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Economic Networking—Exploring Alternatives for Promoting Sustainable Development in Africa - Economic Networking—Exploring Alternatives for Promoting Sustainable Development in Africa INTRODUCTION The history of European aid intervention in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states has traditionally acted to reinforce the hierarchical distinction between the “developed” and the “developing” world. The series of Lome Conventions which granted preferential trade agreements between these groups of countries have proved ineffective in encouraging economic sustainability in the ACP states, and although the ACP includes most of the Least Developed Countries (LLDCs) in the world, the agreements have been criticized as being unfair in the global context....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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2911 words
(8.3 pages)
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Ambiguities Explored in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness - Ambiguities Explored in Heart of Darkness     Literature is never interpreted in exactly the same way by two different readers. A prime example of a work of literature that is very ambiguous is Joseph Conrad's, "Heart of Darkness". The Ambiguities that exist in this book are Marlow's relationship to colonialism, Marlow's changing feelings toward Kurtz, and Marlow's lie to the Intended at the end of the story.   One interpretation of Marlow's relationship to colonialism is that he does not support it....   [tags: Heart Darkness essays]
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1464 words
(4.2 pages)
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Heart of Darkness and Things Fall Apart - Heart of Darkness and Things Fall Apart My interest in Joseph Conrad is centered around understanding what brought him to the Congo and how the events that transpired there influenced his attitudes in Heart of Darkness. I also wanted to gain a greater understanding of the historical events that led to the colonization of the Congo. This interest is basically grounded in the fact that prior to my exposure to Heart of Darkness and Things Fall Apart, I knew virtually nothing about what actually led to the colonization of the area....   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays] 3512 words
(10 pages)
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King Leopold's Ghost - King Leopold's Ghost Out of sight mind is very convenient. If we don’t see what is really going on it is easier for us as consumers to sleep at night. Capitalism, colonialism and slavery are still practiced today, but in foreign countries and in a different manner. Before reading King Leopold’s Ghost, when I thought of slavery I thought of the transatlantic slave trade or Africans working as slaves in the US. After reading the book my eyes were open to a whole new perspective on slavery, capitalism and colonialism....   [tags: English Literature Essays] 1019 words
(2.9 pages)
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Jamaican Culture and Society - Jamaican Culture and Society I. Introduction- Retracing the Remnants of Colonialism: When discussing and analyzing contemporary Caribbean culture one must not fail to acknowledge the dreadful legacies of colonialism and imperialism. Contemporary Caribbean society, politics, and economics thinly veil the ramifications of a colonial and hegemonic past. Due to the remnants of colonial institutions such as slavery and the plantation system, the Caribbean has experienced a range of negative societal effects, namely the consolidation of a unifying cultural identity....   [tags: American History]
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2962 words
(8.5 pages)
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blah - When it comes to writing styles, African American literature is a very complex category of writing. It is made up of three main categories. These styles are romantic embrace, realistic appraisal, and shame-faced rejection. Each style illustrates the author’s view of his or her history. European colonialism played a major role in how the writers viewed their past. The extremist categories are shame-faced rejection and romantic embrace. The first class I will discuss is romantic embracement. The authors who fall into this category generally feel that there is a need for people to recapture and revitalize our past whether the past was positive or negative....   [tags: essays research papers] 698 words
(2 pages)
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The Japanese Colonial Legacy In Korea - The Japanese Colonial Legacy In Korea North and South Korea are nations that while filled with contempt for Japan have used the foundations that Japan laid during the colonial period to further industrialization. Japan's colonization of Korea is critical in understanding what enabled Korea to industrialize in the period since 1961. Japan's program of colonial industrialization is unique in the world. Japan was the only colonizer to locate various heavy industry is in its colonies. By 1945 the industrial plants in Korea accounted for about a quarter of Japan's industrial base....   [tags: essays research papers] 724 words
(2.1 pages)
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Artrow of God - Colonialism is seen as a difficult arrangement that prevents even the best people from acting for the common good. Chapters in which the British officials discuss with one another reveal that while they are not the worst of their type, racism and ignorant condescension more or less come with the territory. On page 174 is a great example “The white man watched Ezuelu with something like amusement on his face. When the interpreter finished he tightened up his face and began again. He rebuked Ezeulu for showing disrespect for the order of the government and warned him that if he showed such disrespect again he would be severely punished.” The British master plan for governing the Igbo, a plan with which Winterbottom, a seasoned colonial ruler, strongly opposes because it invites exploitation and corruption....   [tags: essays research papers] 506 words
(1.4 pages)
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Commentary of Rabindranath Tagore's Africa - Though written in response to Mussolini’s invasion of Algeria in 1935, the poem’s criticism of European colonialism in Africa can be extended to the host of European nations that ran the race to colonial domination. The poem is structured to mirror the evolution of Africa, with the three stanzas respectively dealing with Africa’s creation, colonisation and post-colonialism. This sets up the framework for the contrasting of the three periods, which expose the poet's impression of the hypocrisy of Western imperialism....   [tags: Literary Analysis]
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1708 words
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Environmental Issues Q&A - Question 1 In what ways has distributive approach to achieving environmental justice been problematic in western nations. In the 1980’s, emerging environmental justice movements brought with them the promise of a better environmental future for all; unfortunately there were major flaws in their distribution approach to achieving justice. The notion of environmental distribution was created to equally distribute the environments goods and harms of society and to distribute ones chances of living near a hazardous area, equally....   [tags: Environment]
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2010 words
(5.7 pages)
