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DNA Forensics - ... After this layer is removed, the DNA is filtered out, and the result is usually smaller than a quarter of a drop from a medicine pipette (Butts, 2004). After isolating the DNA, scientists use a UV spectrometer to measure how much of it they have to work with. Different types of molecules absorb different wavelengths of light, so the spectrometer sends rays that DNA absorbs (Crest, 2005). With some simple calculations, the amount of DNA present can be measured based on the ratio of light that is absorbed, reflected, or passed through the sample....   [tags: Biology, Genetics, DNA Profiles] 2742 words
(7.8 pages)
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DNA in the Forensic Science Community - ... This paper examines Carrell et al’s research along with three other scholarly research articles to better understand the effects that the DNA recovered from a crime scene has on a particular case and the forensic science community. In McClure, Weisburd and Wilson (2008) summary article arguing that in addition to bench science, field experimentation involving forensic methods is key to assess the utility of various methods to solve crimes. The study reflected that there is a need for more research into many aspects of forensic science, criticizing the strength of scientific evidence that’s collected at a crime scene and interpretations of most forensic methods while omitting DNA testing....   [tags: Biology, DNA collection, DNA Evidence] 1511 words
(4.3 pages)
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Bacteria strains and DNA extraction - ... Moreover, the final volume of each PCR reaction was 50 μl with the following reagents: 2.5 μl of 10X buffer (Tris-HCl (pH 8.3) and KCl) 3 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM of dNTPs (CinnaGen Co. , Iran), 0.5 μM each of external primers AJ75 and AJ76 and 1.5 μM each of internal primers PEANT1 and PEANT2, and 3 U of Taq polymerase (CinnaGen Co., Iran). Each reaction consisted of denaturation step of 94°C for 4 min followed by 25 cycles of 94°C for 30 s and 72°C for 1 min. This first round of PCR amplification was followed in the same thermocycler by a second denaturation step of 94°C for 4 min and 40 cycles of 94°C for 30 s, 56°C for 30 s, and 72°C for 45 s....   [tags: Biology, DNA] 2261 words
(6.5 pages)
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DNA - ... All of these examples have bodily fluids that contain DNA that can crucial and narrowing down a suspect and mostly importantly convicting the guilty or freeing the innocent. DNA evidence does not have to be restricted to just blood or Semen but anything from a person’s body will contain their DNA. A suspect may not realize what valuable evidence they left behind. However, once collected and tested properly DNA evidence can seal the case. DNA technology has evolved allowing the process of testing to be more efficient and accurate....   [tags: Biology] 2113 words
(6 pages)
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DNA Interactions Between Proteins - DNA: Interactions between Proteins Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a molecule that contains the genetic makeup of almost all living organisms. While Deoxyribonucleic Acid, or DNA, has been successfully mapped out, many of its interactions with certain proteins and enzymes have not been fully revealed within the atomic level. The history and mysteries of DNA continue to fascinate biologists and chemists alike. However, we must question, who was the first to discover DNA, and what scientists have done to further enhance our understanding of it....   [tags: Biology Medical DNA] 1021 words
(2.9 pages)
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DNA, The New Crime Investigator - DNA, The New Crime Investigator Abstract What is DNA. The scientific definition is “deoxyribonucleic acid, the biological polymer that stores the genetic information in all free living organisms. Two linear molecules entwine to form the double helix. Now that the definition has been stated, let’s now define what DNA means to a crime scene or case investigator. In the law enforcement business DNA has been introduce as a revolutionary and efficient accurate tool to solve and crack modern and cold cases....   [tags: DNA Crime Cimenology] 1352 words
(3.9 pages)
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Against Proposition 69 and the DNA Fingerprint Act - Abstract: California’s Proposition 69 and the DNA Fingerprint Act both expand criminal DNA databases far beyond what is necessary to protect citizens and prosecute violent crime. DNA profiling techniques and databases have developed largely over the last fifteen years, and the recent expansions are only a part of an ongoing trend of ‘function creep’ that characterizes database expansion. Proposition 69 and the DNA Fingerprint Act expand DNA databases originally designed to house DNA samples from violent criminals to include samples from anyone arrested for a felony crime....   [tags: DNA Database Crime Criminals]
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1711 words
(4.9 pages)
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DNA - DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid are two chemical substances involved in transmitting genetic information from parent to offspring. It was known early into the 20th century that chromosomes, the genetic material of cells, contained DNA. In 1944, Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty concluded that DNA was the basic genetic component of chromosomes. Later, RNA would be proven to regulate protein synthesis. (Miller, 139) DNA is the genetic material found in most viruses and in all cellular organisms....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1429 words
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DNA - DNA DNA, or Deoxyribonucleic Acid, is described, in Encarta Encyclopedia as a genetic material of all cellular organisms and most viruses. DNA carries the information needed to direct protein synthesis and replication. Protein synthesis is the production of the proteins needed by the cell or virus for its activities and development. Replication is the process by which DNA copies itself for each descendant cell or virus, passing on the information needed for protein synthesis. In most cellular organisms, DNA is organized on chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell....   [tags: Deoxyribonucleic Acid essays research papers] 995 words
(2.8 pages)
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DNA - DNA is a term that has been used in science as well as in many parts of daily life. The general public knows that DNA is a part of our bodies but they may wonder what exactly is DNA. DNA is a term used for deoxyribonucleic acid and it is the genetic material of all organisms, it is the molecule of life and it determines all of our physical characteristics. DNA is present in every single form of life. More than 50 years after the science of genetics was established and the patterns of inheritance were clarified, the largest questions remained unanswered: How are the chromosomes and their genes copied exactly from cell to cell, and how do they direct the structure and behavior of living things....   [tags: essays research papers] 1423 words
