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The Powerful Truth of Machiavelli's The Prince - The Powerful Truth of The Prince    Before 1513 conventional thought defined a ruler as a man who used generosity, truth and justice to govern his kingdom. Machiavelli saw the conventional thought of the time as a fantasy and only applicable in a utopian society. His work The Prince shatters all previous political thought by stating that a ruler must not only use the traditionally accepted means of maintaining power but also be able to use brute force, deceit and even cruelty as the situation requires....   [tags: Machiavelli The Prince Essays]
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1498 words
(4.3 pages)
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Tim O'Brien's Zeugmatic Novel, The Things They Carried - Tim O'Brien's Zeugmatic Novel, The Things They Carried An early example of zeugma comes from Quintilian, the ancient Roman rhetorician, who cites the following from Cicero: "Lust conquered shame, boldness fear, madness reason," where the verb "conquered" is understood to also govern the final two phrases in the sentence (Crowley 203). The 18th century, an age of great rhetorical knowledge on the part of writers and preachers (and at least one writer-preacher, Laurence Sterne), is the heyday of zeugma....   [tags: Things They Carried Essays]
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1469 words
(4.2 pages)
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The Impact of Dr. King's Vision on My Life - The Impact of Dr. King's Vision on My Life In the summer of 1966, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. went to Chicago, Illinois, to further press his campaign of equal rights for all Americans. Dr. King led a march through Chicago and some of its neighboring suburbs to promote that ideal. To many, this march is best known for the negative treatment of the peaceful demonstrators in the more racially prejudiced suburbs of Chicago: Berwyn and Cicero. When the demonstrators reached those two suburbs, rocks and bottles were hurled at them by onlookers who did not agree with the peaceful beliefs of Dr....   [tags: Personal Narrative Writing] 849 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Rhetorical in the Music of The Tempest - The Rhetorical in the Music of The Tempest In the midst of a Shakespearean play, there has and always will be a ghost that hovers over the actors and the audience. This is a ghost with a purpose, a ghost I call rhetoric. In every Shakespeare play, there exists an energy that has the power to persuade the audience to feel or believe something that Shakespeare believed. This energy breathes through the dialogue, the props and especially the music. The audience and the play engage in an exchange of question and answer to assist society in working through human dilemmas....   [tags: Tempest essays]
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2022 words
(5.8 pages)
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A Review of Peter Brown’s Augustine of Hippo - A Review of Peter Brown’s Augustine of Hippo          Peter Brown’s Augustine of Hippo is a dense, scholarly work outlining the entire life of the Catholic bishop.  The University of California Press in Berkeley, California published the work in 1967.  My version was the 1973 second paperback printing, found in the University library.  Its smallish, scholarly, serifed, typewritten font allows for a instant respect for the subject matter:  the words are at first imposing, but then revealing as their serious tone complements the complexity of the text.  The pages are studded with footnotes, filling out this work with evidence of Brown’s exhaustive research.  There is a three-page preface before the work, and, after the work, a seventeen-page bibliography, and ten-page index....   [tags: Augustine Hippo] 1540 words
(4.4 pages)
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Gender Barriers inside Sports - Gender Barriers inside Sports Throughout the history of sports, there has always been a gender barrier. There are certain sports that are aimed towards females and others that are directed towards males. When men or women enter a non-traditional sport for their gender, it is not widely accepted. However, there are those few athletes that pave the way for the rest and eventually our society will change and accept the new ideas in sports. Some people will always make judgments about the athletes who cross that gender barrier....   [tags: Equality Feminism Athletics Essays]
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1271 words
(3.6 pages)
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Analysis of Memory and Time in Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury - Sartre and Brooks’ Literary Critiques: Analysis of Memory and Time in Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury “History is the witness that testifies to the passing of time.” Cicero presaged the study of historical memory and conceptions of time, which assumes that what and how we remember molds our past into something more than a chronological succession of events. Ever more appreciative of the subjectivity of recollection, we grasp that without memory, time passes away as little more than sterile chronology....   [tags: Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury] 929 words
(2.7 pages)
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Happiness through Human Work - Happiness through Human Work ABSTRACT: In what follows, I analyze the nature of work as human action. From there I discuss the triple dimension of human perfectibility through man's operative powers: the intellect, will and affections or emotions. After that, I focus on human work as the basis for the integration of ethics and practice: the root of human and cultural development of the individual and society. There is abundant bibliography in which man is described as the animal which knows how to resolve problems....   [tags: Humans Work Working Essays]