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The State of Exception and Collective Shame in Coetzee: An Allegorical Reading of Waiting for the Barbarians - ... This emergency first “leads to exceptional practices of torture. . . deployed as if normal under the circumstances and later to those same practices acting upon and displacing the rule of ordinary law” (Crocker 4). The power exercised by the Colonel and his empire are thus paralleled to the “emergency powers” granted to the executive branch of the U.S. Government as a protector of national security against the “terrorists,” or “barbarians.” Many critics of the “war on terror” also point to a temporary suspension of habeas corpus, which is analogous to the role of torture in Waiting for the Barbarians....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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2009 words
(5.7 pages)
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Bhabha's Contribution to Postcolonial Theory - ... London : Fontana , 1986. -- Gwendolen. London : Falmingo, 1989. -- Kehinde. London : Hieneman Educational Publishers, 1994. Enugu, A.C. Gender Voices and Choices: Redefining Women in Contemporary African Fiction. Nigeria : Fourth Dimension Publishing, 1995. Fafunwa, A. Babs. History of Education in Nigeria. London: George, Allen & Unwin, 1974. Fishburn, Katherine. Reading Buchi Emecheta: Cross-Cultural Conversations. Westport : Greenwood press, 1995. Gandhi. Leela. Postcolonial Theory: A Critical Introduction....   [tags: Sociology ]
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1050 words
(3 pages)
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Life in Trinidad and Tobago - ... The program provided support in education. Aid also sent to the countries of Guyana and Belize under the conditions of Commonwealth Technical Assistance Program that was established in 1958. Also, in the years of 1964-65, an allocation of aid was also granted to Jamaica and Trinidad. In the same year the aid program debut development loans. Previously all aid was out-right grants. The Canadian aid was focused on transportation, education and water development and to a limited extent in agriculture development in smaller territories....   [tags: Country Analysis ]
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2105 words
(6 pages)
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Things Fall Apart - Things Fall Apart Things Fall Apart was published in 1958. Its fundamental theme, in Achebe's words, is "that African people did not hear of culture for the first time from Europeans." It is a celebration of the depth, value, and beauty of tribal society. Also of the "dignity that African people all but lost during the colonial period. This novel has been translated into over forty languages and has sold well over three million copies. The title of this novel is taken from a W.B. Yeats poem, 'The Second Coming': Things Fall Apart; the centre cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world, The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere The ceremony of innocence is drowned....   [tags: Chinoe Achebe] 1720 words
(4.9 pages)
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Hell - Algeria is a large nation in northwestern Africa. Its neighbors are Libya, Morocco and Tunisia, all members of the Arab League of Nations. The nation’s primary languages are Arabic and French (Algeria was colonized by France). In terms of surface area, Algeria is the second largest in Africa with a size three times that of Texas. The current population is over 31 million with a GDP/capita of $1650 and a life expectancy of 70 years. COLONIALISM In 1830, the French annexed Algeria, and ruled for over 130 years....   [tags: History, Informative] 327 words
(0.9 pages)
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Prejudice and Racism in The Jewel in the Crown and Heart of Darkness - Racism in The Jewel in the Crown and Heart of Darkness      The effects of British colonialism are reflected in literature from both early modernism and post colonialism. Racial discrimination tainted both eras portrayed in the British morale of white supremacy over non-European counties unfolded. Heart of Darkness exemplifies early modernism in the British explorers viewed African natives of the Congo as incapable of human equality due to perceived uncivilized savagery. Personal interaction between races was little to none, as the freshly conquered Africans were still viewed as alien....   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays]
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1353 words
(3.9 pages)
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Conrad’s The Heart of Darkness and the European’s Claim to Superiority - Conrad’s The Heart of Darkness and the European’s Claim to Superiority Incomplete Works Cited Just beyond the “biggest and greatest town on earth”, four men sit patiently on their boat, waiting for the serene waters of the Thames to ebb (65). One of the men, a Buddha, breaks the silence, saying, “and this also…has been one of the dark places of the earth” (67). This pensive and peaceful idol, Marlow, explains to his apathetic listeners how a great civilization is blindly made out of a darkness, remarking, “The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much....   [tags: Conrad Heart of Darkness Essays] 2309 words
(6.6 pages)
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I Light and I Salvation: The Rise and Impact of Rastafarianism in Jamaican Culture and Politics. - "I Light and I Salvation": The Rise and Impact of Rastafarianism in Jamaican Culture and Politics. The cries of pain and torture ring through the cold winds and water leaking through the cracks of the urine and feces soaked floor. Stacked side by side and on top of each other, Africans were brought from their homeland to colonies in the Western Hemisphere. Life made into a commodity to be bought and sold as an animal or machine, born to serve the dominant humans marked by white skin. In this way colonialism as a political entity was created to exploit the earth and its people in order to profit white Europeans....   [tags: essays papers]
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7642 words
(21.8 pages)
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Divided Nations - Divided Nations Introduction In this essay, I will discuss both the cultural factors in divided nations encountered in the book “The Violence Within: Cultural and Political Opposition in Divided Nations”, edited by Kay B. Warren, and the methods by which the contributors to this volume have collected their data. The broad array of conflict and opposition encountered in the book are inclusive to countries such as Northern Ireland, Israel, Egypt, Iran, South Africa, The Philippines, Guatemala, and Brazil....   [tags: essays papers]
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2260 words
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Things Fall Apart - In Chinua Achebe’s novel Things Fall Apart the life of a man named Okonkwo and the tribe of Umuofia is depicted in three chapters which each represent a significant era in the tribe. In the first chapter, Achebe describes the life of the native African tribe before the coming of the white man. This chapter enables the reader to understand and respect the life of the Igbo. The second chapter describes the beginnings of colonialism and introduction of the white man. Suddenly, the Igbo way is questioned....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1115 words
