Paul Churchland - Rene Descartes and Paul Churchland are both well respected philosophers with different out-looks on the mind and body relationship. Descartes achieved many great things in his time, but at the time that he wrote Meditations on First Philosophy he seemed to be borderline insane. His ideas are too drastic and gloomy, where as Churchland’s ideas in his writing Eliminitative Materialism seems to be agreeable and bright. Rene Descartes was a famous French Philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Because of his work in his application of algebra to geometry we now have Cartesian geometry....   [tags: Compare Contrast Philosophy Philosopher] 1701 words
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The Life of Rene’ Descartes: His Works and His Beliefs in God - Was Rene’ Descartes just a visionary of truth, mathematical equations or was he truly a man that knew he was born to tell the world about life, knowledge, and how it all came together metaphorically. Please see the research on Rene’ Descartes cited accomplishments. Descartes was known as the first modern philosopher. Famous for making a connection between geometry and algebra, which allowed for solving of geometrical problem by way of algebraic equations, which promoted a new conception of matter, which accounted for physical phenomena by way of mechanical explanations and the premise of knowledge of ones self and the existence of God....   [tags: Biography ]
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Rene Descartes' Impact on the Scientific Method - Rene Descartes' Impact on the Scientific Method People have always thought about the world around them. Through the centuries they have wondered about what their surroundings were made of. Modern science has proven to be most effective in explaining our environment. What makes modern science superior to the ancient schools of thought is the employment of the scientific method. The man credited to a great extent with the development of the scientific method is René Descartes, a French philosopher who lived from 1596 to 1650....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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Descartes' First Meditation - Descartes' First Meditation Rene Descartes decision to shatter the molds of traditional thinking is still talked about today. He is regarded as an influential abstract thinker; and some of his main ideas are still talked about by philosophers all over the world. While he wrote the "Meditations", he secluded himself from the outside world for a length of time, basically tore up his conventional thinking; and tried to come to some conclusion as to what was actually true and existing. In order to show that the sciences rest on firm foundations and that these foundations lay in the mind and not the senses, Descartes must begin by bringing into doubt all the beliefs that come to him by the sens...   [tags: Papers] 1330 words
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Certainty in Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy - Certainty in Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy René Descartes was the first philosopher to raise the question of how we can claim to know anything about the world with certainty. The idea is not that these doubts are probable, but that their possibility can never be entirely ruled out. If we can never be certain, how can we claim to know anything. The First Meditation of Meditations on First Philosophy, subtitled "What can be called into doubt," opens with the Meditator reflecting on the number of falsehoods he has believed during his life and on the subsequent ability of the body to deceive him....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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Cartesian Dualism and Gilbert Ryle - This essay will define Cartesian dualism, explain and critically evaluate Gilbert Ryle’s response to Cartesian dualism in his article, “Descartes’ Myth” and support Ryle’s argument on Descartes’ substance dualism. Cartesian dualism is a type of mind-body dualism formulated by the infamous Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Descartes’ dualism is about entities: he states there are two distinct kinds of entities, bodies and minds (1). All objects that exist or can exist belong to one of these categories....   [tags: descartes, the concept of mind]
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Descartes Vs. Pascal - Descartes vs. Pascal For centuries, human beings have been debating over the validity of the use of reason. This is a very, very difficult subject to discuss, as one is forced to study something which is at that moment being used in their study. Two classic thinkers who contrasted on their view of reason were Descartes and Pascal. Though both saw reason as the primary source of knowledge, they disagreed over the competence of human reason. Descartes, the skeptic, said that we could use reason to find certain truth if we used it correctly, while Pascal said that we can't know certain truth, but reason is the best source of knowledge that we have....   [tags: essays research papers] 1166 words
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The Certainty of the Mind: Arguements from Rene Descartes' Meditation II - It is human nature to question our origins and wonder if we have purpose in this world. Rene Descartes sought to answers these questions by examining himself and God through his Meditations. In Meditation II, Descartes believes his mind is certain because he is able to perceive and understand thoughts. His many questions lead him from one idea of certainty to the next. The explanations of these ideas are clear enough for his argument to be considered true. Descartes mind began to race in his first meditation....   [tags: deception, existance, thinking]