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6328 words
(18.1 pages)
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The Traditional Interpretation Refuted - The Traditional Interpretation Refuted The psychology of Aristotle has never been understood in a historically correct way. A new interpretation of the De anima will be proposed in which this work can be seen as compatible with the psychology that can be reconstructed from the fragments of Aristotle's lost dialogues and the De motu animalium and other biological works (in which the notions of pneuma and 'vital heat' play a crucial role) and the doxographical data gathered from ancient writers besides the commentators....   [tags: Philosophy Literature Papers] 3357 words
(9.6 pages)
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The Body as Teacher: From Source of Knowledge to Object of Knowledge - The Body as Teacher: From Source of Knowledge to Object of Knowledge ABSTRACT: I look at two ways of seeing the body during the Renaissance: the first, illustrated in the Essais of Montaigne, focuses on the body as a source of knowledge about the self; the second, illustrated in the developing science of anatomy, focuses on the body as an object of knowledge that is increasingly available only to specialists. In looking at the science of anatomy as it developed in the Renaissance, I show that the transformation of the body from a source of knowledge of both body and soul to an object of a mechanical science did not happen easily and reflects contradictory approaches to the self that continue to this day....   [tags: Philosophy] 3600 words
(10.3 pages)
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Vico's Orations on Paideia and Humanitas - Vico's Orations on Paideia and Humanitas ABSTRACT: This essay on the themes of paideia and humanitas in Giambatista Vico's inaugural orations is excerpted form a chapter of a larger study on Vico and Plato. I focus on Pico della Mirandola's Oration of the Dignity of Man because it illuminates Vico's humanistic ideals. For Vico, self-knowledge is the axis of the sphere of the liberal arts. Self-knowledge for human beings is twofold. The divinity of the human mind is a central theme in Vico as well as Pico, and human dignity is strongly stated....   [tags: Vico paideia philosophy Papers]
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3350 words
(9.6 pages)
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Paideia, Prejudice and the Promise of the Practical - Paideia, Prejudice and the Promise of the Practical In an age of radical pluralism it is increasingly difficult to affirm and sustain the educational aspirations of Greek paideia (Latin humanitas). The most challenging attacks on these aspirations come from standpoints which share a postmodern attitude of opposition towards inherited cultural ideals, especially those which claim universality. This paper first examines optimistic and pessimistic prospects for the educational heritage of humanitas, concluding that, in the face of cultural disparateness which is increasingly evident in post-Enlightenment cultures, the pessimistic case seems to be more convincing....   [tags: Philosophy Diversity Science Papers] 4718 words
(13.5 pages)
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Elizabethan Drama as a Mirror - A. How [God] hath dealt with some of our countrymen your ancestors, for sundry vices not yet left, this book named A Mirror for Magistrates can shew; which therefore I humbly offer unto your Honors, beseeching you to accept it favorably. For here as in a looking glass, you shall see (if any vice be in you) how the like hath been punished in other heretofore, whereby, admonished, I trust it will be a good occasion to move you to the sooner amendment. William Baldwin, A Mirror for Magistrates (1559) B....   [tags: Plays Literature Essays]
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1477 words
(4.2 pages)
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Personal Narrative - My Real Father - My Real Father "Never forget the past…because it may haunt you forever. Regret all the bad things…cherish the good things. Look ahead always…but don't let the bad things from the past get in your mind." As a young child, there were so many incidents in my life that made me become the person I am today. There were rough times as well as good times. If I were to tell you all of them, I would remember half of them. I think some of my incidents really had some impact, and some were just simple ways of life....   [tags: Personal Narrative Writing] 967 words
(2.8 pages)
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Teaching Philosophy - Teaching Philosophy Cicero said, "What noble employment is more valuable to the state than that of the man who instructs the rising generation?" He was correct in saying this because the young people of today will become the world leaders of tomorrow. The educators that instruct these children are important to this society because they will help shape the lives of these young people. When deciding upon a philosophy of education, I was torn between two: Progressivism and Essentialism. The idea of educating students with real-world experiences is one reason I can identify with Progressivism....   [tags: Teachers Careers Education Essays] 1022 words
(2.9 pages)