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The Scramble for Africa - The scramble for Africa represents the most thorough and systematic process of colonialism in world history. The European colonial powers managed to conquer and control almost the entire continent of Africa in a short, twenty-five year period from about 1875 to 1900. Some of the European states involved were already well-established global powers; the others were up and coming nations that desired to emulate and compete with the dominant imperial states. Various factors allowed for and contributed to the conquering of the whole of Africa by European states....   [tags: World History] 1018 words
(2.9 pages)
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The Lie of Imperialism Exposed in Literature - If postcolonial literature is the “process of dialogue and necessary correction,” of misconceptions concerning colonialism, then a comparative study of colonial and postcolonial works is essential for attaining a full understanding of the far-reaching effects of European imperialism (Groden and Kreiswirth 582). Reading colonial literature in dialogue with postcolonial literature engenders a more complete interpretation of the effects of imperialism by creating a point of reference from which to begin the revelation and the healing of cultural wounds resultant from European colonialism....   [tags: Literature]
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3045 words
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An Analysis of Shakespeare's The Tempest - An Analysis of Shakespeare's The Tempest There are many ways of interpreting Shakespeare's The Tempest. A Post-Colonialist critic, such as Stephen Greenblatt, will look at the influence of historical and political implications of colonialism on the text. Along these lines, a Reader Response critic, such as Paul Yachnin, will look specifically at Shakespeare's audience and their concerns at the time in which the play was written. Very different from these approaches, a Psychological critic, such as Bernard Paris, will completely ignore what was in the author's and audience's minds, and look at the psyche of the main character in the play....   [tags: Tempest Essays]
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3495 words
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The Characters, Setting, and Symbols of Heart of Darkness - The Characters, Setting, and Symbols of Heart of Darkness       Beyond the shield of civilization and into the depths of a primitive, untamed frontier lies the true face of the human soul. It is in the midst of this savagery and unrelenting danger that mankind confronts the brooding nature of his inner self.  Joseph Conrad’s novel, Heart of Darkness, is the story of one man's insight into life as he embarks on a voyage to the edges of the world. Here, he meets the bitter, yet enlightening forces that eventually shape his outlook on life and his own individuality....   [tags: Heart Darkness essays]
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1765 words
(5 pages)
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Code-switching: An Essential Skill For Bilinguals - Language is the primary way to communicate, learn and express identity. People, who have native-like control of two or more languages or are simply bilingual, establish their identity through code-switching. Code-switching refers to using more than language or variety in conversation. Code-switching is an essential skill for bilinguals. People with mixed cultural identity require the proficiency in code-switching to show loyalty to more than one cultural or social group. The need to learn code-switching can arise from a variety of situations where people are required to become bilingual....   [tags: Language] 708 words
(2 pages)
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The Tourism Industry in the Carribean - In her essay, “Last Resorts: The Cost of Tourism in the Caribbean”, journalist Polly Pattullo presents an inside view of the resort industry in the Caribbean Islands, and how it truly operates. Tourism is the main industry of the Caribbean, formerly referred to as the West Indies, and it is the major part of the economy there. Pattullo’s essay mirrors the ideas of Trevor M.A. Farrell’s perspective “Decolonization in the English-Speaking Caribbean” in which he writes about the implicit meaning of the colonial condition....   [tags: Tourism]
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1069 words
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An Icon of American Expansionism - ... If the image is to be understood as what author Laura Wexler describes as “a kind of aesthetic and emotional contemplation... [to] an emergent middle-class readership” regarding domestic social, political, and cultural issues, then its objectives are twofold: to accurately encapsulate the national American identity that was produced by a century of regional independence while simultaneously highlighting questions regarding America’s burgeoning imperialist tendencies that were born out of that time period....   [tags: American History] 1091 words
(3.1 pages)
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Postcolonialism - ... This dichotomy is extremely postcolonial: it demonstrates Fanon’s double consciousness, as well as Bhabha’s theory of the in-between. Fanon’s double consciousness was derived from W.E.B. DuBoi’s analysis of racism in the early twentieth century. It “underlines the fact that colonialism made its impact on bodies and minds, as well as on material conditions” (Waugh 346). Although they are not fully American, colonization denies the colonized the right to fully embrace their ethnicity. The assimilation they are thrown into forces many facets of their identity to form....   [tags: Literary Analysis] 1313 words
(3.8 pages)
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tempcolon Comparing Language in Shakespeare's Tempest and Aime Cesaire's A Tempest - Colonial Language in Shakespeare's The Tempest and Aime Cesaire's A Tempest       Language and literature are the most subtle and seductive tools of domination. They gradually shape thoughts and attitudes on an almost subconscious level. Perhaps Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak states this condition most succinctly in her essay "The Burden of English" when she writes, "Literature buys your assent in an almost clandestine way...for good or ill, as medicine or poison, perhaps always a bit of both"(137)....   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays]
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887 words
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Aime Cesaire's A Tempest Clarifies Shakespeare's The Tempest - Cesaire's A Tempest Clarifies Shakespeare's The Tempest       "Negritude, originally a literary and ideological movement of French-speaking black intellectuals, reflects an important and comprehensive reaction to the colonial situation of European colonization" (Carlberg).  This movement, which influenced Africans as well as blacks around the world, specifically rejects the political, social, and moral domination of the West.   Leopold Senghor, Leon Damas, and Aime Cesaire are the three pioneers of the revolution.  The founder who expresses his ideas more broadly, though, is Cesaire, who uses literary works to express his viewpoint on colonization.  An excellent example of such a tactic is his play, A Tempest, which is a revision of William Shakespeare's The Tempest.  Both Shakespeare and Cesaire accentuate the greed of Europeans in their plays.  However, Cesaire is more obvious in his approach to exposing it.  A comparison of the two plays demonstrates that Cesaire's version, written in the late 1960's, is written as a confrontation of Shakespeare's play.  He is attempting to comment on the corruption of Colonialism and the European domination of the New World through such strategies as making seemingly minor changes, switching the main character role, and altering the storyline itself....   [tags: Tempest essays]
