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Descartes and the Existence of Physical Objects - Descartes and the Existence of Physical Objects In his sixth meditation Descartes must return to the doubts he raised in his first one. Here he deals mainly with the mind-body problem and tries to prove whether material things exist with certainty. In this meditation he develops his dualist argument; by making a distinction between mind and body; although he also reveals that the are significantly related. He considers existence of the external world and whether its perception holds any knowledge of this world....   [tags: Descartes]
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Descartes View on the Senses - Descartes first meditation included a few arguments that Descartes studied and analyze. The one I choose to analyze was his argument of sense deception. The actually argument is the following: (1) My senses sometimes deceive me. (2) If my senses sometimes deceive me, then they might always deceive me. (3) If my senses might always deceive me, then I cannot be certain about any beliefs acquired through my senses. (4) If I cannot be certain about any beliefs acquired through my senses, then I must suspend judgment on those beliefs....   [tags: Descartes] 661 words
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Review of Descartes: An Intellectual Biography and Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain - Review of Descartes: An Intellectual Biography and Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain Descartes' error, Antonio Damasio tells us, was his belief in "the abyssal separation between body and mind . . . " (250). As Damasio notes, there are certainly many specific "errors" in Descartes' writings--that heat causes the circulation of the blood, for example, or that movement is translated instantaneously through the plenum from one object to another--but all these notions have been "corrected" by subsequent theory in ways that we can imagine Descartes himself might easily accept....   [tags: Descartes ] 733 words
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Descartes' Meditations - Missing Works Cited Descartes overall objective in the Meditations is to question knowledge. To explore such metaphysical issues as the existence of God and the separation of mind and body, it was important for him to distinguish what we can know as truth. He believed that reason as opposed to experience was the source for discovering what is of absolute certainty. In my explication, I will examine meditation two in order to discover why knowledge was so important to Descartes. Meditation One The first meditation acts as a foundation for all those that follow....   [tags: Explication Descartes Meditations] 2754 words
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Descartes' Meditations - Descartes' Meditations In Descartes’ meditations, Descartes begins what Bernard Williams has called the project of ‘pure enquiry’ to discover an indubitable premise or foundation to base his knowledge on, by subjecting everything to a kind of scepticism now known as Cartesian doubt. This is known as foundationalism, where a philosopher basis all epistemological knowledge on an indubitable premise. Within meditation one Descartes subjects all of his beliefs regarding sensory data and even existence to the strongest and most hyperbolic of doubts....   [tags: Philosophy Doubt Meditations Descartes Essays] 2133 words
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Descartes' First Meditation - Descartes' First Meditation Works Cited Missing      Descartes believes that knowledge comes from within the mind. This is a single indisputable fact to build on that can be gained through individual reflection. While seeking true knowledge, Descartes writes his Six Meditations. In these meditations, Descartes tries to develop a strong foundation, which all knowledge can be built upon. In the First Meditation, Descartes begins developing this foundation through the method of doubt. He casts doubt upon all his previous beliefs, including “matters which are not entirely certain and indubitable [and] those which appear to be manifestly false.” (Descartes, p.75, par.3) Once Descartes clears away all beliefs that can be called into doubt, he can then build a strong base for all true knowledge to stand upon....   [tags: Descartes Philosophy Philosophical Papers] 2070 words
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Blade Runner and Descartes’ Theory - In the film “Blade Runner”, replicants are made perfectly like human beings through a well-done ‘skin jobs’ and genetic engineered. They can demonstrate the abilities to perform and work like human: they can talk and they can also have feelings and emotions. These replicants are stronger, faster, and smarter than humans; however, they are only genetically programmed for a designated life span of four years. Replicants are created to use as a slave labor, which is used in “off-world colonization”....   [tags: Blade Runner, movies, Descartes,] 537 words
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A Humean Critique of Descartes - A Humean Critique of Descartes Montreal has big potholes. Lots of them. If one is to truly understand the philosophy of Hume and Descartes, one must understand what they would do with crummy roads as civil engineers in Montreal. Hume would probably repave the roads based on the success of past designs and the results of empirical data. Descartes, on the other hand, would probably leave nothing unscathed after attacking the problem with reason, scrapping the existing roadmap and re-building roads with new foundations and new directions....   [tags: Descartes Critique Philosophy Philosopher Essays]
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Descartes - ... Through the regular deception of our senses (via mirages, misinterpretations, fallibility…) it is possible that we are deceived in ways that are outside of what we typically consider a deception. Descartes represents this metaphorically thorough the idea of a demon that has no other purpose then to deceive him in every way. He harkens to the notion that when we dream, we take what is appearing before us to be real. Furthermore, whatever you use to tell you are not dreaming could merely be part of the dream....   [tags: Philosophy] 1567 words
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descartes - Descartes ignored all he believed to be true. He believed that if any belief can be doubted it is not certain, making it unusable as a foundation. Descartes jettisons any information, knowledge, or truths that are based on his senses. He applied the “Dream Argument,” (19) where he stated that based on the senses alone, there is no definite way of proving that you are dreaming or awake. Therefore, any truths based upon the senses are unreliable and doubtful. Descartes turned to why and how his senses were deceivable....   [tags: essays research papers] 1227 words