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The Existence of God: the Arguments of Locke and Descartes - Descartes believes that God's existence is clear and distinct. God exists because the thought of God is derived from a "completely clear and distinct" idea from within his being (which he concedes is a thinking being). Having come from distinct thoughts, the idea of God can therefore never be considered a falsity. From this very distinct idea of God comes everything else that one grasps distinctly and clearly. He states, "From the fact that I cannot think of God not existing, it follows that existence cannot be separated from God and thus that he actually exists." (298) The existence of God is something that cannot be separated, just as we cannot separate the idea of an ocean without sand....   [tags: Ethics] 960 words
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Descartes’ Daydream and the Mind-Body Problem - Descartes’ Daydream and the Mind-Body Problem After exhorting us to wake up from our ‘daydreaming’ and revolutionize our modality of thought to that of conceptualization, Descartes seems to forget about this crucial matter of a discontinuous leap. So, too, it seems has the profession generally and this has infected philosophical research and teaching. It is urged here that discontinuous processes are crucial in the universe, in human life, in human thinking. Such ontological events cannot be handled by dualism, materialism or postmodernism....   [tags: Philosophy Papers] 3173 words
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Descartes' Trademark Argument for God's Existence - Descartes' Trademark Argument for God's Existence The trademark argument (also known as the causal argument) tries to prove Gods existence through the fact that we have an idea of him. This argument rests on Descartes' definition of cause and effect, which he considers a priori. This idea, that God is an infinite being, he reasons is innate left on our brain as his stamp or trademark much like a potter leaves on his pots. "God, at my creation, implanted this idea in me, that it might serve, as it were, for the mark of the workman impressed on his work" This idea of infinity must be innate because a finite thing like a human cannot come up with the idea of something...   [tags: Papers] 749 words
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If A Tree Falls in the Philosophical Forest, Someone Managed to Undermine Descartes Ambitions for Epistemology - To truly think about knowledge brings about some interesting thought. When asked to think about knowledge, most individuals concern themselves solely with what they know such as certain subjects, theories or facts. In the grand scheme of things, this way of thought is seemingly only minute or even superficial. As human beings, we do not always considered how we come to know what we know. We often place are acquisition of knowledge lower in a taxonomy of importance. All too often, individuals take knowledge and its power for granted....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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Knowledge, Confidence, and Deceit in Descartes and Shakespeare - Knowledge, Confidence, and Deceit in Descartes and Shakespeare “Knowledge is power,” the English philosopher Francis Bacon once said1. It seems obvious then, that knowledge is something to be sought after, and of course it is sought after in everyday life, in thoughts, and in fiction. However, there is danger in this. Bacon’s quote no doubt refers to true knowledge, as power rarely comes from being misled. Yet, we are misled, deceived, and betrayed when in the pursuit of knowledge. A challenge then arises: how to continue in the pursuit of knowledge, something obviously necessary in life, while verifying that we are not being led astray....   [tags: Philosophy William Shakespeare Religion Essays]
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Doubt and the Meditations - Within Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes undertakes a worthy goal: the discovery of the sources of doubt with the ultimate result being more truthful opinions, assertions, and arguments. Descartes was well ahead of his times, forging a pathway to more rigorous scholarship through the casting of doubt upon his “opinions”. Unfortunately, however, Descartes was either unable or unwilling to cast doubt upon his primary source of fallibility: his exaltation of all things cerebral and his concurrent disdain for the physical body....   [tags: Descartes, Book Analysis, Philosophy] 1443 words
(4.1 pages)
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Truth in Into The Wild by John Krakauer and The allegory of the Cave by Plato - ... However it is only a small portion of the world that is brave enough to take on the obscene verity of life. These few do not accept what they are told, the crave to know what is beyond each wall, over each mount, and across each ocean. They want their reality to be their own wild and true experiences in nature. Chris went out into the world to seeking truth. Instead of being told or given what he sought, he wanted to find the answers to his own questions. For example, Chris wanted an answer about his father, and it was only when he went outside the bubble of lies he was fed and into the world that he found the truth of how terrible a person his father truly was....   [tags: philosophy, descartes, thoreau] 929 words
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Descartes’, Spinoza’s, and Leibniz’s Response to the Mind-Body Problem - Since Descartes many philosophers have discussed the problem of interaction between the mind and body. Philosophers have given rise to a variety of different answers to this question all with their own merits and flaws. These answers vary quite a lot. There is the idea of total separation between mind and body, championed by Descartes, which has come to be known as “Cartesian Dualism”. This, of course, gave rise to one of the many major responses to the mind-body problem which is the exact opposite of dualism; monism....   [tags: Philosophy, Greek] 2994 words
(8.6 pages)