(4.1 pages)
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DNA - DNA "There is no substance as important as DNA," Watson, 1991. Gene therapy is a controversial issue in today’s science society. Debates in the United States are covering a wide range of topics. I will discuss just a few viewpoints from both sides. First of all, a little background on DNA and genetics. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a complex structure consisting of a double stranded helix made up of complementary base pairs. Adenine (A) pairs up with thymine (T) and guanine (G) matches with cytosine (C)....   [tags: Biology Biological Essays]
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1805 words
(5.2 pages)
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DNA - DNA After staying on the plant Earth reaching the human genetic technology, I have come up with this report the four things I am going to talk about in this report are: 1) What is the chemical basis of the plant Earth 2) What do human mean by "genetic technology" and how is it possible 3) How have human used this technology 4) Are humans concerned about this technology 1)The chemical basis of the plant earth is deoxyribonucleic acid (generally shortened to DNA), it has the shape of a long twisted ladder each rung of this ladder is made up of a pair of chemical bases, the information that human body need to make proteins is coded and contained in the order of these bases along the length of the DNA ladder....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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849 words
(2.4 pages)
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DNA Profiling - ... This region contains DNA sequences that repeat over and over again. Alec Jeffreys determined that the number of repeated sections at different locations vary from individual to individual (DNA Initiative). Consequently these repetitive regions became known as “variable number of tandem repeats” or VNTR’s. RFLP or restriction fragment length polymorphisms became the first scientifically accepted DNA analysis method in the United States (Jones). The repeat segments are cut out of the DNA strand by a restrictive enzyme that acts like scissors and the resulting fragments are sorted out by electrophoresis (Saferstein 391)....   [tags: Forensic Science]
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1365 words
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DNA Report - ... DNA is made of many different resources found in a human body; chemicals, bases, and more. Deoxyribonucleic acid is made of three basic chemical building blocks; a Phosphate group, a Sugar group, and 1 of 4 nitrogen bases. DNA is made of 3 billon bases (National Human, 2008), 99% of these bases are the same in all humans (“U.S. National”, 2009), and the order and amount of the bases determines that humans unique self (Rubenstein, 2006). Bases are connected by hydrogen bonds, base pairing is very specific; Adenine only with Thymine and Cytosine only with Guanine (“Comptons”, 2008)....   [tags: Biology] 876 words
(2.5 pages)
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DNA Technologies - The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 and revealed to the world by James Watson and Francis Crick.1 Since then, there has been a whirlwind of activity and discovery in the fields associated with DNA. We have found that DNA is not only a set of instructions for the body, but that it also contains a lot of information about the individual who “owns” the DNA. As it is rapidly becoming cheaper and easier to process DNA, it is becoming more difficult to make sure that there is adequate legislature to protect members of society....   [tags: Biology ] 1023 words
(2.9 pages)
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DNA Testing - ... Davis, 1988). The seminal fluid collected from the victim and the defendant was not able to irrefutably link the two but would be used to sway a jury (State v. Davis, 1988). Blood typing during the period of this crime was not precise enough to be undisputable in the defense of many defendants (DNA.gov, n.d.). When the victim left the Davis home she ran to the neighbor’s house and told them what she alleged had happened; those neighbors must not have believed her because they refused to help her (State v....   [tags: Criminal Justice]
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1492 words
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DNA Molecule - ... striatus can be morphologically distinguished based on coloration, meristics and morphometrics (Mat Jais, 1991; Rahim et al., 2009), as well as the distribution of scales on the underside of the lower jaw, and the morphology of the suprabranchial organs and a sharp pointed ridge at the mid-ventral part of isthmus (Vishwanath and Geetakymari, 2009). The wild species found in small rivers, lakes, pools and shallow water bodies where agro-chemicals are applied in their natural habitats can survive in harsh environments with low dissolved oxygen and high ammonia (Rahim et al., 2009; Jamaluddin, 2011)....   [tags: Biology, The Mitochondrial Cyt B] 648 words
(1.9 pages)
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Investigating the DNA - Investigating the DNA Objectives 1. Understand the semiconservative nature of DNA replication. Realize that the process begins at unique origins of replication, and proceeds bidirectionally. 2. Know that DNA synthesis is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called DNA polymerases. Understand that DNA polymerase has a requirement for a template on which to synthesize the new DNA strand, and for a primer from which to extend the DNA strand. 3. Understand the various functions of the RNA polymerases, such as exonuclease and polymerase activities, and their function in the replication process....   [tags: Papers] 1204 words
(3.4 pages)
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DNA and Replication - DNA and Replication You pose an interesting question – There are different types of Human DNA – which there are various classifications, Chromosomal DNA and Mitochondrial DNA. There is also the DNA present from normal flora microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, mites, etc. Some of this microorganism DNA may be significant, such as E. coli DNA in the gut or Staphylococcus DNA on the skin. You even have DNA present from viruses of bacteria such as phage DNA. Some human viruses may be present in blood cells such as EBV, CMV in nerve cells like herpes simplex 1, in skin cell like HPV (human papilloma virus) or integrated into the Human Chromosomal DNA such as various retroviruses, like human foamy virus, HTLV or HIV Within Chromosomal DNA there is DNA that codes for genes- exons (mRNA coding) and non coding regions called introns....   [tags: Papers] 1297 words
(3.7 pages)