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Descartes - Descartes Is our education complete once a degree has been earned. Have we learned all there is to know. Can we be sure of what we have come to know. Only a completely self-assured person might answer yes to these questions, but for Rene Descartes (1596-1650) the completion of his formal education left him feeling and thinking he was still ignorant about the certainties of human experience and existence. This prominent Renaissance philosopher conquered the world of uncertainty in a work written in the 17th century....   [tags: Papers] 751 words
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Descartes - In the early 17th century a philosopher named Descartes, questioned his existence. His life was dedicated to the founding of a philosophical and mathematical system in which all sciences were logical. Descartes was born in 1596 in Touraine, France. His education consisted of attendance to a Jesuit school of La Fleche. He studied a liberal arts program that emphasized philosophy, the humanities, science, and math. He then went on to the University of Poitiers where he graduated in 1616 with a law degree....   [tags: essays research papers]
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Descartes - Foundation In Descartes Meditation VI Of the existence of material things, and of the real distinction between the real soul and body of man, he explains he reasoning for believing that the mind is better known than any body. Descartes states his reasoning through various assumptions that he has made in his search for knowledge. Descartes is a philosopher, who through thinking comes to these conclusions. In the reading of Descartes he interprets his understanding of how and why the mind is better known than the body....   [tags: essays research papers] 872 words
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Descartes - Descartes 1. In the Discourse on the Method, Descartes laments that as a young man he was forced to conclude at the end of all his studies that “there was no doctrine [i.e., teaching or body of knowledge] in the world that was of the sort that I had previously been led to hope for.” In your essay, I would like you to discuss the nature of the body of knowledge he was looking for a s well as the place of the cogito (that is, the utterance “I think, therefore I am”) in it. You may discuss his criticism of the learning of the time, but do not spill much ink over it; the focus of your paper should be on the new science he is seeking, not the old....   [tags: Papers] 857 words
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descartes - Descartes—Meditation III In Meditation III, Descartes presents his argument for the existence of God. He makes this argument here because it is one of his stronger arguments. In this essay, I will summarize and critically assess this argument. Descartes begins this meditation with a review of what he is certain of so far. He is skeptical of the existence of bodily things, but s certain that he exists and that he is a thinking thing. He decides that he could not be as certain of his existence unless all clear and distinct perceptions are certain....   [tags: essays research papers] 682 words
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Descartes - The next stage in the system, as outlined in the Meditations, seeks to establish that God exists. In his writings, Descartes made use of three principal arguments. The first (at least in the order of presentation in the Meditations) is a causal argument. While its fullest statement is in Meditation III, it is also found in the Discourse (Part IV) and in the Principles (Part I §§ 17–18). The argument begins by examining the thoughts contained in the mind, distinguishing between the formal reality of an idea and its objective reality....   [tags: essays research papers] 1241 words
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Descartes - From Descartes' perspective, nature is a representation of God; therefore, God must intrinsically exist, inasmuch as he, too, is a product of His own creation. Descartes was one of many philosophers who fully supported this argument in support of God's existence, contending that the external world is the ruling force behind the presence of all beings. Descartes' assertions, as portrayed within the literary boundaries of Meditations on First Philosophy, were founded not in cosmological or ontological arguments but rather in teleological debate, inasmuch as the philosopher believed that there has to be an omnipotent entity responsible for all the purpose and order that is found within natural existence and, thereby, stimulating a sense of wonder about the world....   [tags: essays research papers] 1175 words
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Descartes - Rene Descartes was one of the most influential thinkers in the history of the philosophy. Born in 1596, he lived to become a great mathematician, scientist, and philosopher. In fact, he became one of the central intellectual figures of the sixteen hundreds. He is believed by some to be the father of modern philosophy, although he was hampered by living in a time when other prominent scientists, such as Galileo, were persecuted for their discoveries and beliefs. Although this probably had an impact on his desire to publish controversial material, he went on to devise works such as the Meditations on First Philosophy and the Principles of Philosophy Aside from these accomplishments, his most important and lasting mathematical work was the invention of analytic geometry....   [tags: essays research papers] 1126 words
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Descartes - 1. Explain what Descartes is trying to establish with his wax argument in the Second Meditation. Be sure to discuss how this argument addresses the paradox with which the passage starts. Is this argument really about wax. Explain. Descartes is trying to establish his mind more clearly through the wax. He does not yet know what he is. He is still trying to find what “I” am he doesn’t know. He discusses the characteristics of the wax, its color, shape, smell, taste, feel, and how it sounds....   [tags: essays research papers] 948 words
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The Free Will in Meditations on First Philosophy by Descartes - The Free Will in Meditations on First Philosophy by Descartes I In Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes takes the reader through a methodological exercise in philosophical enquiry. After stripping the intellect of all doubtful and false beliefs, he re-examines the nature and structure of being in an attempt to secure a universally valid epistemology free from skepticism. Hoping for the successful reconciliation of science and theology, Descartes works to reconstruct a new foundation of absolute and certain truth to act as a catalyst for future scientific research by “showing that a mathematical [rational-objective] physics of the world is attainable by creatures with our intellectual capacities and faculties” (Shand 1994, p....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Descartes Essays]