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Great Philosophers and Lives Well Lived - There have been many great philosophers throughout time. Socrates, Thomas Aquinas and Rene Descartes all lived during different times. This gave each of them different insights, which helped to create their philosophies and principles of their philosophies. Each philosopher also had a different means as to how they delivered their ideas and teachings. With so many differences the three had one thing in common: A love for wisdom, and the need to share it with others. Socrates was a great philosopher from Ancient Greece....   [tags: Socrates, Aquinas, Descartes]
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An Evaluation of Descartes' Argument that an Evil Demon Manipulates through Senses - I. Introduction This paper is an evaluation of the argument Descartes presents about the possibility of the influence of an evil demon influencing manipulating and deceiving us through our senses. The second section is to describe the method of doubt and how it progresses to the third section which evaluates the progression through the evil spirit argument. Fourth, is how one can take both the method of doubt and the evil spirit argument and come to the conclusion that one still exists and is a thinking being....   [tags: meditation, doubt, spirit] 1074 words
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Arguments fro Dualistic Theories - Even though there are many cases and arguments for Dualism concerning mind - body, such as Descartes’ substance dualism, the theory does not often have hard, physical evidence to back up such premise like science does. The continued scientific progress over the past centuries has allowed us to better understand universal truths and the functions of the mind-body that were not able to have been explained scientifically in the past. Many complex, unexplained complexities have been simplified or “reduced” through chemistry,biology, or physics....   [tags: Descartes, philosophical analysis] 1214 words
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Qualitative vs Quantitative Research - The father of quantitative analysis, Rene Descartes, thought that in order to know and understand something, you have to measure it (Kover, 2008). Quantitative research has two main types of sampling used, probabilistic and purposive. Probabilistic sampling is when there is equal chance of anyone within the studied population to be included. Purposive sampling is used when some benchmarks are used to replace the discrepancy among errors. The primary collection of data is from tests or standardized questionnaires, structured interviews, and closed-ended observational protocols....   [tags: philosophy, rene descartes]
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Does God Actually Exist? Descartes and his Fifth Meditation - ... Therefore, God must exist. Gaunilo of Marmoutiers tore apart Anselm's idea by requesting people to perceive an island "more excellent" than any other island, enlightening the faults in this kind of argumentation. This type of a priori argument i.e. pure deduction is wholly imperfect, often superfluous, and completely fails to take empirical proof into justification. Rene Descartes has a bit more descriptive idea on this material; Descartes, in his Fifth Meditation, transcribed that the beginning of an absolute perfect being who does not exist is like conjuring up a triangle whose interior angles don't sum to 180 degrees, as he was huge on the concept of distinctive ideas and the principl...   [tags: philosophers, human existance] 1034 words
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Hitchcock/Descartes - Hitchcock/Descartes Am I really awake typing a paper for philosophy. Did I just watch the Hitchcock film Shadow of a Doubt or did the “not so supremely good God” plant a reel of thoughts in my head (Descartes16). That would be ironic since the themes of the film are based upon human understanding of doubt, dreams, good, evil, ignorance and knowledge. The film portrays a neat staircase that leads into the house of an all American family and a rickety set of stairs off the side of the house that are private and used for escape....   [tags: Philosophy] 934 words
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Prove the Existence of God Using Who Has the Idea of God - In this paper, I will explain how Descartes uses the existence of himself to prove the existence of God. The “idea of God is in my mind” is based on “I think, therefore I am”, so there is a question arises: “do I derive my existence. Why, from myself, or from my parents, or from whatever other things there are that are less perfect than God. For nothing more perfect than God, or even as perfect as God, can be thought or imagined.” (Descartes 32, 48) Descartes investigates his reasons to show that he, his parents and other causes cannot cause the existence of himself....   [tags: descartes, god's existence, idea of god]
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The Logical Fallacies of Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy - The Logical Fallacies of Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy includes a proof for the existence of material objects, such as trees. Descartes accomplishes this by first doubting all things, from which he learns that he can be certain of nothing but his own existence as a thinking thing. From this established certainty, Descartes is able to provide proof for the existence of God, and, finally proof of the existence of material objects. Descartes’ proof of God, however, from which the proof of material things is made possible, is suspect: the proof relies on knowledge of clear and distinct ideas but knowledge of clear and distinct ideas...   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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2340 words
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Third Meditation:The Existence of God - In the Third Meditation, entitled “Of God: That He Exists”, Rene Descartes presents an argument for the existence of God. Meditation III talks about what is real and how to justify it. Descartes acknowledges of being doubtful of bodily things but is absolutely assured that he exists and he clearly and distinctly perceives this fact. As he confirms: I am a thinking (conscious) thing, that is, a being who doubts, affirms, denies, knows a few objects, and is ignorant of many, - [who loves, hates], wills, refuses, who imagines likewise, and perceives....   [tags: Meditations on First Philosophy, Rene Descartes]