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1684 words
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Light and Dark in Heart of Darkness - Light and Dark in Heart of Darkness     The brightest of lights can obscure vision while darkness can contain truths: one must not be distracted by the sheen of light, which conceals the deeper reality present in darkness. Joseph Conrad's novel Heart of Darkness illustrates this idea with the use of several symbols. White Europeans are used as symbols of self-deception, and objects with an alabaster quality are symbols of barriers to inner truth. Black is the foil of white; it represents the inner truth beneath the white surface reality....   [tags: Heart Darkness essays]
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1182 words
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Metropolitan vs. Colonial Space in Forster’s A Passage to India and Lawrence’s Women in Love - Metropolitan vs. Colonial Space in Forster’s A Passage to India and Lawrence’s Women in Love       At first glance, it seems easy to state a definitive distinction between what Said calls “metropolitan space” and “colonial space.” In its simplest form, metropolitan space is the space occupied by the colonizers. Examples of this include England, France and the places these people reside in while living in these colonies. Likewise, colonial space is that which is occupied by those who are colonized....   [tags: Passage India]
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1713 words
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Laura Briggs' Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico - Laura Briggs' Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico In Reproducing Empire, Laura Briggs provides her readers with a very thorough history of the mainland U.S. and Puerto Rican discourses and its authors surrounding Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans, from Puerto Rico's formation in the mainland elite's "mind" as a model U.S. (not) colony in 1898* to its present status as semi-autonomous U.S. territory. Briggs opens her book by discussing the origins of globalization in U.S....   [tags: Laura Briggs Reproducing Empire Papers] 1740 words
(5 pages)
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Slavery and Reparations - Slavery and Reparations “Slavery, colonialism and neo-colonialism have caused inestimable damage to billions of people throughout the world. They have also formed the basis for the accumulation of immense wealth in the hands of a small elite… The slave trade involved the brutal relocation of tens of millions of people in which families, communities and societies were destroyed and in which millions lost their lives in the most inhumane conditions. At the same time, slavery was a fundamental element of the strengthening of mercantile trade and the rapid accumulation of capital that formed the basis for the emergence of the capitalist system as we know it today....   [tags: History Historical African Americans Essays] 4382 words
(12.5 pages)
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Caribbean History - Caribbean History I. A Note on Historical Methodology: The conventional method of studying history consists of a chronological process. For example, the history of the ‘New World,’ or in particular the history of the Caribbean seems to originate in 1492, the year Columbus mistakenly landed upon Hispanola. Not long after the discovery of the New World, the age of European colonialism in the Americas emerges. This condensed version of the first several decades of European influence in the New World are the common historical accounts rendered about early Caribbean history....   [tags: Socio-Cultural Areas Culture Islands Essays] 1279 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Heathen Inside: "Darkness," Abjection, and the Colonial Discourse - The Heathen Inside: "Darkness," Abjection, and the Colonial Discourse In Romanticism and Colonialism, Tim Fulford and Peter J. Kitson argue that few scholars explicate the relationship between Romantic texts, British colonialism, and imperialism. Fulford and Kitson point out that the "Romantic period is a watershed in colonial history," marking the inception of a British empire based on the political philosophy of the "white man's burden" (3). By reading Romantic texts in the historical and political context of colonialism and imperialism, Fulford and Kitson hope to return Romantic texts "to the context of material, colonial processes contemporaneous with their imagined versions of colonized people and places" (9)....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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2981 words
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Cuban Communism - “Japan’s imperial experience was different from that of the West in Asia and Africa in several fundamental ways.” (Bruce Cummings) Is it a valid categorisation of Japanese rule in Korea. Identify some of the main differences between Japanese colonialism and Western colonialism. Illustrate your answer with examples. Imperialism has existed for many years and has displayed many differing forms. It is a naturally occurring event that has a vast and complex history. Major world powers have been striving to expand their relative power and at the same time provide for their people....   [tags: essays research papers] 2894 words
(8.3 pages)
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Culture and Values Terms - High and Popular Culture High culture is a term referring to the "best of breed" (from some elitist viewpoints) cultural products. What falls in this category is defined by the most powerful sections of society, i.e. its social, political, economic and intellectual elite. The opposite of high cultural art forms, such as the opera, historic art, classical music, traditional theatre or literature; popular culture includes many forms of cultural communication including newspapers, television, advertising, comics, pop music, radio, cheap novels, movies, jazz, etc....   [tags: essays research papers] 1632 words
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It Wasn’t War it Was Genocide in Rwanda - It Wasn’t War it Was Genocide in Rwanda Never ending battles have occurred over the past sixty years in Rwanda due to their atrocious economy. It has been the Tutsi and the Hutu, two out of the three ethnic groups in Rwanda, that have been battling for the government spot. As the years went on, the fighting kept getting more brutal. This brutality ended up being an all out massacre in Rwanda from the Hutu. It has been argued whether if the killings were an act of genocide or an act of war. But what are exactly genocide and war, and which one relates to the conflict in Rwanda....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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2818 words
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Compare the Presentation of Foreigners Abroad in Indian Ink and Room with a View - Indian Ink and A Room with a View are both set in different eras. A Room with a View is set in the Edwardian era when, like the central character in the book, people were beginning to challenge Victorian attitudes about emotion and sexuality and old ideas about class and religion. It was published in 1908 and was Forster's third novel. Forster's characters, like Forster himself lived in the time of the British Empires pinnacle. The novel is about a young woman, Lucy Honeychurch, whose love for a British socialist and experiences in Florence cause her to question the values that society has imposed on her....   [tags: Comparative Literature] 2085 words