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Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy - Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy Rene Descartes’ third meditation from his book Meditations on First Philosophy, examines Descartes’ arguments for the existence of God. The purpose of this essay will be to explore Descartes’ reasoning and proofs of God’s existence. In the third meditation, Descartes states two arguments attempting to prove God’s existence, the Trademark argument and the traditional Cosmological argument. Although his arguments are strong and relatively truthful, they do no prove the existence of God....   [tags: Existence God Religion Descartes Essays] 1961 words
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The Existence of God I According to Descartes - The Existence of God I According to Descartes Once Descartes has "proved" his existence by way of the Cogito argument, and has determined what it is that belongs to his essence of being a thinking thing, he must move to examining questions about the world around him. However, before doing this, he thinks it better to examine the question of the existence of God. If he can prove that he was created by a perfectly benevolent creator, then his innate ideas must carry some semblance of truth, as God is not a deceiver and has placed these ideas in Descartes....   [tags: Religion God Descartes Philosophy Essays] 1751 words
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How Descartes Tries to Extricate Himself from the Skeptical Doubts He Has Raised - How Descartes Tries to Extricate Himself from the Skeptical Doubts He Has Raised [All page references and quotations from the Meditations are taken from the 1995 Everyman edition] In the Meditations, Descartes embarks upon what Bernard Williams has called the project of 'Pure Enquiry' to discover certain, indubitable foundations for knowledge. By subjecting everything to doubt Descartes hoped to discover whatever was immune to it. In order to best understand how and why Descartes builds his epistemological system up from his foundations in the way that he does, it is helpful to gain an understanding of the intellectual background of the 17th century that provided the motivation for his work....   [tags: Descartes Philosophy Meditations Essays]
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Beliefs Beyond Doubt, What All Other Respond To: Rene Descartes' "Meditations on First Philosophy" - Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy is considered to be one of the most important works in modern philosophy. John Locke, Immanuel Kant, and countless other philosophers wrote largely in response to Descartes. Yet there are serious doubts related to the treatise's major argument. In the Objections and Replies, a collection of objections to the work along with Descartes personal and often very detailed replies to said objections, the philosopher Antoine Arnauld raises the question of whether or not Descartes was guilty of circular reasoning....   [tags: Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy,] 2010 words
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Descartes and Dualism - Descartes and Dualism "I think therefore I am," the well known quote of Rene Descartes, is the basis of his theory known as dualism. The intermingling of mind and body or res extensa (extended substance) and res cogitans (thinking substance) displays Descartes' ideas of a "genuine human being" (Cottingham 7). Known as the father of modern philosophy, Descartes realized that one could not analyze a problem simply on the common sense level, but that one must "probe to the micro-level" (Cottingham 4)....   [tags: Philosophy essays] 612 words
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Descartes' Meditations - Descartes' Meditations Descartes, during Meditations, aimed to rid himself of all knowledge that could be doubted. He used the analogy of a rotten apple in a barrel, in which all apples must be removed and checked in order to determine which apples should be kept. Descartes stated that, like the rotten apple, one might also, at times, acquire erroneous information. This error in information can therefore lead to incorrect knowledge. According to Descartes' way of reason, if a fact can be doubted then it cannot be held as certain truth, therefore may be disregarded....   [tags: Papers] 1109 words
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Descartes' Meditations - Descartes' Meditations The way Descartes chose to write this piece literature captivated me. Descartes was a very intelligent man who wanted to make sense of the world he lived in. The format he used was unusual. It seems to me that he may have used this format, which is a replication of the book of Genesis in the Bible, to have a deeper and more profound impact on the reader. There are many similarities between Descartes' Meditations and the first book of the Bible, Genesis. For example, Descartes' Meditations was written one day at a time, just as God had created the world one day at a time....   [tags: Papers] 1157 words
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Descartes Free Will - In Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes attempts to explain the cause of errors in human beings. Descartes says that error occurs “since the will extends further than the intellect” (Descartes p.39). That’s because our intellect is something that is finite; it is limited to the perception of only certain things. Whereas our will, ability to choose is not limited; it is has an infinite capacity. Therefore we sometimes attempt to will things which we do not have a complete understanding of. Descartes’ argument, as I will briefly describe, is quite sound, if you agree to all his conditions (being that the intellect is limited and the will infinite)....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Descartes' Meditations - Descartes' Meditations Descartes' work entitled Meditations, is a work on metaphysics in which Descartes hopes to achieve absolute certainty about three issues: the soul as "a thinking thing" distinct from or without a body, the belief that God exists, and the belief that the external world exists. In order to acquire absolutely certainty which can be applied to these issues, Descartes first lays a foundation of integrity on which to build his knowledge. The technique he uses to lay this base of integrity is doubt....   [tags: Papers] 1663 words
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Rene Descartes - Rene Descartes was a famous French mathematician, scientist and philosopher. He was arguably the first major philosopher in the modern era to make a serious effort to defeat skepticism. His views about knowledge and certainty, as well as his views about the relationship between mind and body have been very influential over the last three centuries. Descartes was born at La Haye (now called Descartes), and educated at the Jesuit College of La Flèche between 1606 and 1614. Descartes later claimed that his education gave him little of substance and that only mathematics had given him certain knowledge....   [tags: Biographies Bio Biography] 1096 words