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DNA testing - DNA testing has overthrown the way police collect evidence in a number of criminal cases, especially rape and murder and consequently had a large impact on many past cases. However there are many disadvantages to DNA testing, such as a challenge of accuracy, the costs of DNA testing and the possible misuse of DNA. The prospect of a national DNA database in Australia has been heavily criticised with complaints of invasion of privacy and stigma against those with terminal diseases. Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA as it is most commonly known, is a strand of molecules found within the cell nucleus of all living things....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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928 words
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Dna Replication - DNA REPLICATION WHAT IS DNA. DNA is a molecule that has a repeating chain of identical five-carbon sugars (polymers) linked together from head to tail. It is composed of four ring shaped organic bases (nucleotides) which are Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T). It has a double helix shape and contains the sugar component deoxyribose. THE PROCESS OF DNA REPLICATION How DNA replicates is quite a simple process. First, a DNA molecule is “unzipped”. In other words, it splits into two strands of DNA at one end of the DNA molecule....   [tags: essays research papers] 2181 words
(6.2 pages)
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DNA Extraction - DNA Extraction In extracting chromatin from the cells of wheat germ there are seven steps to follow. The optimal cell to use would be the polyploidal eukaryotic. Eukaryotes have nucleus membrane-bound organelles, while prokaryotic does not. The polyploidal eukaryotic cell has DNA that is held in the nucleus while the prokaryote has DNA that floats freely around the cell. The DNA of eukaryotes is more complex and extensive than the other. Prokaryote is a bacterial cell that usually has DNA in one large strand and only has one chromosome while the eukaryotic cell has more than one chromosome and is considered to be a higher organism....   [tags: Process Biology Biological Essays]
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585 words
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DNA Fingerprinting - DNA Fingerprinting It is widely known that each individual has a DNA profile as unique as a fingerprint. Actually, over 99% of all 3 billion nucleotides in human DNA which we inherit from each parent are identical among all individuals. However, for every 1000 nucleotides that we inherit there is 1 site of variation or polymorphism, in the population. These DNA polymorphisms change the length of the DNA fragments produced by the digestion of restriction enzymes . The resulting fragments are called restriction fragments length polymorphisms....   [tags: Technology, Science] 324 words
(0.9 pages)
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Dna And Crime - DNA and Crime Deoxyribonucleic Acid - the fingerprint of life also know as DNA was first mapped out in the early 1950’s by British biophysicist, Francis Harry Compton Crick and American biochemist James Dewey Watson. They determined the three-dimensional structure of DNA, the substance that passes on the genetic characteristics from one generation to the next. DNA is found in the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. "Every family line has it’s own unique pattern of restriction-enzyme DNA fragments....   [tags: essays research papers] 1274 words
(3.6 pages)
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The DNA Molecule - The DNA Molecule In the autumn of 1951, James Watson (left) and Francis Crick (right) started work on unravelling the structure of DNA. It was known at the time that DNA was present in the nucleus of every living cell, and that it had something to do with heridity, but without a knowledge of its structure little more could be understood about how it actually worked. They approached the problem with the same methodology that had been pioneered by Linus Pauling, who after years of exhaustive study had earlier discovered that many proteins exhibited a helical structure....   [tags: Papers] 786 words
(2.2 pages)
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Recent Uses of DNA Technology - Recent Uses of DNA Technology DNA, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, is the basic structure for all life, it is the blueprint, the instruction manual, on how to build a living organism. DNA is made up of four nitrogen bases, adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine which are connected by sugar-phosphate bonds. Through a process called Protein Synthesis, the nitrogen bases are the code for the creation of amino acids. Essentially, DNA makes amino acids, amino acids make proteins, proteins make organisms. This process has been taking place for much longer than scientists have been able to document....   [tags: Medical Research]
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Familial DNA Searching - ... It is already widespread in British police forces, having solved countless infamous cases both cold and new, including various serial rapists and murderers (Singer, 2010). Fredrick Bieber, a Harvard medical professor who specializes in familial DNA searches, says “such searches could solve up to 40 percent more crimes in which DNA evidence is present. It would thus be a threat to public safety to not explore the familial DNA option as a crime-fighting tool, especially when more subjective tools like eyewitness identification and fingerprinting are used” (Riley 2010)....   [tags: Genetics]
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1418 words
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DNA and Crime Investigation - ... Investigators learned to scrutinize and record evidence present at the crime scene. The collection of that evidence eventually became a standard procedure, and as the practice became more habitual, investigators began discovering smaller and smaller pieces of evidence. Detectives soon came to realize that microscopes were necessary for viewing the smaller pieces of evidence. Microscopes became a standard detection tool. This occurred at the same time as the study of anatomy began to advance....   [tags: Criminal Justice ]
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The Discovery Of The Structure Of DNA - ... Furthermore, he was able to isolate live S-strain bacteria from these dead mice. From this, Griffith was able to conclude that the heat-killed cells contained a “transforming code” capable of changing the harmless R-strain bacteria into the pathogenic S-strain. Francis Crick and James Watson are recognized as the main scientists involved in the identification of DNA and its structure, which is one of the most important discoveries of the twentieth century. However, were it not for Rosalind Franklin, Linus Pauling, Colin Avery and Maurice Wilkins, the two men would likely not have made the discovery following the critical events that preceded their work....   [tags: Genetics]
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DNA Hydroxymethylation of Mammals - ... Branco, 2012). Although a number of methods have been introduced in order to aid with the removal of 5mC, it is believed that the only means for removal of it in mammals is passive demethylation during replication. It was noted that there would be a decrease in 5mC levels, and therefore a small increase in unmodified cytosine levels when TET1 was over expressed. “One seemingly inconsistent example is that of myeloid tumours carrying TET2 mutations that decrease its activity, where decreased global 5hmC levels are actually associated with CpG hypomethylation, but it is possible that the methylation machinery is also impaired in these tumours....   [tags: Medical Research]