(6 pages)
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Nyasha's Struggle in Nervous Conditions - Nyasha's Struggle in Nervous Conditions The significance of Nyasha in "Nervous Conditions" involves her apparent rebellious nature and her reluctance to accept the norm. Her unwillingness to conform to the ideals of a sexist society perpetuates her into a constant struggle against the patriarchal system. She may have lost the fight in the end but it's not to no avail because her example goes on to encourage Tambu to carry on in her wake. Nyasha is important because she is a shinning example of the effects of colonialism on the African population, she influences Tambu's own rebellious nature, and she's one of the few that rebel against the patriarchal system....   [tags: Papers] 734 words
(2.1 pages)
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Postcolonial Indian Literature in English: Narayan, Jhabvala, Rushdie - Postcolonial Indian Literature in English: Narayan, Jhabvala, Rushdie Indian literature in English which is accessible to us in the West, still has its roots in colonial literature and the tensions between East and West. A European naturalism is often present; a concern to posit India as an arena within which Western readers can identify realities is inherent within much of this writing. The following are three examples of the progression of post-Independence literature. Twenty years after Independence, R.K.Narayan was still tackling issues of colonialism....   [tags: Essays Papers] 426 words
(1.2 pages)
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things fall apart - Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart is a story that describes the effects of a new Christian religion in a tribal village of Africa, called Umuofia. The novel is set during the late 1800s to early 1900s when the British were expanding their influence in Africa, economically, culturally, religiously, and politically. The book shows the colonization of Umuofia by the British and the negative and violent changes this brought about in the lives of the tribe members. Along with colonization was the arrival of the missionaries whose main aim was to spread the message of Christianity and to convert people to their religion....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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467 words
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Conrad's Heart of Darkness is Not a Racist Work - Conrad's Heart of Darkness is Not a Racist Work Since the publication of Heart of Darkness in 1899, the text has invited both praise and criticism. While some have claimed it is a work ahead of it’s time in it’s criticism of European colonialist practices, others have criticized the text in it’s portrayal of the native African’s. Achebe, Singh, and Sarvan are just a few to name, and although their criticisms differ, they have labeled many aspects of Conrad’s work racist. Conrad certainly was ahead of his time, as his work criticized the colonialism practices by the Europeans by both making readers aware of the issues, and moving the readership to empathize with the natives....   [tags: HOD Joseph Conrad Racism Prejudice]
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1167 words
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Opposition of Black and White in Heart of Darkness - The Opposition of Black and White in Heart of Darkness   In Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad explores the psychological “heart of darkness” within all of humanity. The text looks at the European societies false illumination of civilization, of which obscures the internal darkness, in relation to the psychological environment in which human’s are placed. Conrad sets up the opposition of black and white to display the superficial pretense of  light in the European society, and the true heart of darkness which is present within all of humanity....   [tags: Heart Darkness essays]
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1228 words
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Rushdie, Postmodernism & Postcolonialism - Rushdie, Postmodernism & Postcolonialism Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children, published in 1980, was perhaps the seminal text in conceiving opinions as to interplay of post-modern and post-colonial theory. The title of the novel refers to the birth of Saleem Sinai, the novel’s principal narrator, who is born at midnight August 15th 1947, the precise date of Indian independence. From this remarkable coincidence we are immediately drawn to the conclusion that the novel’s concerns are of the new India, and how someone born into this new state of the ‘Midnight’s child’, if you will, interacts with this post-colonial state....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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990 words
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Decolonization, Nationalism, Imagining and Representing Communities: A review of Post-Colonial Literature - ... There are two methods of colonial practice described by Fanon, the direct and the indirect. The direct or centripetal method would be the destruction of indigenous cultural aspects and traditions through assimilation of the colonizing culture, while the indirect or centrifugal would allow for the colonized populations to maintain their cultural identities. Kelly and Kaplan argue that, “Anderson’s nations as ‘imagined communities’ are actually historicizations of Enlightenment political philosophies” (Kelly et....   [tags: Literature Review]
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1294 words
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Racial Struggles Throughout the History of American Society - The Untied States of America was built on the exploitation of others and the expansion of foreign lands. Anglo-Saxon superiority and their successive impact on governing policies and strong domination throughout every social institution in the nation allowed discrimination to prevail. Scientific Racism reached new heights of justification towards slavery, the massive eradication of the Native people, colonialism and daily occurrences of unequal behaviors and treatments towards colored people. The strong presence of polygenesis helped spur along and justify racism; the idea that all non whites were groups of individuals who ultimately came from another type of species supporting the idea that Blacks, Natives and other colored people were not ‘real’ human beings....   [tags: Racial Issues] 2018 words
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The Collapse of Somalia and Economic Considerations - The Collapse of Somalia and Economic Considerations By African standards, Somalia is a homogenous state made up of a single ethnicity, religion and culture. This led to a relatively peaceful history until Somalia was colonized by the British, French, and Italians in the 19th century. However, Somalia’s single ethnicity is broken into different clans, and sub-clans and this region’s lack of natural resources led to a fracturing of society, violence, and eventually civil war at the end of the 20th century....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Indigenous Peoples' Rights: A Comparative Approach - Knowledge Area Module 6: Indigenous Peoples Rights Comparative Approach ABSTRACT Breadth The Breadth section explores the concept of universal human rights and the historical context of indigenous people’s rights. I analysis how transformational leadership theories has changed the political perception toward indigenous people. I then examine the development of both national and international law specifically on intellectual property, corporate responsibility, governance, and the development of human rights law in relation to the indigenous people’s lifestyle....   [tags: Social Studies]