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René Descartes - René Descartes René Descartes was a French philosopher and also mathematician. His method of doubt led him to the famous "cogito ergo sum" when translated means "I am thinking, therefore I exist". This cogito was the foundation for Descartes' quest for certain knowledge. He explored doubt and how we can prove our own existence, by taking the first steps of scepticism. His book "Meditations On First Philosophy", was written in six parts. Each representing the six days that God took to create the world....   [tags: Papers] 744 words
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Descartes and God - Descartes and God Everywhere in this world there are debates on many things. Logic is often employed in order to understand and come to an agreement on these debated topics. One such topic, which is arguably the greatest topic of debate occurring in modern day, is the existence of God. Sure, many people believe in some sort of higher being, but how many of them try and use logic and rational thought to prove the existence of God. Many probably, however we will only look at one such person. Rene Descartes attempts to use his own logic to come up with the conclusion that a perfect being does exist and that being is in itself God in his book Meditations on First Philosophy....   [tags: Papers] 831 words
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Rene Descartes - "I think, therefore I am" Rene Descartes was a man obsessed with finding things out for himself, an intellectual who contributed to the field of psychology. Born in the 16th century, Descartes grew up in a society where ideas, thoughts and perceptions were not questioned but were supposed to be understood and supported. While growing up and through his studies, Descartes began to make strides in the fields of philosophy, mathematics and science. Descartes was a man who challenged accepted ideas and aided the field of psychology through his contributions to reflex theory, helping describe the mind-body problem, and challenging accepted theological ideas....   [tags: biography biographies bio]
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Descartes' Failure - Descartes' Failure In his Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes strives first and foremost to provide an infallibly justified foundation for the empirical sciences, and second to prove the existence of God. I will focus on the first and second meditations in my attempt to show that, in his skepticism of the sources of knowledge, he fails to follow the rules he has set out in the Discourse on Method. First I claim that Descartes fails to draw the distinction between pure sensation and inference, which make up what he calls sensation, and then consider the consequences of this failure to follow his method....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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Descartes’ Cogito - Descartes’ Cogito It is the purpose of this essay to examine both Descartes’ Cogito argument and his skepticism towards small and universal elements, as well as the implications these arguments have on each other. First, I will summarize and explain the skepticism Descartes’ brings to bear on small and universal elements in his first meditation. Second, I will summarize and explain the Cogito argument, Descartes’ famous “I think, therefore I am” (it should be noted that this famous implication is not actually something ever said or written by Descartes, but instead, an implication taken from his argument for his own existence)....   [tags: Philosophy small universal elements] 1535 words
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Descartes' Meditations - Descartes' Meditations Descartes' meditations are created in pursuit of certainty, or true knowledge. He cannot assume that what he has learned is necessarily true, because he is unsure of the accuracy of its initial source. In order to purge himself of all information that is possibly wrong, he subjects his knowledge to methodic doubt. This results in a (theoretical) doubt of everything he knows. Anything, he reasons, that can sustain such serious doubt must be unquestionable truth, and knowledge can then be built from that base....   [tags: Papers] 1022 words
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Rene Descartes - Rene Descartes Once upon a time we were told of the earth being the center of the universe. The sun, moon, and all planets even unknown were all revolving around our planet. We now look at that statement and wonder in amazement how our species could have pondered such a thought. Through advanced mathematical and persistently working to prove his theory, Rene Descartes transformed yet another one of these worldly assumptions and proved it all wrong. Rene Descartes Method of Doubt was simply his mathematical method in discovering the unanswered questions about the universe....   [tags: Papers] 401 words
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Descartes - Meditations - In the Meditations, Rene Descartes attempts to doubt everything that is possible to doubt. His uncertainty of things that existence ranges from God to himself. Then he goes on to start proving that things do exist by first proving that he exists. After he establishes himself he can go on to establish everything else in the world. Next he goes to prove that the mind is separate then the body. In order to do this he must first prove he has a mind, and then prove that bodily things exist. I do agree with Descartes that the mind is separate from the body....   [tags: essays research papers] 1633 words
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Descartes Meditations - Meditations is a discussion of metaphysics, or what is truly real. In these writings, he ultimately hopes to achieve absolute certainty about the nature of everything including God, the physical world, and himself. It is only with a clear and distinct knowledge of such things that he can then begin understand his true reality. Descartes starts by looking at our usual sources for truth. Authority, which is churches, parents, and schools, he says, are not reliable sources for truth because time shows we all die, and that we are eventually proved wrong, much in the same way the accepted truths of science have changed dramatically over the course of history....   [tags: essays research papers] 1326 words
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Rene Descartes - Rene Descartes was born on March 31, 1596 in La Haye Touraine, France. Descartes was considered a "jack of all trades", making major contributions to the areas of anatomy, cognitive science, optics, mathematics and philosophy. He has been referred to as the father of modern rationalism, soldier of fortune, scholar, pilgrim, traveler, and a firm adherent of the Roman Catholic faith. He was educated at the Jesuit college of La Fleche in Anjou. He entered the college at the age of eight years, just a few months after the opening of the college in January, 1604....   [tags: Biography Biographies Bio] 1725 words