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Happiness in the Fourth Epistle of Alexander Pope's An Essay on Man - Happiness in the Fourth Epistle of Alexander Pope's An Essay on Man Alexander Pope's philosophical poem An Essay on Man, published in 1732-134, may even more precisely be classified, to use a German phrase, as Weltanschauungliche Dichtung (worldviewish poetry). That it is appropriate to understand An Essay on Man as world view in verse, as a work which depicts humanity's relationship to and understanding of a perplexing and amazing world, is indicated in the statement of the poem's "Design" in which the author avows that his goal was to examine "Man in the abstract, his Nature and his State." Indeed, Pope sought to fulfill his agenda by describing in each of the work's four "epistles" the nature and state of man with respect (1) to the universe, (2) to man himself as an individual, (3) to society, and finally, (4) in relation to happiness....   [tags: Alexander Pope An Essay on Man]
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5582 words
(15.9 pages)
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The Re-Creation of a Young Roman Girl - The Re-Creation of a Young Roman Girl At seven years old this young, upper-class1 Roman girl, daughter of a prominent political figure, is posing for a portrait of her face. Her father is demanding her whole family have one done so that everyone can see their family displayed for years to come. As predicted by her father, Roman art historians are very interested in these portraits and the past they represent. In 1998 this bust is a rare and exceptional find among art collectors. This portrait is now one of twenty-one sculptures found in the Riley Collection of Roman Portrait Sculpture at the Cedar Rapids Museum of Art....   [tags: Rome Culture Traditions Papers]
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2654 words
(7.6 pages)
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The Implausibility of Ataraxia - The Implausibility of Ataraxia Epicurean ethical theory consistently operates under the presumption that hedonism, or pleasure, is the greatest good. For the Epicureans, an individual in a state of ataraxia, or complete freedom from mental disturbance, has achieved the most complete and pleasurable life, the greatest good for a human being. The concept of ataraxia, however, differs in many ways from what most would characterize as hedonism. Consequently, Epicurus is able to construct a great many controversial (and perhaps counterintuitive) views on particularly delicate subjects like death, the gods, friendship, and society....   [tags: Epicurean Death Papers]
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1876 words
(5.4 pages)
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Chesnutt’s Evolving Treatment of the Color Line Through Naturalism - Chesnutt’s Evolving Treatment of the Color Line Through Naturalism in “A Matter of Principle” and The House Behind the Cedar’s Charles W. Chesnutt, a well-educated mulatto man, lived his life on ‘the color line.’ Chesnutt’s skin was very light and was sometimes mistaken for a white man. Chesnutt chose to identify himself as a black man, but in his works, his characters move back and forth across the color line and struggle with the world they exist in. The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line was published one year before The House Behind the Cedars and included the short story, “A Matter of Principle,” where Chesnutt clearly begins to explore what options are available to a mulatto man and his family, which will later evolve in Cedars....   [tags: Hoose Behind The Cedar]
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2151 words
(6.1 pages)
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Was Shakespeare Really in Love? - Was Shakespeare Really in Love. William Shakespeare is arguably one of the best playwrights of all time, and he is certainly one of the most well-known writers in the history of literature. Shakespeare is a classic example of how art and literature can touch so many people’s lives and hearts. His work has been enjoyed by millions of people for four hundred years, and today, his plays are still being performed daily all over the world. He wrote a total of thirty-seven plays and 154 sonnets in his lifetime....   [tags: William Shakespeare Playwright Romance Essays]
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1835 words
(5.2 pages)
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Jean De Meun - Jean De Meun Jean de Meun, a French poet, was born in 1240 in Meung-sur-Loire and died in Paris around 1305. Some sources state that the name Clopinel comes from the fact that he was lame while others claim that it was his last name. Jean was a member of the bourgeois class, educated at the University of Paris, a Christian, and an admirer of Latin authors such as Cicero. He had knowledge of several languages and this is noted by the fact that he translated "The Consolation of Philosophy" into medieval French....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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693 words
(2 pages)
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Antony and Cleopatra - Antony and Cleopatra The legend of Cleopatra has percolated in the world consciousness for the past 2000 years. By the time Shakespeare wrote the tragedy Antony and Cleopatra the alluring reputation of the queen had existed primarily as a biased representation of a foreign female who insinuated herself into the Roman power structure. Shakespeare’s role in perpetuating the allure of the last of the Ptolemaic rulers was the result of synthesizing the existing biases and distilling the dichotomy between the woman and the queen....   [tags: William Shakespeare Plays Literature Essays]
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1684 words
(4.8 pages)