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On Delacroix and Courbet - On Delacroix and Courbet The period surrounding 1781 to 1855 in France’s history is united by social and political change, an evolution of ideological struggles towards the best possible political struggle amongst anchoring human faults. The life of the artist too underwent change and struggled with the hierarchy that existed to validate artistic triumph. Changes are apparent amongst a broad spectrum, including David, Ingres, history paintings and caricatures. Artists that demonstratively epitomize the shifts, overwhelmingly united by a shift from acceptance to defiance, are Eugene Delacroix (1789 – 1863) and Gustave Courbet (1819 – 1877)....   [tags: Art] 1922 words
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The Impact of the Cold War on Developing Nations - ... Although hypocritical in terms of ideologies it was sensible in securing its interests. This notion of foreign policy towards cold war led to CIA participating in covert operations aiding the military coup against a popular democratically elected President Salvador Allende of Chile. It was intended to sabotage and counter Allende’s Marxist ideologies that were contrary to the capitalist interests of the Americans in Chile as well as her democratic governance. In this retrospect any regime which opposed Americans capitalistic liturgies was perceived to retrogressive, tyranny and oppressing its masses using evil communist ideologies....   [tags: World History ]
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Indigenous Hawai'ians Protest the Exploitation of their Islands - Indigenous Hawai'ians Protest the Exploitation of their Islands Reminiscent of the Civil Rights movement that thundered through the continental states in the 1960’s, the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement has gripped the shores and cities of America’s pet paradise and rattled its “settler society” with determined strength and purpose: the deliberate exploitation of Hawaiian land, Hawaiian spirituality, and Hawaiian life must unequivocally end now. From first contact in 1778, through the militaristic overthrow of the Queen in 1893, America’s “settler society” ostensibly destroyed the cultural fabric and language of Hawai’i’s autochthonous people....   [tags: Essays Papers] 471 words
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Reclaiming the Voice in So Long a Letter - Reclaiming the Voice in Bâ's So Long a Letter            Peter Barry identifies as one of the major aims of Postcolonial criticism the rejection of "the claims to universalism made on behalf of canonical Western literature" and more specifically "to show its limitations of outlook, especially its general inability to empathize across boundaries of cultural and ethnic difference" (198). Although Bâ's intentions are not primarily anti-colonial, her novel So Long a Letter exemplifies how African literature provides a different perspective of their culture, and despite not fitting the model of the English canon, is valuable and significant on its own terms....   [tags: So Long a Letter Essays]
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Revealing the Heart of Darkness in Apocalypse Now - Revealing the Heart of Darkness in Apocalypse Now Often a novel filmed as a movie departs from the original story, sometimes for better, sometimes for worse.  However, many great works of literature have inspired movies, and served as the basis for a great film, even though the film may approach the literature in a different way. Such is the case with Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now, which was inspired by Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness.  Coppola and the screenwriter, John Mileus, took a story written nearly eighty years earlier and used its basic theme of the inner darkness of man and the idea of the journey up a river into the unknown to tell a story about one of the darkest, most confusing chapters of American history: the Vietnam War.  Coppola's alterations to Heart of Darkness serve to exemplify his overall point, namely, that the United States' involvement in Vietnam was itself a descent into the "heart of darkness".  Coppola was able to make a movie with such a theme for an American audience that was still dealing with Vietnam.  The movie came out five years after the last troops finally left Vietnam, and the American public was still asking itself what had been accomplished and why we had been involved, while the troops who had served there were haunted by memories of the horrors they had seen, and were left wondering what it had all been worth as well.  Coppola found a story in Heart of Darkness that dealt with the same issues of darkness and confusion, and he applied them to Vietnam to accomplish the task of demonstrating the darkness that was the Vietnam War.  Coppola uses the basic plot structure and theme of Heart of Darkness to convey a message that America was wrong in the Vietnam War, and he comes to the disturbing conclusion that the only way to win a war is to be as ruthless as Kurtz, a message which differs from Conrad's Kurtz but still draws from the theme of the heart of darkness....   [tags: Movie Film comparison compare contrast]
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Ngugi wa Thiong’o's Personal and Political Beliefs Through A Grain of Wheat - Ngugi wa Thiong’o's Personal and Political Beliefs Through A Grain of Wheat Ngugi wa Thiong’o is a Kenyan born writer of Gikuyu descent, born in 1938 in Limuru. He attended Alliance High School in Kenya, Makere University in Uganda, and Leeds University in England. In 1992 Ngugi was honored with the Paul Robeson Award for Artistic Excellence, Political Conscience, and Integrity. He received the Gwendolyn Brooks Center Contributors’ Award for Significant Contribution to the Black Literary Arts in 1994....   [tags: Ngugi wa Thiong Grain Wheat Essays]
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A post-colonial canonical and cultural revision of Conan Doyle's Holmes narratives - A post-colonial canonical and cultural revision of Conan Doyle's Holmes narratives Redefining the British literary canon as imperial construct and influence 'A canon,' Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffiin argue, 'is not a body of texts per se, but rather a set of reading practices....' (189). They define 'reading practices' as 'the enactment of innumerable individual and community assumptions, for example about genre, about literature, and even about writing....' (189). The purpose of the following discussion is to investigate the link between the British literary canon and its attendant culture....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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The Historical and Colonial Context of Brian Friel’s Translations - The Historical and Colonial Context of Brian Friel’s Translations Regarded by many as Brian Friel’s theatrical masterpiece, Seamus Deane described Translations as “a sequence of events in history which are transformed by his writing into a parable of events in the present day” (Introduction 22). The play was first produced in Derry in 1980. It was the first production by Field Day, a cultural arts group founded by Friel and the actor Stephen Rea, and associated with Deane, Seamus Heaney and Tom Paulin....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1311 words