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Descartes And Hume - Descartes And Hume Works Cited Missing There are three ways in which one is able to find truth: through reason (A is A), by utilizing the senses (paper burns) or by faith (God is all loving). As the period of the Renaissance came to a close, the popular paradigm for philosophers shifted from faith to reason and finally settling on the senses. Thinkers began to challenge authorities, including great teachers such as Aristotle and Plato, and through skepticism the modern world began. The French philosopher, René Descartes who implemented reason to find truth, as well as the British empiricist David Hume with his usage of analytic-synthetic distinction, most effectively utilized the practices of skepticism in the modern world....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical History Essays] 554 words
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Philosophy Of Descartes - In the New Merriam Webster Dictionary, sophism is defined as a plausible but fallacious argument. In Rene Descartes Meditation V, he distinguishes the existence of God, believing he must prove that god exists before he can examine any corporeal objects outside of himself. By proving that the existence of God is not a sophism, he also argues that God is therefore the Supreme Being and the omnipotent one. His conclusion that God does exist enables him to prove the existence of material things, and the difference between the soul and the body....   [tags: essays research papers] 1455 words
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Rene Descartes - Rene Descartes lived from 1596 to 1650. He was a French mathematician, philosopher, and anatomist. He contributed to modern ideas, mainly those associated with science, rational thought, and the scientific method.He was born in La Haye, a city in central France. His father was a lawyer and left him an annual income for life. He attended the college of Henri IV at La Fleche when he was 10, ordered by his father. Descartes left La Fleche in 1614 to study civil and anon law at Poitiers and two years later he had received the baccalaureate and licentiate degrees in law....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Descartes Knowledge - Descartes Knowledge The question of our existence in reality is a question which philosophers have tackled throughout time. This essay will look at the phrase, cogito ergo sum or I think therefore I am, a phrase brought about by Rene Descartes. This phrase is the backbone of Descartes whole philosophy of our existence in reality. As long as we are thinking things, we exist. When we look at this approach to our existence we must first deny that any sensory data that we receive is believable or it is conceivable that it is false....   [tags: essays research papers] 1087 words
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Hitchcock/Descartes - ... He says that senses can deceive when it “is a question of very small and distant things” (Descartes 14). He goes on to say that there are things he cannot doubt like the fire he sits next to or the winter gown that adorns his body . Dreaming is sense that often persuades the mind that it is doing something else, painting images of reality without letting the dreamer in on the truth; dreams are senses that deceive. Bridging the connection from Descartes to the film seems very appropriate, since it is a major tool that Hitchcock uses....   [tags: Philosophy] 934 words
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Descartes And Locke - Descartes and Locke One of the most important branches in philosophy, is Epistemology, which means, theory of knowledge. So far, philosophers have made many attempts to discover the source of knowledge, the standards or criteria by which we can judge the reliability of knowledge. We tend to be satisfied with think what we know about almost everything, even though sometimes we are shocked to discover that something that we thought it was sure and certain, is instead proved dubious and not sure....   [tags: Knowledge Philosophy Philosophical Essays] 1516 words
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Descartes philosophy - Descartes’ “evil genius scenario” provides the possibility for the existence of an evil genius that is in control of our world in place on an omnipotent god. By in control, I mean that he would in some magical way compose our lives by his own will, thus making any certain knowledge about material objects impossible. This scenario presents some real questions with Descartes’ argument because it basically completely rules out the possibility of any god. We are imagining that Dr. Spiritus has invaded a small rural hospital and has stolen the brains of several babies....   [tags: essays research papers] 775 words
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Rene Descartes - Essay # 2 Rene Descartes was a French philosopher. His theory is that reality consists of mind and matter. Descartes answers the question or attempts to answer the question of “what is real?” using dualism. Dualism is defined as the view that reality is composed of two different substances, so that neither one can be related to the other. Such examples being; spirit/matter, mind/body, good/evil. Descartes feels that the human can be broken down into two separate substances; a mind having no physical attributes and a body having a shape....   [tags: essays research papers] 404 words
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Rene Descartes - Rene Descartes Rene Descartes was a math philosopher, he was born in Toures, on March 31 1596, and he died at Stockholm on February 11 1650. His father was forced to spend half the year at Rennes, where he was a councilman. The rest of the time he spent with his family of Les Cartes at La Haye. Rene was the second child out of four kids. At the age of eight, he was sent to the Jesuit School at La Fleche. The school had very good education and discipline. On account of his delicate health, he was permitted to lie in bed until late in the mornings....   [tags: Papers] 622 words
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Descartes and Meditations - Descartes and Meditations There are many things that have occurred in my life that was questionable. Questionable in a way that doesn't make sense to why of if they even occurred. I often wonder what is the porpoise of my existence or that of anyone else's. A better question would be if I do even exist. There must be some thing out there that can explain everything, but I do not access to that something so I must try to form my own opinions. There is only one thing that I can be certain of, that one thing is that I am thinking being and I do exist somewhere....   [tags: Papers] 584 words