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Descartes Third Meditation: Proof of Gods Existence - Descartes' Third Meditation: Proof of God's Existence In Rene Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes is seeking to find a system of stable, lasting and certain knowledge, which he can ultimately regard as the Truth. In his methodical quest to carry out his task, Descartes eventually arrives at the proverbial fork in the road: how to bridge the knowledge of self with that of the rest of the world. Descartes’ answer to this is to prove the existence of God. The purpose of this essay will be to state and explain Descartes' Third Meditation: Proof of God's Existence by identifying relevant concepts and terminology and their relationship to each other and examining each premise a...   [tags: essays research papers] 1356 words
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Descartes’ Arguments for the Real Distinction of Mind and Body - Descartes’ Arguments for the Real Distinction of Mind and Body Descartes argues has three main arguments for minds and bodies being two different distinct types of substance. These are known as arguments for substance dualism and are as follows. * The Argument from doubt : Descartes argues that while he could pretend or think that he had no body and therefore did not exist in any place, he could not think or pretend he had no mind, as merely having a doubt that he had a mind proves that he does....   [tags: Papers] 1168 words
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The Dualists - The infinite theoretical duel between the duality of our mind and body by philosophers has been one that has been replete with a magnitude of different philosophical theories that try to posit our existentiality. Consequently, these theorists try to find the answers to the causality of how the mind and the brain truly interact: Are we our synapses, or are we something more than that. However, one theory that has been of interest to many recent scientists and philosophers alike is one that has been around since its conception by a famous mathematician and philosopher named Rene Descartes....   [tags: Rene Descartes]
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1852 words
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Descartes Skeptical Argument And Reponses By Bouwsma And Malcolm - Descartes' Skeptical Argument and Reponses by Bouwsma and Malcolm In this essay, I will examine Rene Descartes' skeptical argument and responses by O.K. Bouwsma and Norman Malcolm. I intend to prove that while both Bouwsma and Malcolm make points that refute specific parts of Descartes' argument in their criticisms, neither is sufficient in itself to refute the whole. In order to understand Descartes' argument and its sometimes radical ideas, one must have at least a general idea of his motives in undertaking the argument....   [tags: essays research papers] 2359 words
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Why God Cannot Exist Using Descartes' Arguements - Why God Cannot Exist Using Descartes' Arguements Descartes sets about proving the existence of God through his meditations on knowledge in an effort to prove the skeptics of his time wrong. He first determines that human knowledge is based entirely too much on unproved presuppositions. He argues that this makes it difficult to distinguish between truth and error, since we cannot recognize true knowledge. Descartes proposes that the quest for knowledge must be based upon universal doubt. Specifically, he proposes the following in relation to his universal methodic doubt: 1....   [tags: Papers] 1031 words
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Descartes' Proof of the Existence of God in Meditation Three - Descartes' Proof of the Existence of God in Meditation Three This paper is intended to explain and evaluate Descartes' proof for the existence of god in Meditation Three. It shall show the weaknesses in the proof, but also give credit to the strengths in his proof. It will give a background of what Descartes has already accepted as what he truly knows. The paper will also state Descartes two major points for the existence of God and why the points can easily be proven false. The paper will also show that if a God does exist that God can in fact be an evil deceiver....   [tags: Papers] 1027 words
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The Conquests of Latin America: Elements That Played A Role - The destruction of entire people is often overlooked, due to the important fact that it is usually the victor that writes the history books and the facts to be. In Alex Nava’s Wonder and Exile, in the New World adventurers of many backgrounds such as Cabeza de Vaca and Bartolome Las Casas, help to develop three important concepts within the cultural, religious, and literary representations of modern day Latin America. Over a span of 500 years Nava’s three concepts of wonder, exile, and deprivation are shown to have an importance in the shape and further development of the Americas and its Native peoples....   [tags: wonder and exile, alex nava, descartes]
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The Mind-Body Problem - With the number of brain injury cases observed and the continuous advances in neuroscience, this has proven to be strong evidence in supporting materialism. By defining what Cartesian dualists and materialists mean by the ‘brain’, ‘mind’, ‘body’ and ‘soul’, an argument on behalf of Cartesians dualists will be reached, that responds to evidence concerning brain injuries with the claims that the brain is only ‘an instrument of the soul’. This will lead to the conclusion that there is stronger contemporary support for materialism due to neuroscience and that the Cartesian dualism argument as it is, may be wrong....   [tags: Cartesian Dualism, Rene Descartes]