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Paintings in Rome - Paintings in Rome In 211 BC the great general M. Claudius Marcellus returned to Rome after his decisive defeat of Syracuse. With him came a vast booty of Hellenistic artifacts. Remaining outside the sacred precincts of Rome, he supplicated the Senate for the purification and glory of a triumphal procession, realizing that they would both make a visual impression in his triumph and also be an ornament for the city." He opened his triumph impressively with an allegorical painting of Syracuse made prisoner....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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1022 words
(2.9 pages)
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Comparing Roman and Greek Art - Comparing Roman and Greek Art Throughout history art has consistently reflected the cultural values and social structures of individual civilizations. Ancient art serves as a useful tool to help historians decipher some important aspects of ancient culture. From art we can determine the basic moral and philosophical beliefs of many ancient societies. The differences in arts purpose in Greece and Rome, for example, show us the fundamental differences in each culture's political and moral system....   [tags: Ancient Rome Greece History Arts]
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1184 words
(3.4 pages)
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Creating a Living Canon: The Humanist Project of Uniting Ancient and Modern - Creating a Living Canon: The Humanist Project of Uniting Ancient and Modern The humanist preoccupation with the glory of the ancients spans the entire length of the Italian Renaissance and surfaces in nearly all the writers from Petrarch to Castiglione. The precise use of classical writers varies depending on the purpose of the Renaissance writer’s particular work—they are held up as examples to be emulated by historians, as works essential to shaping good character in their readers by the educational writers, and as personal guides in the letters and treatises of the correspondents and philosophers....   [tags: Essays Papers] 2749 words
(7.9 pages)
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Marc Antony - Marc Antony “Friends, Romans, countryman lend me your ears” (Shakespeare), this saying is what Mark Antony is probably most noted for. Antony’s life can be broken down into three parts. The first part would have to be the earlier years of his life before the death of Caesar. In the middle is Antony’s few years of success and power. The last part of his life is the downfall of him. Mark Antony was very powerful and successful for a short period in Ancient Rome. To begin, Mark Antony was born in 83 BC in Rome into a wealthy family (Laura)....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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744 words
(2.1 pages)
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A Social History Of Truth - Review of The Social History Of Truth by Steven Shapin Chapter 1 When someone says that something is true,they are usually stating that it corresponds to the facts of how things really are. Academic philosopher&#8217;s distiningish what is true and what is taken to be true by a process of sorting?No single being can constitute knowledge. All one can do is offer claims, with evidence, arguments and inducements to the community for its assessment.Knowledge is the result of the communities for its evaluations and action....   [tags: essays research papers] 2196 words
(6.3 pages)
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al capone - Organized crime was not so organized up until the 1920s. When the 1920s arrived, the American lifestyle changed dramatically. People started investing money in home appliances and automobiles, women’s skirts became higher and drinking became very popular. Also, organized crime came to a rise in the 1920’s. And in the high ranks of organized crime was Al Capone. Al Capone ran many illegal businesses including bootlegging, gambling, prostitution, and murders. There were many gangs in the world of organized crime and Al Capone’s was at the top....   [tags: essays research papers] 1574 words
(4.5 pages)
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Al Capone - Alphonse "Scar Face" Capone was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1899, to an immigrant family. He was born with type O blood. People supposedly born with O type blood tend to have the drive to succeed in leadership quality. They are strong, certain, and powerful, as will be seen later. However Al Capones leadership was taken to the extreme. (4 Blood Types, 4 Diets Eat Right 4 Your Type) Certainly many Italian immigrants like immigrants of all nationalities, frequently came to the new world with very few assets....   [tags: essays research papers] 1285 words
(3.7 pages)
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Al Capone - ALPHONSE CAPONE a.k.a. AL, SCARFACE Born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1899, of an immigrant family. He lived with his father Gabriele and Mother Teresa and his brothers and sisters. Al did quite well in school until the sixth grade when his steady record of B's deteriorated rapidly. At fourteen, he lost his temper at the teacher, she hit him and he hit her back. He was expelled and never went to school again. About this time, his family moved from their house on Navy Street to 21 Garfield Place. This move would have a lasting impact on Al because in this new neighborhood he would meet the people who would have the most influence on his future: his wife Mae and the gangster Johnny Torrio....   [tags: essays research papers] 1284 words
(3.7 pages)