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Mediations of First Philosophy by Descartes - Mediations of First Philosophy by Descartes In the “Mediations of First Philosophy” Descartes tries to prove the existence of God in the third meditation. He does this by coming up with several premises that eventually add up to a solid argument. First, I will explain why Descartes ask the question, does god exist. And why does Descartes think he needs such and argument at this point in the text. Secondly, I will explain, in detail, the arguments that Descartes makes and how he comes to the conclusion that God does exist....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays] 1291 words
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Descartes’ Ultimate Purpose of the Meditations - Descartes’ Ultimate Purpose of the Meditations My initial approach to René Descartes, in Meditations on First Philosophy, views the third meditation’s attempts to prove the existence of God as a way of establishing a foundation for the existence of truth, falsity, corporeal things and eventually the establishment of the sciences. When viewed in this light, Descartes is accused of drawing himself into a ‘Cartesian circle,’ ultimately forcing this cosmological proof of God to defy Cartesian method, thus precipitating the failure of the third, fourth, fifth and sixth meditations....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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montaigne and descartes on doubting - Montaigne and Descartes Montaigne and Descartes both made use of a philosophical method that focused on the use of doubt to make discoveries about themselves and the world around them. However, they doubted different things. Descartes doubted all his previous knowledge from his senses, while Montaigne doubted that there were any absolute certainties in knowledge. Although they both began their philosophical processes by doubting, Montaigne doubting a constant static self, and Descartes doubted that anything existed at all, Descartes was able to move past that doubt to find one indubitably certainty, “I think, therefore I am”....   [tags: essays research papers] 1564 words
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Descartes' Meditation One - Descartes' Meditation One I am going to discuss Descartes Meditation One: Concerning those things that can be called into doubt. I will analyze and explain what Descartes was trying to do, and explain why (In my personal opinion) that this is nothing but a few wordy paragraphs that have no real value or point to them. In Descartes first meditation he discusses that he has come to the conclusion that many of his beliefs and opinions he had as a child are doubtful. Descartes decides that in order to find out the "truths" he must disprove his current "knowledge." Descartes goes about this by trying to disprove the principles that support everything he believes in, using his Method of Doubt....   [tags: Papers] 668 words
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Descartes and Meditation Three - Descartes and Meditation Three At the beginning of Meditation three, Descartes has made substantial progress towards defeating skepticism. Using his methods of Doubt and Analysis he has systematically examined all his beliefs and set aside those which he could call into doubt until he reached three beliefs which he could not possibly doubt. First, that the evil genius seeking to deceive him could not deceive him into thinking that he did not exist when in fact he did exist. Second, that his essence is to be a thinking thing....   [tags: Papers] 1187 words
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Descartes and the Real Distinction - ... Yet, Descartes seems hesitant to separate the two completely, as he denies the naturally-following notion that the mind interacts with the body such as a sailor pilots a ship (later and in complete contradiction, however (66/2), he does suggest that a mind could interact in such a way with an automaton-like machine). So, in Descartes' view, the mind and the body are two completely separable objects, but they are very closely fused. Descartes takes this conception of mind/body dualism and functions on it for some time before coming upon the question of how, if God is not a deceiver, then why nature is nevertheless deceptive....   [tags: Philosophy] 1803 words
(5.2 pages)
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The Approach to Nature of Descartes and White - The Approach to Nature of Descartes and White The approach to nature which René Descartes takes is distinct from that of Gilbert White. Descartes and White have similar key methods of examining nature. It is mainly in Descartes’ deductive reasoning and beliefs that lead him to the method of approaching nature internally (mind and body)....   [tags: Papers] 769 words
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Descartes and Hobbes' Leviathan - ... In the fifth and sixth paragraphs of the second meditation, Descartes distinguishes the body from the soul. Descartes indicates that there is the presence of the body, and it seems to be in the physical world, but he also notes that his mind does not seem to exist in the same manner. Descartes also claims that the ability to perceive is a power of the soul, but inoperable without the body. Descartes then explores another object with physical substance, which is a piece of wax. The piece of wax is undeniably physical; it takes up space within the material world....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Descartes’ Special Causal Principle - Descartes’ Special Causal Principle       In his Meditations, Rene Descartes attempts to uncover certain truths about existence.  In his Third Meditation, he establishes his "special causal principle" (SCP).  Descartes uses this principle to explore the origin of ideas, and to prove the existence of God.  I agree that there is much logic to be found in the SCP, but I disagree with Descartes method of proving God's existence, and in this essay I will explain why.  I will begin by explaining the SCP, and will then demonstrate how Descartes applies this principle to prove that God exists.  I will then present my critique of the SCP, and expose the flaws in both of Descartes proofs with regards to the principle.  A conclusion will then follow....   [tags: Philosophy essays]
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Descartes' Meditations Ontological Argument - Descartes' Meditations Ontological Argument Descartes's fifth Meditation argument for God's existence relies on an untenable notion that existence is a perfection and that it can be predicated of God. I shall first explain what Descartes's argument for God's existence is, and then present his argument in propositional form. I will then attempt to support the argument that existence is neither a perfection nor a predicate of God. In our thoughts we apprehend ideas of things. These ideas may reside entirely within our thoughts or they may exist independent of our considerations of them (Descartes 143)....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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Descartes First Meditation - Descartes’ first meditation, his main objective is to present three skeptical arguments to bring doubt upon what he considers his basic beliefs. Descartes believes this to be an intricate part of his complete epistemological argument. Descartes skeptical arguments are not intended to be a denial of his basic beliefs. On the contrary, he uses these arguments to help prove one of his main theses, which is the existence of God. One of the main premises that Descartes uses in his proof for the existence of God comes from the evil demon argument, which he proposed, in the first meditation....   [tags: essays research papers] 909 words