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Comparing Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy and Plato's The Republic - In the field of philosophy there can be numerous answers to a general question, depending on a particular philosopher's views on the subject. Often times an answer is left undetermined. In the broad sense of the word and also stated in the dictionary philosophy can be described as the pursuit of human knowledge and human values. There are many different people with many different theories of knowledge. Two of these people, also philosophers, in which this paper will go into depth about are Descartes and Plato....   [tags: Compare Contrast philosophy] 1499 words
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Assessment of Descartes' Claims About the Existence of God - Assessment of Descartes' Claims About the Existence of God While reading Descartes book “meditations on the first philosophy” I noticed some fatal flaws in his reasoning in his 3rd mediation, so I shall start from the start of this chapter and assess his reasoning’s as I read through the chapter. Descartes assesses that he is certain he is a thinking thing, as I think therefore I am is self-evident, he then tries to go on to see whatever else he can be certain about. He notices with “I am a thinking thing” he has a “clear and distinct perception of what he is asserting”, He then turns this around and states that things that he clearly and distinctly perceives are tru...   [tags: Papers] 738 words
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René Descartes Does Not Reject Sense Perception - René Descartes Does Not Reject Sense Perception Some have suggested that René Descartes argues that sense perception relies on the mind rather than on the body. Descartes asserts that we can know our mind more readily than we can know our body. In support of this idea he gives the example of a piece of wax which is observed in its solid form and its liquid form. After pointing out the difficulties of relying on the senses of the physical body to understand the nature of the wax he makes this claim: [P]erception ......   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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Descartes and His "Crazy Thought Experiment" - (a) Descartes' first meditation, on what can be called into doubt, is an attempt to discard everything that he has come to be known as true and existing. One might wonder what point there is to adopting such a sceptical way of thinking as, surely, it would only bring about much confusion and a kind of awkwardness which, I think, is unnecessary. However, it is only fair to fully consider an argument before criticising it. I will therefore discuss, in detail, Descartes' "Evil Demon" thought experiment; as to what type of information is it designed to undercut, and how it accomplishes the task of dismissing all his knowledge, opinions and beliefs as false....   [tags: Philosophy] 1073 words
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Meditations on First Philosophy - ... With that in mind, the meditator acknowledges that his senses can be deceived. Although most of the time his sensory knowledge is true, he notes that while dreaming, he is often convinced that what he senses is real. As he reflects on this, he remarks, “I see so plainly that there are no definitive signs by which to distinguish being awake from being asleep” (Descartes, 19). The sensations he feels and the images he sees in dreams are all derived from real life experiences. The narrator links this to art; the composite image consists of numerous real things....   [tags: Descartes, perception, proving God's existence]
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Perfect Island Objection by Anselm of Canterbury - Due to the preconceptions I have concerning Anselm’s Ontological Argument, as learnt through course research and lectures. I will like Descartes in his ‘First Meditation’, put these preconceptions to one side and present an essay that explores both sides of the argument in an attempt to reach an independent conclusion. However, I hope to reach the same conclusion as I had before – that is, that the Ontological Argument can be refuted on the basis that there exists a fundamental dissimilarity between the concept of existence in our minds, and that of existence in reality....   [tags: existence of god, ontological argument, descartes]
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1515 words
(4.3 pages)
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Birth of Psychology - Rene Descartes, Herman von Helmholtz, and Wilhelm Wundt all played important roles in creating psychology how it is today, by going beyond what the thought processes were at their time and expanding on knowledge. They didn’t look at the world as other’s did, and they didn’t take “no” for an answer. These great thinkers were centuries to decades apart, but their theories combined and collided into the new psychology. One step, and great contributor to the birth of psychology was Rene Descartes. Descartes was a philosopher born in France in 1596....   [tags: Rene Descartes, Herman von Helmholtz]
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1610 words
(4.6 pages)
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Descaetes: What Is Error? - ... In making an idea, one cannot make a mistake or be right about anything because to have an idea of something makes no claim about it being found in some other thing. The idea exists alone in the mind of the person making an idea. Building off the thought of an idea is a judgment. According to Descartes, judgments are applying our ideas to the external world, trying to affirm or deny something as they have an objective reality. He states that judgments are a key component to why we can commit errors....   [tags: exists, thinking, thing, mind, freedom] 1477 words
(4.2 pages)