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DNA Donation: A Personal Choice - ... These however, cannot fully prevent the discrimination that is likely to occur if the results of one’s DNA test results are shared or leaked from a research study. If I were to ever decide to participate in a research study involving my DNA, I would need to be able research the validity of the study. I would want my DNA be utilized for the betterment of the human race; not the bulging pocketbook of a privately funded company. I would also expect that the company have a notable background in advancing the world of science in an ethical and moral method....   [tags: Medical Ethics ]
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The Role of DNA in Cloning - Have you ever thought that science can advance rapidly to a great extent. Nowadays scientists are trying to make the same exact copy of your DNA. Can you imagine having a clone of yourself, your parents, or even your siblings. Have you ever wished for someone to take your place for a minute, an hour, or a day. This may come true one day. According to the Online Dictionary; a clone is defined as “a cell, cell product, or organism that is genetically identical to the unit or individual from which it was derived.” I always thought that cloning was impossible, and is just science fiction....   [tags: Genetic Cloning, Genetics, Genes] 812 words
(2.3 pages)
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DNA Sequences and Species Boundaries - Discussion The use of genetic markers has been an effective way to examine population structure (Bucklin and Kocher 1996) and mitochondrial DNA sequences have been used broadly to delimit species boundaries (Wiens 1999) . More recently the use of mitochondrial DNA sequences has been contentious, and two extreme viewpoints have emerged (see review in Rubinoff and Holland 2005), one position criticizing the exclusive use of mtDNA while others have endorsed one particular gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) as a universal marker....   [tags: Biochemistry] 2450 words
(7 pages)
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How DNA Helps to Solve Crimes - Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been used to analyze and prove innocence or guilt of suspects of crimes with great accuracy. DNA is part of everyday life. It is the heredity material in humans and almost all other organisms. While being part of an investigation. DNA has helped to solve crimes. There is a couple ways that DNA left behind can be tested to solve a crime. Either if the suspect has been caught and or had his or her DNA tested, or if he or she has left behind any biological evidence. Which then needs to be tested to see if it matches the DNA found in the crime scene to his or hers DNA....   [tags: criminal justice] 565 words
(1.6 pages)
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DNA Profiling Used in Courts - DNA Profiling Used in Courts DNA profiling is a technique often used to identify criminals or the biological parents of a child through the analysis of their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The technique is very successful as it is based on the fact that every person possesses their own individual set of DNA, which is unique to them with the exception of identical twins. DNA found in materials such as blood, semen, bone and hair is extracted for analysis. There are issues involved in its application as it can be seen as an invasion of ones privacy through the use of DNA banks....   [tags: Papers] 921 words
(2.6 pages)
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A DNA Bank Is Necessary - Imagine that a convicted child molester is released from jail and that he is now traveling around the country looking for work. One day this criminal returns to his old ways and he attacks a young child whose dead body is found in a deserted field the following day. The only trace of evidence at the crime scene is a semen specimen on the boys clothes. Now this specimen could be useful if the police tracked down, and arrested the suspect, and then took a blood sample of his that matched the crime scene specimen....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Implications of DNA Profiling - The Implications of DNA Profiling Former attorney General Janet Reno described our system of justice as a search for the truth.(1) Increasingly, the forensic use of DNA technology is an important ally in that search. DNA fingerprinting, better known in the scientific realm as DNA profiling, has given police and the courts a means of identifying the perpetrators of rapes and murders with a very high degree of confidence. However, nine years after its introduction, forensic DNA typing is still used only selectively....   [tags: Genetics Technology Testing Papers]
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Murder, Rape, And DNA - Murder, Rape, and DNA DNA is the information needed by a cell in order to reproduce an identical offspring. In some crimes detectives have no evidence or fingerprints to tell who had committed a crime. Now there is a way of finding who has committed the crime by a method called DNA Typing. DNA Typing is finding bacteria or blood on clothing or skin and amplifying the gene. This process was pioneered in the 1980's by a Scientist named Alec Jeffreys. If blood, sperm, or any other human cells are left at the scene of a crime, the DNA in the cells can be analyzed and compared with some DNA taken from the suspect's blood....   [tags: essays research papers] 347 words
(1 pages)
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DNA Testing and the Conviction of Criminals - DNA Testing and the Conviction of Criminals There have been many incidents where cases have needed a solid prosecution in order to convict the defendant in a murder or rape case. This is where DNA Testing comes in to help. By taking a DNA test, a person can be found guilty or not guilty. If a person claims they have been raped there can be a sperm sample taken from the suspect in order to prove that he is guilty or not. In addition, in a murder case there can be blood taken from the suspect so they can tell of his innocence....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Process of DNA Replication - The Process of DNA Replication The process of DNA replication plays a crucial role in providing genetic continuity from one generation to the next. Knowledge of the structure of DNA began with the discovery of nucleic acids in 1869. In 1952, an accurate model of the DNA molecule was presented, thanks to the work of Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, and Francis Crick. To reproduce, a cell must copy and transmit its genetic information (DNA) to all of its progeny. To do so, DNA replicates following the process of semi-conservative replication....   [tags: Expository Process Essays] 484 words