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The French Philosopher Rene Descartes - The French Philosopher Rene Descartes The French philosopher Rene Descartes lived from 1596-1650. He was the son of an aristocrat and traveled throughout Europe studying a wide-variety of subjects including math, science, law, medicine, religion, and philosophy. Descartes was greatly influenced by other thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment. Descartes was a rationalist. Like many philosophers, novelists, and poets of his time, he questioned his own existence, and his reason for being, man's purpose in the scheme of the universe....   [tags: Papers] 1066 words
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Descartes' Method of Doubt - Descartes' Method of Doubt In this essay I will assess Descartes's employment of his Method of Doubt, as presented in his Meditations on the First Philosophy [Descartes 1641]. I will argue that by implicitly accepting a causal model of perception, Descartes did not apply the Method of Doubt as fully as he could have. The Method of Doubt Descartes's principal task in the Meditations was to devise a system that would bring him to the truth. He wanted to build a foundational philosophy; a basic edifice from which all further intellectual enquiry could be built....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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Rene Descartes & Faith and Reason - Rene Descartes & Faith and Reason The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries witnessed a colossal transition in the scientific view of the universe. During this period a profound rethinking of scientific theory as well as moral and religious matters took place. Traditional ideas were reconsidered by religious thinkers. Philosophers began applying rational scientific thought to problems that they considered. The main concept of the Scientific Revolution was to "question everything". The Scientific Revolution was an elaborate movement....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Descartes' Wax Passage - Descartes' Wax Passage How do we know what we know. Ideas reside in the minds of intelligent beings, but a clear perception of where these ideas come from is often the point of debate. It is with this in mind that René Descartes set forth on the daunting task to determine where clear and distinct ideas come from. A particular passage written in Meditations on First Philosophy known as the wax passage shall be examined. Descartes' thought process shall be followed, and the central point of his argument discussed....   [tags: Papers] 1085 words
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Heidegger's Reading of Descartes' Dualism - Heidegger's Reading of Descartes' Dualism ABSTRACT: The problem of traditional epistemology is the relation of subject to external world. The distinction between subject and object makes possible the distinction between the knower and what is known. Starting with Descartes, the subject is a thinking thing that is not extended, and the object is an extended thing which does not think. Heidegger rejects this distinction between subject and object by arguing that there is no subject distinct from the external world of things because Dasein is essentially Being-in-the-world....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Descartes' Method of Doubt - Descartes' Method of Doubt Descartes is extremely important to Western intellectual history Contributions in physiology, psychology, optics, and especially mathematics Introduced analytic geometry Influential in modern scientific approach (can’t just say it’s true, show it’s true) The Cartesian Method Descartes is very concerned with skeptical questions Though he was not actually a skeptic, he used skepticism as a method of achieving certainty. “I will doubt everything that can possibly be doubted, and if anything is left, then it will be absolutely certain....   [tags: Papers] 390 words
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Descartes Proof of God - Rene Descartes’ arguments in “Meditations on First Philosophy” are questionable to exactly how valid and sound they really are. His proof for the existence of God in the fifth meditation is an example of one of his invalid and therefore unsound arguments. Throughout the meditations Descartes refers to clear and distinct ideas. Descartes first introduces doubt to the reader by saying that one cannot trust these clear and distinct ideas. “I have noticed that the senses are sometimes deceptive; as it is a mark of prudence never to place our complete trust in those that have deceived us even once.” (Descartes, 60) He introduces doubt through the senses, dreams, and through the possibility of an evil genius at work....   [tags: essays research papers] 986 words
(2.8 pages)
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Descartes and the Existence of God - Descartes and the Existence of God Once Descartes has realized that he can know with certainty that “I exist” is true, he continues to build on his foundation of truths. The truth about the nature of God, proof of God’s existence, and the nature of corporeal objects are considered, among others, after Descartes proves his existence. Descartes’ principal task in the Meditations was to devise a system that would bring him to the truth. He wanted to build a foundation from which all further philosophical inquiry could be built....   [tags: essays papers] 1156 words
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Descartes Argument for the Existence of God - Descartes employs what is known as an ontological argument to prove the existence of God. Saint Anselm who lived during the 11th century first formulated this type of argument. Since then it has proved popular with many philosophers including Rene` Descartes. Even though ontological arguments have lost popularity with modern philosophers there has been some recent attempts to revive them. Descartes formulation is regarded as being one of the best because it is straight forward and relatively easy to follow....   [tags: philosophy, theology] 1171 words