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Al Capone And Organized Crime In The 1920s - Al Capone ran many illegal businesses including bootlegging, gambling, prostitution, and murders. There were many gangs in the world of organized crime and Al Capone’s was at the top. Al Capone was the most infamous gangster in the 1920’s. Being a highly know and revered gangster was a big business. Money was made fast and very easily. Bootlegging alcohol was by far the most profitable in the 1920’s; this was because of the prohibition of alcohol. Gambling was another business that paid off; stations sanctioned for gambling were set up all over cities....   [tags: essays research papers] 1052 words
(3 pages)
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Al Capone Biography - “By Instinct Capone Was A Heartless Mindless Killer” Considered the most notorious gangster in history, Alphonse Capone, otherwise known as Scarface Al, was born in New York, 1899, in a small apartment in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn. Having many run-ins with the police growing up, he was always around the local street gang led my Johnny Torrio. After beating one of his sixth grade teachers, he quit school, and quickly learned the way of the streets, joining the Torrio gang, call the James Street Gang....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1058 words
(3 pages)
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Effects of Alcohol and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - Effects of Alcohol and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Works Cited Missing Alcohol plays a major role in society today. It is constantly being in our minds through advertisements, whether its commercials or billboards, holidays, or even just at the popular social scene. Alcohol is consumed for many purposes, such as celebrations, to increase romance, out of boredom, or a way to relax. Alcohol is a drug that is depended upon by the majority of our society. Nonetheless, alcohol has very damaging effects, not only does it cause self-inflicted diseases resembling alcoholism or cirrhosis of the liver, but it harms unborn fetuses as well....   [tags: Alcohol Alcoholism Drinking FAS Essays] 1695 words
(4.8 pages)
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analysis Thomas Hobbes?s claim ?a state of nature is, or would be, a state of war of everyone against everyone.? - Thomas Hobbes argues that a state of nature will eventually become a state of war of everyone against everyone. According the Hobbes, the main reason behind this change will be the harsh competition over scarce resources caused by the nature of man. Through out this essay Hobbes’s reasons will be explained in greater detail. In order to truly understand the logic behind Hobbes’s claim, we must first understand his point of view of human nature. The key element in Hobbes’s view on human nature was the importance of desires....   [tags: essays research papers] 1426 words
(4.1 pages)
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Ancient Rome's Animal Cruelty for Entertainment - “The Romans are often characterized as loving violent and cruel entertainment in the amphitheatre. It has been suggested that the games served the dual purpose of providing entertainment for the people and maintaining the political status quo.” In today’s society, the killing of humans and animals usually means a jail term, and seeing someone die is not something people go and see for fun. Violence was glorified in Rome hundreds of years ago. All the crimes they committed were condoned, accepted and glorified....   [tags: essays research papers] 1830 words
(5.2 pages)
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Archimedes - Archimedes S. Romano Archimedes was a native of Syracuse, Sicily. Some authors have said that he visited Egypt and invented a device there now known as Archimedes' screw. This screw is a pump, still used in many parts of the world. When Archimedes was a young man, he studied with the descendants of Euclid in Alexandria. He was familiar with the mathematics used there, and he knew personally the mathematicians working there and he sent his results to Alexandria with personal messages....   [tags: essays research papers] 908 words
(2.6 pages)
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Capitalism - Capitalism and the Renaissance Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market. Capitalism lead to great changes in banking and business for Europeans It came to Europe after the devastating black death and while Europe was suffering from poor economic growth. By looking at this definition, it is hard to see how this economic systems is linked to the Renaissance, which occurred in Europe....   [tags: essays research papers] 857 words
(2.4 pages)
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Cesar - Close Reading of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar (2.2.114-161) Act two of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar begins the detailed planning of Caesar’s assassination, which follows soon after in the third act. One particular passage of interest during this act is found in scene one. This particular passage deals with the conspirator’s justification of their motives for wanting to kill Caesar, as well as the fine-tuning of their machination. As is consistent throughout Julius Caesar, Shakespeare’s verse here differs much from his usual, flowery, beautifully poetic, and complicated verse that can be found in plays as Macbeth....   [tags: essays research papers] 1037 words
(3 pages)
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Iran- Contra Scandal - Over the centuries ancient Roman society has played a significant role in the creation of a common culture like our own. The material remains from ancient Rome have preserved valuable evidence for the status and accomplishments of the Roman people. Because so many aspects of ancient Roman civilization are respected and followed in society today, such as Roman art, Roman roads, and Roman law, it is important to understand the similarities and differences that ally within the two cultures. One aspect of Roman culture that I found interesting to focus on is the tradition of marriage....   [tags: essays research papers] 1794 words