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Serious Problems with DNA Fingerprinting - Serious Problems with DNA Fingerprinting       Is there any piece of physical evidence so foolproof it could be used to prove or disprove anyone's case in a trial. Many people believe the answer to this question is DNA. In theory, this argument is true, but many believe certain factors can lead to inconsistent data gathered from DNA. There are many differing opinions on how DNA should be used, or if it should be used at all.   Many people are uninformed about what DNA actually is or how it is used in criminal trials....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Use of DNA in Forensics - The Use of DNA in Forensics DNA (noun) [deoxyribonucleic acid] first appeared 1944 : any of various nucleic acids that are usually the molecular basis of heredity, are localized especially in cell nuclei, and are constructed of a double helix held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine bases which project inward from two chains containing alternate links of deoxyribose and phosphate. What is forensics. fo*ren*sic [1] (adjective) First appeared 1659 1 : belonging to, used in, or suitable to courts of judicature or to public discussion and debate....   [tags: Papers] 896 words
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The Future Potential of DNA Fingerprinting - The Tremendous Potential of DNA Fingerprinting     Abstract;  This paper explors the effects DNA fingerprinting has had on the trial courts and legal institutions. Judge Joseph Harris states that it is the "single greatest advance in the search for truth since the advent of the cross examination (Gest, 1988)." And I tend to agree with Judge Joseph's assertion, but with the invention and implementation of DNA profiling and technology has come numerous problems. This paper will explore: how DNA evidence was introduced into the trial courts, the effects of DNA evidence on the jury system and the future of DNA evidence in the trial courts....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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DNA Analysis: Validity And Doubts - DNA : Criminal Identification Validity and Doubts DNA, although controversial on accuracy, has provided a new means of identifying criminals where there is little physical evidence. This allows you to take a piece of hair, a spot of blood, or skin tissue and make a positive identification on a suspect. Since it's first use by the FBI in December 1988 it has grown to become a major factor in criminal investigation. This new key gives them help when the crime scene lacks evidence....   [tags: essays research papers] 579 words
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Using DNA in Criminal Trials - Using DNA in Criminal Trials DNA evidence is extremely helpful in criminal trials not only because it can determine the guilt of a suspect, but also because it can keep innocent people from going to jail. The suspect must leave a sample of their DNA at the crime scene in order for testing to occur, but DNA can be found in the form of many things such as semen, blood, hair, saliva, or skin scrapings. According to Newsweek, "thousands of people have been convicted by DNA's nearly miraculous ability to search out suspects across space and time… hundreds of innocent people have also been freed, often after years behind bars, sometimes just short of the death chamber" (Adler )....   [tags: Papers] 1153 words
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The Use of Recombinant DNA Technology - The Use of Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA technology is the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism.(1) This is the process of using recombinant DNA technology to enable the rapid production of human protein from a single gene of insulin. Firstly the single gene required must be isolated. This can be done three ways: Either by working backwards from the protein- Finding the amino acid sequence for the protein needed, the order of bases can be established using known genetic code....   [tags: Papers] 840 words
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The Power of DNA in the Courtroom - The Power of DNA in the Courtroom          In 1893, Francis Galton introduced a remarkable new way to identify people ("Fingerprinting" pg 1 par 3). His observation that each individual has a unique set of fingerprints revolutionized the world of forensics. Soon, all investigators had adapted the idea to use fingerprints as a form of identification. Unfortunately, over the course of the past century, criminals have adapted to this technique and seldom leave their incriminating marks at the crime scene....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Implications Involving Dinosaur DNA - The Implications Involving Dinosaur DNA Of course it was the movie Jurassic Park who seemed to coin the phrase “Dino DNA.” This movie gave the public the thought that, a) it is possible to find dinosaur DNA and b) we can clone dinosaurs from this DNA. This essay is not going to pick apart Jurassic Park’s scientific value, however it will share the current knowledge and information on dinosaur DNA. The discovery of DNA is important because it may uncover different bits of information. The idea of cloning dinosaurs, especially at this point is out of the question....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Pos. and Neg. of DNA Profiling - The Positives and Negatives on DNA Profiling DNA testing has many uses, both positive and negative, in our society. Genetic profiling has been beneficial in paternity suits and rape cases, where the father or the assailant could be identified. However, despite its growing number of utilizations, DNA profiling is extremely hazardous when results are inaccurate or used to discriminate. Many have benefited from the genetic engineering that has developed at a frightening rate in the last decade. Evabeth T....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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971 words
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DNA replication -a historical perspective - By the end of the 19th century, the first chapter of a powerful new science was all but written. The science was genetics and the critical first chapter concerned the rules, governing transmission of hereditary traits from generation to generation. Genetics is the study of inheritance (heredity) of parental characteristics and of variability of the characteristics of an organism. Variability can occur by genetic change and is in fact the basis of evolution. The first step in understanding heredity was the work of Gregor Johann Mendel, an Australian monk & philosopher who showed in 1865 that crosses (hybrids) of different garden pea varieties had a definite pattern of inheritance of parental characteristics such as color, shape and other properties of the flower and seeds....   [tags: essays research papers] 542 words
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The Use of Recombinant DNA - The Use of Recombinant DNA I agree that recombinant DNA benefits humans only to a certain extent though. During the late 1960s and early 1970s a series of independent discoveries made in rapid succession yielded a new technology whereby humans have the capability to manipulate and direct the very evolution of life itself. This is accomplished through the process of gene splicing (Recombinant DNA). There are four essential elements of the process: a method of breaking and joining DNA molecules from different sources, a gene carrier that can replicate both itself and the foreign DNA, a means of introducing the foreign DNA into a functional bacteria cell, and a method of selecting from a large population the cells which carry the foreign DNA....   [tags: Papers] 738 words