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Similarities and Differences in the Protagonists in Shakespeare’s Henry V and Descartes’ Meditations of First Philosophy - In Shakespeare’s Henry V and Descartes’ Meditations of First Philosophy, the protagonists lay a foundation that left a mark on the people of the time and of the generations after. King Henry marches on a conquest of political power to France in order to win what he believes is rightfully his while Descartes enters deep into his inner mind in the hopes of understanding certainty contrasting that of the church. However, both characters turn different directions to achieve the clarity and knowledge that they seek....   [tags: foundations, church, knowledge]
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Descartes’ Arguments for the Existence of Body as Distinct from the Mind and His Justifications to Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia - Descartes Two years after Descartes published his meditations on first philosophy, Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia wrote with questions concerning the relationship between the immaterial soul and the corporeal body- specifically how anything immaterial could produce physical effects. She was neither the first nor the last to question this practical application of Descartes’ dualism, but her questions elicited the most comprehensive attempt to answer the question. In this paper I will examine Descartes’ arguments for the existence of body as distinct from the mind; outline Elisabeth’s objections and proposed solutions, and argue that Descartes’ responses to Elisabeth are inadequate to address...   [tags: Philosophy, Contradiction]
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Meditations in First Philosophy - Rene Descartes was born in 1596. At the age of 10, he began school at College Henri IV. Descartes received a classical education at College Henri IV and learned many subjects, including math, at the Jesuit institution. Many years later, he received his baccalaureate and licentiate degrees in law and then joined the army of Prince Maurice of Nassau. Descartes never served combat, but he did have a life changing moment while in the army. While meditating about the uncertainty and disunity of knowledge, he had an epiphany about how he could make knowledge more certain and unified, such as mathematics....   [tags: human nature,god's existence,rene descartes]
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Serious Errors within Rene Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy - Serious Errors within Rene Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy One of Rene Descartes’ major culminations in Meditations on First Philosophy is “I must finally conclude that this proposition, I am, I exist, is necessarily true whenever it is put forward by me or conceived in my mind” (Descartes:17). This statement can be explicated by examining Descartes’ Cartesian method of doubt and his subsequent discovery of basic truths. Even though I do believe that Descartes concludes with a statement that is accurate: cogito ergo sum, there are areas of his proof that are susceptible to defamation....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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Comparing Knowledge in Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy and Hume’s An Enquiry Concerning - Comparing Knowledge in Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy and Hume’s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Rationalists would claim that knowledge comes from reason or ideas, while empiricists would answer that knowledge is derived from the senses or impressions. The difference between these two philosophical schools of thought, with respect to the distinction between ideas and impressions, can be examined in order to determine how these schools determine the source of knowledge....   [tags: Comparison Compare Contrast Essays]
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Who do you Consider Stupid, Idiotic, and Dumb - The names “stupid”, “idiotic”, “dumb”, and “foolish” will all be heard eventually in a lifetime. When people misinterpret or not understand a topic, they are labeled with these names. Though, the truly “stupid” and “idiotic” people are those who possess brilliant minds, but do not apply their knowledge into their lives. On the other hand, the people who are clearly ingenious are the people who attempt to use their minds to solve dilemmas in the world, even if “the dilemma” is forgetting your lunch money....   [tags: rene descartes, great minds, albert einstein]
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The Folly of René Descartes’ Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy - The Folly of René Descartes’ Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy In order to embark on his quest for truth, Descartes first devises his four rules which should serve as a solid foundation for all else that he comes to understand. Those rules are here evaluated in terms of what they fail to take into consideration. The rules are examined individually and consecutively, and are therefore also reiterated in order to be clear about them. Furthermore, the approach of using these rules is also analyzed to some degree....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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1464 words
(4.2 pages)
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The Ontological Argument Presented by Descartes and the Cosmological Argument Presented by Aquinas - The Ontological Argument Presented by Descartes and the Cosmological Argument Presented by Aquinas Descartes, often called the father of modern philosophy, developed Anselm’s argument, in attempting to prove God’s existence from simply the meaning of the word ‘God’. The ontological argument is a priori argument, such arguments use logic to prove an initial definition to be correct. The basis of these arguments depends upon one’s understanding of the nature of God. Anselm’s definition of God being “a supremely perfect being”, is the basis of his argument....   [tags: Papers] 965 words
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