(5.1 pages)
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irony - Abstract My paper deals with responses to conversational irony in two different contexts. As an interaction analyst I am interested in how interlocutors co-construct the whole conversational sequence, in what they do with the ironic act in reacting to it. I combine data analytic methods from interactional sociolinguistics with questions from cognition theory. I shall point out how the interaction analysis of different response types contributes to the development of irony theory. A look at two data sets (informal conversations among friends and pro- and con-TV- discussions) provides interesting differences in responses to irony in these contexts....   [tags: essays research papers] 2545 words
(7.3 pages)
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Jim - ”He is sometimes slave who should be master; and sometimes master who should be slave.” [Lat., Fit in dominatu servitus, in servitute dominatus.] Oratio Pro Rege Deiotaro (XI) by Marcus Tullius Cicero Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is considered to be possibly the Great American Novel by many scholars and is certainly the best known of Mark Twain’s works. These scholars both powerfully praise and powerfully depreciate Twain’s artistic judgment in relation to Huck’s character, themes, and political statements, but Jim’s place is often ignored or overlooked....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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2864 words
(8.2 pages)
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John Hancock - In all of American history, there are many men who stand out and emphasize the history ofour country. This man, John Hancock, is one of those extraordinary men that stand out.John’s life began on January 16, 1736 in Braintree, Massachuchetts.John was the middle child of three. He was the son of (Rev.) John Hancock, born on June 1, 1702 in Lexington, Massachuchetts and son of Mary Hawke, born on October 13, 1711 in Hingham, Massachuchetts. Mary was once married before she married John Hancock Sr....   [tags: essays research papers] 1535 words
(4.4 pages)
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Julius Caesar - Summary Of Act I-v - The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a play about loyalty, betrayal, love, and deception. There are many characters with fairly in-depth personalities. Some of the main characters are Cassius, the crafty, deceptive, witty man who is the leader of the conspiracy that killed Caesar. Brutus, the noble, honest, honorable man who is one of the key members of the conspiracy. There is also Antony, who is Caesar’s right hand man. He is shrewd and ruthless man, willing to do anything to get revenge for Caesar’s death....   [tags: essays research papers] 770 words
(2.2 pages)
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Just War Theory - Just War Theory Price reduced due to problems with format One of the perennial realities of human existence is war. From the earliest recorded events of human history all the way through to modern times, human communities have engaged in armed conflict as a method of dispute resolution. While war has been a constant part of the human experience, there has also been a tendency within virtually all human civilisations to limit the extent of war and the methods by which warfare may be conducted.(1) In Western civilisation, this limitation on warfare has taken shape as an effort to limit both the determination of when war is appropriate and the means used in battle.(2) Within the Western moral, legal, and political arena, the connected questions of when war is appropriate and what means are acceptable in warfare has been the subject of a great deal of examination....   [tags: Just War Armed Conflict Military Essays]
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3739 words
(10.7 pages)
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Medieval Torture - Torture (Latin torquere, “to twist”), in law, infliction of severe bodily pain either as punishment, or to compel a person to confess to a crime, or to give evidence in a judicial proceeding. Among primitive peoples, torture has been used as a means of ordeal and to punish captured enemies. Examination by torture, often called the “question,” has been used in many countries as a judicial method. It involves using instruments to extort evidence from unwilling witnesses. In ancient Athens, slaves were always examined by torture, and for this reason their evidence was apparently considered more valuable than that of freemen....   [tags: essays research papers] 2181 words
(6.2 pages)
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Roman Religion In A Romans Everyday Life Vs. Religions Effects On Tod - "We Romans", said Cicero, "owe our supremacy overall other peoples to our piety and religious observances and to our wisdom in believing that the spirit of the gods rules and directs everything." Roman rites and observances took two main forms. One was the domestic reverence of the spirit or genius of the family. The other was the public attitude to the gods and goddesses by whom the destiny and welfare of the Roman people as a whole were supposed to be guided and controlled....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1548 words
(4.4 pages)