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Discovery of the Structure of DNA - Discovery of the Structure of DNA On the last day of February in 1953, according to James Watson, Francis Crick announced to the patrons of the Eagle Pub in Cambridge, “We have discovered the secret of life” (Watson 115, 1980). As Brian Hayes, the author of “The Invention of the Genetic Code” states, “If life ever had a secret, the double helix of DNA was surely it” (1). However, it was not the work of these two men alone that led to the discovery of the power the lies within the double helix, but rather the work of many scientists that was carefully picked apart and pieced together by the two who received the most fame for the work....   [tags: History Historical Science Biology Essays]
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Presentation on DNA Vaccines - Vaccines • Vaccines are “one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine” • In developed nations, vaccines have almost exterminated polio and smallpox and tightly controlled diseases like hepatitis A and B or typhus • There are three generations of vaccinations • First generation vaccines are either weakened or killed forms of whole organisms • There is a problem with first-gen vaccines: the pathogens can still revert to dangerous forms and cause diseases in immunocompromised vaccine recipients....   [tags: Powerpoint Presentation] 1527 words
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DNA and common elements - Biology Topic Three Chemical elements element Function Prokaryotes Plants animals Sulphur proteins proteins Proteins Calcium Flagella movement Forms cell plate during cytokinesis Shells, bones, vesicle fusion Phosphorus Nucleic acids and ATP Nucleic acids and ATP Nucleic acids and ATP iron Cytochrome- used in respiration Cytochromes-used in reparation Cytochromes – used in mitochondria respiration, haemoglobin Sodium Main cation in cytoplasm Transmission of nerve impulses Water - Polar molecule - Oxygen has slight negative charge - Hydrogen has slight positive charge - Opposite charges attract - This forms hydrogen bonds - This is called cohesion - Water can store lots of heat - Water can dissolve other polar molecules - Other substances can form ions in water and dissolve Organisms and properties of water - Can be used as a coolant because it requires a lot of energy to break the hydrogen bonds to go from liquid to gaseous state - Is a good medium for metabolic reactions due to the fact it is a good solvent due to its polarity....   [tags: Biology] 806 words
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Dna Identification System - The Australian society would not benefit by the introduction of a DNA signature identification system for all citizens over the age of 18. This is the same thing as the Australian Card, which was stopped being released in the mid 1960’s. There were a number of reasons for this, as some being the government would know everything about you but maybe the government know more about you then you think. But is it all really that bad. Maybe it would help us as we could use it for identification purposes instead of carrying around a driver’s license or maybe a birth certificate it would all be held on this one card....   [tags: essays research papers] 452 words
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The Use of DNA to Treat Disease - The Use of DNA to Treat Disease In recent years there have been great advances in medical science. Scientists believe that a gene can be transplanted into humans who suffer from severe diseases that are life threatening. These gene transplants could perhaps cure diseases for which no effective treatment now exists. This treatment is called gene therapy, one method in a series of genetic techniques called genetic engineering. Many benefits can be seen in the future if this research is allowed to continue, however, concerns about how gene therapy could effect humans in the future and the ethics involved with possible misuse of the techniques could hinder this vital research....   [tags: Papers] 1697 words
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The Race to Understanding and Manipulating DNA - A Scientific Revolution: The Race to Understanding and Manipulating DNA Early 1953. Three labs, two in England and one in California, raced to discover the structure of deoxyribose nucleic acid. At Cal Tech in Pasadena, California, Linus Pauling had recently discovered the alpha-helix. Now he was turning his attention to DNA. At King's College in the University of London, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, although hampered by their inability to get along with one another, had taken actual pictures of DNA using x-rays and were hot on the trail....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Legal and Social Issues Surrounding DNA Databanking - ... This may lead to reducing the number of recidivist offenders, out of the fear of being caught. Though effective, there is a valid concern for the privacy of individuals who were not convicted or were found innocent. The DNA profiles of all arrestees would remain in local, State, or national databases, despite exoneration of charges. Additionally, this would provide authorized access to the DNA profiles of innocent individuals without donor knowledge or permission. There is no methodology in place to automatically or manually remove DNA profiles from the database indexes that belong to exonerated individuals....   [tags: Medical Research]
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Normalization of DNA Using Duplex-Specific Nuclease - ... It is well explained and divided into different stages, which are easy to read and understand. It specifies the sources of special materials including the manufacturer or vendor’s name and location. Although the article contained a schematic diagram of DNA normalization, in my opinion, they should draw flowcharts or tables of protocol, which is more convenient to follow the procedure. Plenty of reagent volumes distracted me from reading, hence to clearly comprehend the process I had to draw flowcharts....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Normalization of Genomic DNA Using Duplex-Specific Nuclease - ... The materials and methods section is well explained and is divided into different stages that are easy to read and understand. It specifies the sources of special materials including the manufacturer or vendor’s name and location. Although the article contained a schematic diagram of DNA normalization, in my opinion, they should draw flowcharts or tables of protocol. Plenty of reagent volumes distracted me from reading, hence to comprehend the process I had to draw flowcharts. The study ‘the representation of repeats of the human genome’ showed identical or slightly increased results for both normalized and non-normalized nucleotide sequences....   [tags: Article Analysis ]