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Why Poor Countries Are Poor - Why Poor Countries Are Poor The question of why poor countries are poor may seem simple and one dimensional at first glance. However, the answer to this question is actually quite intricate, as many interweaving aspects must be observed. Although it is impossible to explain why many countries remain in poverty within just a few pages, I will attempt to touch upon some of the broader factors. A poor country or a low-income economy is defined as a country with a Gross National Product per capita of $765 dollars or less....   [tags: Economics Politics Political]
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The Change of Messages in Dancehall - THE CHANGE OF MESSAGES IN DANCEHALL Reggae is a form of music that is too broad to be grouped into one particular category. The reggae genre is composed of such distinct forms as roots, dub, and most recently dancehall. Similarly, the message contained within reggae music has changed since the days when the music reflected an adherence to Haile Selassie and the Rastafarian faith. Since the beginnings of reggae in the 1960s reggae has evolved tremendously into the high-bass dancehall form most prevalent today....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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How would I write a Native American History textbook? - How would I write a Native American History textbook. Why does one write a history in a book. Most historians argue that the events and beliefs of the past constitute who we are today: to understand current structures of society and government, we must devote ourselves to understanding the struggles, failures and triumphs of our forefathers. Yet as events and beliefs are recorded and transmitted, the interpretative bias of historians come through the pages of text-books. Interpreting the interpretations of historians is the vital responsibility of readers to develop critical awareness of bias, stereotpye and discrimination....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1105 words
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Failure of IMF and World Bank Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa - Failure of IMF and World Bank Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa Over the last several hundred years, Africa has been deprived of the peace that it so desperately needs. For over 400 years, Africa was subjected to the harsh trans-Atlantic slave trade. Europeans and Americans brutally uprooted millions of Africans and shipped them away. Torn away from their homes, Africans were inhumanely exploited for their labor. The slave trade had a devastating effect not only on those involved, but also on future generations to come....   [tags: Africa World Bank Essays]
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Fly Away Peter and Heart of Darkness - Fly Away Peter and Heart of Darkness Fly Away Peter, written by David Malouf, is set in 1914-1915 during the period of World War One. The story of the main character, Jim, begins in his home in rural Queensland before embarking on a journey in France to fight in the war. Heart of Darkness, written by Joseph Conrad, is set in a similar period of time. The main character Marlow’s journey is to the Congo, which had recently become a part of the Belgium Empire. Both characters undertake a physical, intellectual and spiritual journey....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1196 words
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A Passage to India:An Examination of the Work in a Historical Context - A Passage to India by Edward Morgan Forster is truly one of the great books of it’s time. Written in an era when the world was more romantic, yet substantially less civil to the unwestern world than it is today; E. M. Forster opened the eyes of his fellow countrymen and the world by showing them the truth about British Colonialism. The novel aids greatly in the ability to interpret events of the time as well as understand the differences between the social discourse of then and now. To fully understand A Passage to India and its cultural and historical significance one must first understand the world in which it was written, and the man who wrote it....   [tags: essays research papers] 1058 words
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The Seeds - The seeds of the Vietnam War were sown two decades prior to the conflict. Following the Second World War the United States adopted two foreign policies, which seemed to coexist peacefully for a time. The policies: anti-colonialism (policy against colonization of small nations) and anti-communism. Little did the United States know that the coexistence of these two policies would soon become a great paradox. Indochina had been a colony of France since the middle of the nineteenth century, within its parameter Indochina contained three nations: Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Theme of Darkness in Conrad's Heart of Darkness - The Theme of Darkness in Conrad's Heart of Darkness Works Cited Not Included It has been said that although Conrad may not have been 'the greatest novelist, he was certainly the greatest artist every to write a novel';. I feel that this is an apt description of Conrad's writing style in Heart of Darkness (1902), as he paints many verbal pictures by using expressive words and many figurative descriptions of places and people. An extensive use of words relating to colour, is evident throughout the novella....   [tags: Heart Darkness Joseph Conrad Essays] 1326 words
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Women and Islam - Women in Islam      Religious institution has a profound impact on any and every society. Social norms, mores, and expectations are mostly defined by our belief systems, even if we ourselves don’t practice a religion. Government too is always based on common agreement upon what is right and wrong, and who is to rule. A society can experience violent opposition and revolutions because of radical religious groups. There’s no doubt about it. In any society, small or large, primitive or modern, religious institution plays a leading role....   [tags: Islamic Females Islam Essays]
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Economy of Brazil - Economy of Brazil Defining Economy I am researching the economy of Brazil. The definition of economy: The Management of the income, expenditures, etc of a household, business, community, or government. Careful management of wealth, resources, etc; avoidance of waste by careful planning use; thrift or thrifty use. (1) The system or range of economic activity in a country, region, or community. (2) Characteristics of Brazil The country of Brazil official name is Federative Republic of Brazil, the term for citizens is Brazilian, and its capital is Brasilia....   [tags: Papers] 1157 words
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State Mass Killings in Indonesia 1965 to 1966 - State Mass Killings in Indonesia 1965 to 1966 In order to develop a general framework with which to understand collective political violence, I examine state mass killings in Indonesia 1965-66. While acknowledging the importance of historical/cultural factors, I identify elements within the sociopolitical sphere that influence actors of collective political violence at national, local, and event- specific levels. Elements discussed are elite interests, justification for violence, formal organizations, and mobilization factors....   [tags: Papers] 3119 words
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United States Policy toward Southeast Asia - United States Policy toward Southeast Asia In 1943, Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed a trusteeship principle, in which the subjugated nations of Asia would prepare themselves for self-government, under the supervision of the imperial nations. FDR had ‘genuine humanitarian principles’[1] and was aware of the conditions under which colonial people sometimes lived. He also realised that the colonial system was detrimental to US interests. According to Robert McMahon, FDR altered his thinking in late 1944....   [tags: Papers] 3629 words