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Saint Augustine - Saint Augustine Saint Augustine (354-430 AD), also known as Augustine of Hippo created an image of himself through his writings and teachings. He was born in Tagaste, a town in North Africa, on November 13, 354 AD. He was born into a middle class family. Patricius, his father, was a pagan, but later converted to Christianity because of his wife, Monica, was a devout Christian. Augustine’s mother, who was devoted to the Roman Catholic church, constantly tried for her son's conversion. Augustine was educated as a lecturer in the former North African cities of Tagaste, Madaura, and Carthage....   [tags: Biography Biographies Augustine Essays] 1609 words
(4.6 pages)
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Shakespeares Biography - SHAKESPEARE’S BIOGRAPHY Shakespeare’s Biography William Shakespeare was a great writer who lead a very interesting life. In fact, he is often though of as “the greatest write of his time.” As a child, William Shakespeare started his education at around the age of “six or seven at Stratford grammar school, also known as the King’s New School of Stratford-upon-Avon.”(Brooke pg23) It would be most likely that Shakespeare’s lessons would focus around “Latin composition and the study of Latin authors like Seneca, Cicero, Ovid, Vigil, and Horace.”(Brooke pg23) Shakespeare’s schooling did not last long however, when he was removed from school at the age of thirteen due to his father’s financial and social difficulties....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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832 words
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St. Augustine - Saint Augustine of Hippo Theologians, Biblical scholars and Christians all over the world often wrestle with two extremely important questions about their faith. These questions are, "What is God like?" and "How should we live in response to God?" Some feel that we need others to direct us, some feel we need them to challenge us, but everyone agrees that we need others. That is exactly how Saint Augustine struggles to find his faith and beliefs. He found it extremely difficult to come with a conclusion when it was staring at him straight in the face, but just as he did, we draw up our own conclusions with the guidance of others....   [tags: essays research papers] 919 words
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War - The first issue to be considered is what is war and what is its definition. The student of war needs to be careful in examining definitions of war, for like any social phenomena, definitions are varied, and often the proposed definition masks a particular political or philosophical stance paraded by the author. This is as true of dictionary definitions as well as of articles on military or political history. Cicero defines war broadly as "a contention by force"; Hugo Grotius adds that "war is the state of contending parties, considered as such"; Thomas Hobbes notes that war is also an attitude: "By war is meant a state of affairs, which may exist even while its operations are not continued"; Denis Diderot comments that war is "a convulsive and violent disease of the body politic;" for Karl von Clausewitz, "war is the continuation of politics by other means", and so on....   [tags: essays research papers] 1314 words
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Excessive Laws and the Self-Interest of Lawmakers, Lawyers, and Judges - Excessive Laws and the Self-Interest of Lawmakers, Lawyers, and Judges The basis of a civilized society is law. The law allows for standardized treatment of men, the law allows people to plan their futures, the law gives people assurance that wills, contracts, and trusts will be enforced, that certain behavior will be allowed while other behavior (crimes and torts) will be punished, etc. Five important characteristics of "the law" in a civilized society follow: 1) The law must be of manageable size so the average man can learn the law without a lifetime of study....   [tags: essays research papers] 1556 words
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An Ethical Theory Applied to Business Organizations - The object of this essay is to establish whether there is an ethical theory that can be successfully applied to business organizations. In order to answer this question, it is necessary first to define the major ethical theories, which are utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics, before determining whether there are any other options. After that, the ethical needs, problems and limitations of work organizations will have to be examined so that the different theories can be evaluated in this context....   [tags: Business Ethics]
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Writings Worth Reading - Going to college is more than a transition in life it's a rebirth. Everything changes so fast that one really has to live off their wits sometimes. New situations arise every day and real life is finally making itself apparent. Responsibilities become a way of life to the truest possible form. Sure there are friends and people to help along the way but self-discipline and diligence become daily watchwords. Living life now is based more on what is already ingrained into the individual versus what mommy and daddy have to say....   [tags: Comparative Literature] 707 words
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William Shakespeare - William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564 and died of unknown causes at the age of 52 on his birthday on April 23, 1616. The education Shakespeare received included learning to speak and write in Latin. At that time, Shakespeare would have been expected to translate Latin to English and English to Latin. He also studied the works of classical authors and dramatists such as Ovid, Plautus, Horace, Virgil, Cicero, and Seneca. When Shakespeare was 14, he left school and not much is known of his life until he was 18 when he married Anne Hatheway, who was 26 and already several months pregnant....   [tags: Biography] 1239 words
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