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The Use of Force to Gain DNA Samples - The Use of Force to Gain DNA Samples Police forces consider DNA testing to be the biggest break through of the century in solving crime. They have lobbied for legislation to give them the right to take samples from violent suspects and store them in a central Data Bank. In 1995, the Government had drafted a bill that would permit police to take blood, hair, or saliva samples from uncooperative suspects of violent crimes. The Justice Minister then had announced plans to introduce another statute that would favor a data bank of DNA samples....   [tags: Papers] 547 words
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A DNA Match is NOT Sufficient to Prove Guilt - DNA is the "master molecule of life". In every living creature from the amoebas to zebras, it carries the coded messages of heredity, governing everything from eye color to allergies. Its discovery solved by James Watson and Francis Crick 41 years ago has brought on one scientific triumph after another. Shelley and I explored these findings and presented the class with the most applicable use of DNA in society today--DNA and its service to the sensational field of criminal investigation. As such, our aim was to first explain the structure of DNA, the two methods of analysis used to examine DNA, the contentions one might have using these methods and then finally its impact on the field of forensics....   [tags: Persuasive Argumentative Essay Examples] 1130 words
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Computers Predicting the outcomes of cutting DNA - The focus of this study is the interaction between DNA and I-Msol, an endonuclease. An endonuclease is a protein that cuts DNA at a certain sequence with a certain length; I-Msol cuts DNA at approximately 20-24 base pairs and is highly specific in what sequence it is designed to cut. The interaction between DNA and an endonuclease like I-Msol is difficult to determine just by looking at the amino acid sequence of the protein. The difficulty arises because of the many molecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions are affected by how the protein specifically interacts with the DNA, 3-dimensionally....   [tags: Biology] 568 words
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The Positive And Negative Effects Of Dna Profiling - The Positive And Negative Effects of DNA Profiling Genetic engineering has developed and blossomed at a frightening rate in the last decade. Originating as merely an area of interest for scientists, genetic engineering has now become an area of which all people should be somewhat knowledgeable. DNA profiling has many uses, both positive and negative, in our society. Aside from its usefulness in many legal investigations, DNA profiling can be used in the workplace to discriminate against employees whose profiles could pose a financial risk....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Discovery of DNA’s Molecular Structure - The Discovery of DNA’s Molecular Structure Theoretical models for the molecular structure of DNA can be likened to scientific theories. DNA’s structure was determined largely because scientists scrutinized the relationship between theory (a particular theoretical model of DNA) and observation (x-ray crystallographic patterns, or bonding patterns between bases and sugar-phosphate groups, for example). Inductivists, falsificationists, Kuhn, and Feyerabend all have different accounts of how scientists have related theory to observation....   [tags: Science Genetics Papers] 2646 words
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DNA Chip - Genetic Testing of the Future - DNA Chip - Genetic Testing of the Future Many, if not most diseases, have their roots in our genes. Genes, through the proteins they encode, determine how efficiently we process foods, how effectively we detoxify poisons, and how vigorously we respond to infections. In the past 20 years, amazing new techniques have allowed scientists to learn a great deal about how genes work and how they are linked to disease. This rapid pace of discovery of genetic factors, responsible for certain diseases, has allowed scientists to genetically test asymptomatic individuals and predict their risk of certain diseases....   [tags: Genes Science Technology Papers]
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Flying Squirrels - ... Indochinese ground squirrels (Menetes berdmorei) are diurnal and mainly terrestrial, though also forages in low bushes, bamboo and scrub. Found mainly in drier, more open forests and savannah. In Thailand, this squirrel can be found in most forest types throughout Thailand, although absent from extreme northeast (Parr, 2003). Squirrels’ diet consists of fruits and seeds. Some squirrels, however, consume insects, especially Ratufa sp. which has been known to eat eggs of birds. Giant squirrels eat fruits, leaves, insects, barks and saps....   [tags: Biology, DNA] 1963 words
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The Impact of Ancient DNA Discovered in Siberia - The Impact of Ancient DNA Discovered in Siberia For many decades, there has been an overwhelming curiosity about what life was like before humans ruled the earth - back when life on land, off land, and even the very land itself was very different than it is today. Pieces of this puzzle have been discovered all over the world, ranging from perfectly preserved skeletons at the bottom of bodies of water to fragments discovered in vast deserts. Due to the conditions of the ancient finds, there is only so much that can be deciphered about the past, which leads to the creations of various theories of what life was like in different areas and why and when it changed....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Light and Dark Side of DNA Technology - The Light and Dark Side of DNA Technology As with most modern advances, DNA technology has opened the door to a vast new world of discovery. On the positive side, DNA aids us in the fight against disease, such as cancer, and many genetic disorders, such as muscular dystrophy. Yet many in society are concerned with the ethical issue of using DNA in matters such as cloning, genetic tampering, and the irratication of less than perfect fetuses resulting selective human reproduction. Most diseases have a genetic basis, therefore if scientists are able to locate the genes that are responsible for diseases, it would aid in the treatment and prevention of disease....   [tags: Papers] 449 words
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The Human Genome Project and Patenting DNA - The Human Genome Project: Patenting DNA The Human Genome Project is a global initiative to map the approximately 100,000 genes present in the genome of humans. Planning for the project was started in 1989 with a proposal submitted by the Office of Technology Assessment and the National Research Council. In 1990, the actual project began under the joint leadership of the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Energy. The goals of the project are as follows: Mapping and sequencing the human genome Mapping and sequencing the genomes of model organisms Data collection and distribution Ethical, legal, and social consideration Research training Technology development Technology transfer Originally, research centers were to be established to promote collaboration from investigators around the country, as well as network with similar projects around the world....   [tags: Genetics Science Essays]