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The Life of René Descartes - Born March, 31st 1569 in La Haye en Touraine France, René Descartes was a very significant philosopher, mathematician, scientist and writer. He attended a Jesuit college at La Flèche. Later named “The Father of Modern Philosophy”, much of western philosophies are a reaction to his books which have been studied meticulously for centuries. Many elements of René’s philosophy have many similarities to that of Aristotle. Descartes was a very influential figure during the 17th century continental rationalist....   [tags: Biographical Essay, science, biography] 572 words
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Rene Descartes Mathematician - René Descartes: "Father of Modern Mathematics" 1596-1650 René Descartes was born in La Haye, Touraine (France) in March of 1596 and died at Stockholm on February 11, 1650. René, the second of a family of two sons and one daughter, was sent to the Jesuit School at La Flêche at the early age of eight. Since he was of poor health he was permitted to lie in bed till late in the mornings, a custom which he always followed. When Pascal visited in 1647 he told him that the only way to do good work in mathematics and to preserve his health was never to allow anyone to make him get up in the morning before he felt like it On leaving school in 1612 Descartes went to Paris to be introduced to the world of fashion....   [tags: Biography Biographies Bio] 1298 words
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Descartes discourse on method - Understanding Descartes’ Method of Doubt Clear your mind, if you will, of everything you have ever seen or known to be true. To begin understanding Rene Descartes’ method of doubt, you need to suspend all prejudice and prior judgments and start with a clean slate “for the purpose of discovering some ultimate truth on which to base all thought.” (Kolak, Pg.225). Discouraged with much skepticism from his own beliefs, Descartes was embarrassed of his own ignorance. He set out to try and accomplish the task of finding an absolute truth in which he would base his beliefs....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Weaknesses of Descartes' Arguments - ... Descartes' attempt at reconciliation between religion and science was accepted by many but what about people who did not believe in things of a religious nature. This is where his philosophy fails. Descartes' bias becomes clear in his statement that the “truths of the faith...have always held first place among my beliefs” (Part Three; 28). There are many people who feel as though religion has nothing to do with who they are as a person or with how the world came about. To treat science as something that needs to take a back seat to religion is wrong, both are have the right to equal importance in philosophical understanding....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Rene Descartes's View on God - Rene Descartes's View on God       In 1996, songwriter Joan Osborne performed a song called "One of Us" that was nominated for three Grammy Awards.  What made this song so successful and interesting were the powerful lyrics that basically asked, "What if God were a human being?"  As she was writing the lyrics to "One of Us," she was wondering about God and how the world would be different if God did exist in real life and not just a supernatural force.  You may be asking yourself, "What does this have to do with the seventeenth century?"  Well, in the seventeenth century, there was a man, named Rene Descartes, who was interested in God and wondered about His existence.  After an unforgettable night in November 10, 1619, his interest in God became stronger, and had developed many views that concerned or were about God....   [tags: Philosophy essays]
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Descartes Proof For The Existence Of God - Descartes Proof for the Existence of God The purpose of my essay will be to examine Descartes’ argument for the existence of God. First, I will review Descartes’ proof for the existence of God. Then I will examine the reasons that Descartes has for proving God’s existence. I will also discuss some consequences that appear as a result of God’s existence. Finally, I will point out some complications and problems that exist within the proof. The basic problem with most religions in the world has always been that they presuppose faith; that is one cannot be reasoned into believing in a religion, if such was not the case then we would have seen a huge migration to one religion or another....   [tags: essays research papers] 1539 words
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Preliminary Interpretation of Descartes' Meditations - Preliminary Interpretation of Descartes' Meditations René Descartes was a revolutionary figure in the 17th century during the renaissance period, at a time when the way people viewed the world was changing dramatically. In the past people had described things using a mixture of colour, hot, cold, sweet tasting, hard (secondary qualities) and distance, velocity, time, mass and acceleration (primary qualities). But in a time of dramatic change, mathematical science was, through mathmaticalised theories and predictions of measurable quantities proving primary qualities to be more reliable and efficient than secondary qualities....   [tags: Papers] 4568 words
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The Meditations of Rene Descartes - The Meditations of Rene Descartes In 1916 Rene Descartes wrote "What I wish to finish is . . . an absolutely new science enabling one to resolve all questions proposed on any order of continuos or discontinuous quantities." (p8 Methods & Meditations). He made this ambitious statement at the young age of twenty-three. Rene's ambition would take him far but it kept him from becoming the Aristotle of the modern age. The Meditations were an attempt to solve the many questions about life, existence, and God....   [tags: Papers] 481 words
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Descartes Sixth Meditation - In his sixth meditation must return to the doubts he raised in his first meditation. In this last section of his sixth meditation he deals mainly with the mind-body problem; and he tries to prove whether material things exist with certainly. In this meditation he develops his Dualist argument; by making a distinction between mind and body; although he also reveals their rather significant relationship. Primarily he considers existence of the external world and whether our experience hold knowledge of this world or whether this knowledge is merely an illusion....   [tags: essays research papers] 1379 words
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La Croix on Descartes - La Croix on Descartes La Croix in his essay disputes the position set forth by Harry Frankfurt in his article "Descartes on the Creation of the Eternal Truths" (The Philosophical Review, 1977), charging that Frankfurt misrepresents Descartes’ view of God’s nature and power. According to La Croix, Frankfurt holds that, in claiming that God created the eternal truths and could have done the opposite with respect to establishing the law of contradiction, Descartes conceived of God’s power as extending beyond the laws of logic....   [tags: Papers] 601 words
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