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Ethics of Affirmative Action - Affirmative Action: Staying on the Road to Equality “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” (Declaration of Independence, 1776). Who would imagine that in a country under the blanket such a brilliant, ethical and proud statement of equality, there could be so much dissention about equality. Our nation has interpreted this statement differently since it was written, and still, more than two hundred years later, we are on the road to a truly equal society....   [tags: Ethics Morals]
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Metafiction and JM Coetzee's Foe - Metafiction and JM Coetzee's Foe   Is writing not a fine thing, Friday. Are you not filled with joy to know that you will live forever, after a manner. (Susan Barton, Foe, 58) Of the many literary conventions used to describe JM Coetzee's Foe, one of the more commonly written about is metafiction. Since about 1970, the term metafiction has been used widely to discuss works of post-modern fiction and has been the source of heated debate on whether its employ marks the death or the rebirth of the novel....   [tags: Foe]
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Understanding Indigenism: Building A Different Future for Us All - Understanding Indigenism: Building A Different Future for Us All “Defining one’s ‘culture’ is a life long process,” according to Indian rights activist Norman DesCampe of the Grand Portage Chippewa Tribe. “You have to live it.” Today, the life long process of understanding indigenous cultures is limited by terms of “cultural survival.” The ability of future generations to define themselves as Inuit or Kayapo is threatened as their natural environments and social integrity is hurt by government negligence: indigenous cultures must be protected under a political structure that allows the people to live as they choose to live, outside of the transformative power of established nation-states, and the assumptions of these powers....   [tags: Essays Papers] 549 words
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Visual Codes and Conventions in the Painting: George Robinson Welcomes Natives to Wybalenna - Visual texts can be seen to be an attempt by their creators to represent particular ideologies to their viewers. It is the viewer's attitudes and values however, that determine the contemporary meaning of the image. The painting George Robinson welcomes Natives to Wybalenna, is a Colonial document portraying the Christianizing of indigenous people on Flinders Island. Visual codes and conventions employed in the image, such as positioning and framing depict the entwined values of white, patriarchal and Christian ideologies of the 19th Century....   [tags: Art Christian Religion] 568 words
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Forced Labor in "King Leopold’s Ghost" - Forced Labor in King Leopold’s Ghost In King Leopold’s Ghost by Adam Hochschild, forced labor seems to be a recurring theme throughout the book. Forced labor would be non-existence or be very minimal if it wasn’t for colonialism. Google defines colonialism as an exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one; the use of the weaker country's resources to strengthen and enrich the stronger country. King’s Leopold’s Ghost, Belgium is known as the stronger country in search of a colony (Congo) for its own exploitation....   [tags: Literary Themes]
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Does the rise of states like China and India to great power status render postcolonialism irrelevant as a theory of international politics? - Postcolonialism is a very broad theory. At its most basic postcolonialism deals with the effects of colonialism on societies and states.Ashcroft, 2000: pp.188 To do this it looks at the origins and focus of concepts that are used to characterise these states and societies. In doing so postcolonialism sees how the concepts do not just originate on one area and then propagate to others. Concepts are constantly changed and modified by the interaction with people, states and other concepts. Many concepts owe their existence to the interaction between say the West and the non West....   [tags: Postcolonialism]
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The Perpetual Iniquity of Imperialism - In asserting themselves through trade and through imperialism, Western cultures have damaged the world, devastating scores of cultures by imposing their own identity on them. Although colonizers have forms of assistance to offer, such as advanced technology, modern medicine, and education, colonialism has effectively subjugated and obliterated scores of people as evidenced by this list of sources and histor-ical events. Effectively, the lengthy history of European imperialism dates back to the twelfth and thir-teenth centuries, in which the Christian Western Europe embarked on a series of religiously sanctioned military Holy Crusades to restore control of the Holy Land....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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Challenges and Opportunities of Achieving Consensus on a UN Reform Proposal - Reforms and changes in the United Nations have always been fraught with obstacles that must be overcome amidst competing national interests of member states. There are challenges that must be addressed and opportunities that must be seized for member states to come into consensus on a proposal that would have repercussions and consequences to international and national policies and norms, which would affect domestic, regional and international relations. The UN Emergency Peace Service proposal, which aims to effectively and quickly respond to genocide and other humanitarian crimes, is no exception....   [tags: United Nations]
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The Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism in Iran - The Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism in Iran Over the course of the last century, the Islamic Republic of Iran (formerly known as Persia) has seen colonialism, the end of a dynasty, the installation of a government by a foreign power, and just over three decades ago, the popular uprising and a cleric-led revolution. These events preceded what could be considered the world’s first Islamic state, as politics and fundamentalist religion are inextricably linked in contemporary Iran. Looking at Iran from the mid 1940’s until the present day, one can trace the path that led to the rise of fundamental Islam in Iran in three distinct periods....   [tags: Islam]
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Summary of the debate between Thomas Pogge and Mathias Risse Regarding Our Obligation to the Global Poor - In the face of media campaigns and political sanctions, the question about whether we owe the global poor assistance and rectification is an appropriate one. Despite television advertisements displaying the condition of the poor and news articles explaining it, the reality is the majority of us, especially in the Western world, are far removed from the poverty that still affects a lot of lives. The debate between Thomas Pogge and Mathias Risse regarding our obligation to the poor questions the very institution we live in....   [tags: poverty, international relations] 2494 words
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