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Yeast Two-Hybrid - ... Positive growth results were assigned only to strains that exhibited growth at D10D^(-4) dilution. To determine possible regions within MID1 that enabled its interaction with a4, two modified MID1 constructs were used; one without its B-box region (DBB), and the other without its coiled-coil region (DCC). These were used in conjunction with a full-length (unmodified) MID1 – for a positive control reaction. The cDNA of each was fused to the transcriptional activation domain (GAL4AD) from the GAL4 transcriptional activator, creating a fusion protein sequence within the plasmid pPC86 (henceforth referred to as the “prey” or pPC86DMID1(Y))....   [tags: Biology, DNA] 1209 words
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Antibiotic Usage - ... One can argue that antibiotics resistance was seen from a distance with the rapid development of antimicrobial resistance, however, the treatment of animals and humans worldwide is evident that we breed these animals for human consumption therefore the resistance of transferring through the food chain is likely (Livermore, 2006). More meals are prepared outside the home and contamination will go un-noticed until infection started, example the outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 (DOH, 2006). As food borne infections increases, so does the use of antibiotics....   [tags: Biology, DNA] 1107 words
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Genetics - ... This evidence of the successful digest prepared the fragments for ligation. After the pRS306 and HogI digests were ligated, DH5α competent cells were transformed with the ligation products. The colonies grew as expected (Table 2) with the no vector (H2O) control yielding 0 colonies demonstrating the sample was not contaminated and the positive pUC19 vector produced a lawn indicating the transformation protocol was successful. The no insert column indicates the background ligation rate – that is the vector that closed on it’s self without the insert....   [tags: Biology, DNA]
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Deletion - ... Figure 2: pedigree chart Cytogenetic study was carried out using peripheral blood lymphocyte by GTG-banding according to the standard procedure (400 bands per haploid genome). 2 cultures were prepared using RPMI 1640 media, 25 metaphases were scanned and 15 G-band metaphases were analyzed. Out of those, 3 were karyotyped and photographed. Results: The symptoms of the patient’s were pointing towards the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, which was further proved correct from the cytogenetic study of the patient’s lymphocytic chromosomes....   [tags: Biology, DNA] 1025 words
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Side Effect of Genetic Screening - ... Apart from that, no matter how much is the cost of genetic screening; there is still no guarantee about the test results that will remain private and confidential. Hence, genetic screening could be considered as a medical treatment which most of the citizens could not afford it due to the high cost. Secondly, the reliability of genetic screening is still a question even though the size of the different gene is being tested repeatedly. Therefore, any uncertain failure matters might cause the radiation effect in the field of babies....   [tags: Biology, DNA] 1396 words
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DNA TYPING AND QUANTIFICATION OF LIP COSMETIC SAMPLES FOR FORENSIC CASEWORK ANALYSIS - ... DNA obtained from lipstick stained lips was much less in quantity i.e. 0.01ng but it gave full genetic profile. Tsai (2010) suggested that full DNA profile is obtainable (with PCR amplification at 28 cycles) when DNA from skin residues is not less than 0.43ng [14]. Ganies et al. (2002) reported amplification of 15 STRs from only 32pg of DNA [9]. In general, as the quantification value decreases, the average number of type-able loci also tends to decrease [7]. But all loci were successfully typed in profile generated from lips....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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DNA typing from bullet casings using direct PCR - ... Direct PCR has been shown to be promising in recovering DNA from low-template samples and touch DNA. Direct PCR is achieved via mutant polymerases, which have higher tolerance to inhibitors, and proprietary additives, such as PCR enhancers, to the reaction buffer [22,23]⁠. As such, using a conventional STR kit but switching from AmpliTaq Gold to a novel polymerase has been shown to yield more alleles in an STR profile and overcome inhibition better [24]⁠. Linacre et al. [11]⁠ as well as Swaran and Welch [25]⁠ have obtained better STR profiles from known amounts of control DNA deposited on various substrates....   [tags: Criminal Justice]
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America's Crime Fighters Need DNA Fingerprinting - America's Crime Fighters Need DNA Fingerprinting Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a chemical structure containing a base sequence. Base pairs are genetic codes made up of four chemicals (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine) and each sequence differs in every person. Because DNA is so complex and varies immensely in individuals, it can be used like a fingerprint, hence the name DNA Fingerprinting. DNA can be found and analyzed in blood, semen, saliva, hair and skin--even decades old if properly stored....   [tags: Genetic Argumentative Persuasive] 2498 words
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Genetic Engineering: DNA Testing and Social Control - DNA Testing and Social Control Pragmatism is the name of the game when it comes to taking away freedom. The public tends to be against any attempt to curtail civil liberties across the board. It is standard practice, however, to for the government to violate the rights of certain groups in the name of public safety or to fight crime. This is what is happening with the government collection of DNA samples. The state of New York announced on August 5 that it intends to collect DNA samples from every person in prison, on parole, or in probation in that state for one of a specified list of crimes....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] 710 words
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How topoisomerases unknot knots that are formed in DNA - How topoisomerases unknot knots that are formed in DNA Introduction: The study of properties of geometric objects under deformations is called topology; the subfield of topology that I will be discussing in this essay is called knot theory (Adams 6). Mathematical knots have two primary differences: one, they are infinitely thin, and two, they are always closed. Something very similar to the size and shape of mathematical knots is DNA. Not surprisingly, knots occur in DNA frequently on a normal basis....   [tags: math mathematics]
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