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Your search returned over 400 essays for "Chemistry"
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Le Chatelier's Principle - Le Chatelier’s Principle (i) Biography Born on October 8, 1850 in Paris, France, Henry-Louis Le Chatelier is a French chemist best known for his principle, the Le Chatelier Principle, which has made it possible for chemists to determine and predict the effects of changing conditions on chemical reactions. These changes include, but are not limited to, temperature, pressure and concentration (Clark, 2002). Le Chatelier was the oldest of six siblings in a privileged, Roman Catholic family, which allowed him to obtain a prestigious education....   [tags: the equilibrium law, physical chemistry]
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1173 words
(3.4 pages)
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Statement of Purpose - I am a mathematical Platonist, which means I believe that there exists in the universe discoverable math, like how naturalists discover exotic bats, or mediums try to communicate with the dead. This is reasonable to me because I see mathematics as the study of relationships, as opposed to numbers getting into odd predicaments involving positively mundane arithmetic. Just as there is no interesting math with just one isolated variable, there is no real knowledge with an isolated fact. Rather, the relationships between the facts constitute knowledge - a principal I believe the University of Chicago represents based on its culture, academic philosophy, and personal experience....   [tags: mathematics, chemistry, education] 516 words
(1.5 pages)
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Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy - Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a technique that is part of a broader range of techniques that are commonly referred to as scanning probe microscopy. It has a wide array of applications in chemistry, biology, and even the material sciences. SECM uses a ultramicroelectrode to measure the local electrochemical behavior of a substrate in a solution. When introduced, the ultramicroelectrode acts as the electron conductor in the substrate and the added electrolyte acts as the ionic conductor in the solution....   [tags: chemistry, biology, instrument]
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1911 words
(5.5 pages)
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How Pyrotechnics and Explosives Have Changed the World - ... Our understanding of pyrotechnics and explosives, as well as their uses would not have been possible without the Chinese, they made, we re-made, and we all benefited. When European people began to get out of the crevasse of the Dark Ages they defined how we would use this powder even still today. They got wind of this scientific revelation in the early 1200’s possibly before many Islamic peoples, and around the same time as the peoples of India. Yet the others have neither fame nor history filled with the stench of a bomb burst, a pistol fired, or a celebratory boom in the air....   [tags: learn, chemistry, ourselves, guns, weapons] 2015 words
(5.8 pages)
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The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution - Introduction In chemistry, catalyst is a substance which increases the rate of reaction with itself does not combine in reaction. The aim of this essay is researching more about catalyst, for instant how does catalyst work and the example of catalyst. Also, this research might useful for science international foundation students for support revision. First of all, this essay will describe Maxwell Boltzmann distribution diagram and give the meaning of collision theory, then it will discuss on Activation Energy....   [tags: Chemistry, Catalyst, Substance, Reaction]
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1321 words
(3.8 pages)
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Equilibrium Reaction Lab - IBDP Chemistry IA: Equilibrium Reaction Lab Introduction: Reactions are based on collisions of particles, in which the particles must have sufficient energy. Some chemical reactions are reversible, and when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, the process has reached equilibrium. As it will appear to have stopped, as there is no overall change due to the rates being equal. Through this lab, we will be investigating one factor that will affect the equilibrium constant....   [tags: Chemistry, Collision of Particles, Reactions]
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1329 words
(3.8 pages)
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Tasty Treats: Is Greek Yogurt Harming the Environment? - Greek Yogurt, by the spoonful. Greek yogurt also called yogurt cheese, strained yogurt and labneh. No matter what you call it, America loves Greek yogurt, it is a $2 billion dollar a year industry. Eating and eating, considering the health benefits it is nothing to blame them for. What is Greek Yogurt anyway. How does it differ from Regular Yogurt. Greek yogurt is made from real yogurt; it is however higher in protein and thicker, having had some of the liquid strained. Greek yogurt is strained in a cloth, paper bag or filter to remove the whey, giving it the consistency of thick yogurt or cheese, but preserving the sour taste yogurt connoisseurs’ love....   [tags: made, milk, strained, healthy, chemistry] 759 words
(2.2 pages)
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Development of Density Functional Theory - Ab initio (aka First Principle) calculations are based on the basic laws of physics without any empirical parameters or fitting models. Simulations originating from the First Principles have played a more important role in studies in condensed matter physics and chemistry. A solid system comprises electrons and nuclei, and interactions among them determine the total energy of the system. Also, the outer shell electrons have great influences on the electronic and optic properties of solids. As there are many particles inside a real solid system, “single-electron” approximation is essential to make simulation possible....   [tags: ab initio, physics, chemistry, energy]
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872 words
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Decomposing Hydrogen Peroxide - Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to gain an understanding of factors which influence the rates of reactions. Several experiments will be conducted using various combinations of concentrations of the reactant (hydrogen peroxide) and a catalyst (potassium iodide), as well as one pairing in which a change in temperature is the only variable. Data collected will be used to determine the rate law, rate constant, and activation energy for each of the reactions Hydrogen peroxide (H_2 O_2) naturally decomposes into water (H_2 O) and oxygen gas (O_(2 )) according to the following balanced equation....   [tags: Chemistry]
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1958 words
(5.6 pages)
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Myogenic Cell Lines - GH is not able to modulate H2O2-induced apoptosis in myogenic cell lines Different studies have already shown the induction of apoptosis by H2O2 in myogenic cell lines (6, 33). To ascertain whether hGH modulates the induction of apoptosis, we treated C2C12 and L6C5 myogenic cells for 1 h or 24 hrs with H2O2 500 and 200 µM, respectively, in presence or not of hGH, and evaluated the resulting cell death, morphological changes and specific markers related to the activation of the apoptotic process....   [tags: Chemistry] 725 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Krebs Cycle - The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions which occur in the mitochondria and results in the formation of ATP and other molecules which undergo farther reactions to form more ATP. Cellular respiration can be divided into four sequences. The first sequence is glycolysis, its breaks down one molecule glucose into two molecules pyruyate. Transition takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria and it’s referred to the beginning of aerobic respiration. The process takes place if there is enough amounts of oxygen in the mitochondria....   [tags: Chemistry]
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506 words
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Manufacturing Silicon Nitride - As it has been recognized previously in the first memo Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) is manufactured by using Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition. OSU’s Virtual CVD reactor is an apparatus demonstrating the growth and measurements of Silicon Nitride. It might be essential not to just manufacture Silicon Nitride, instead, to produce it in a high quantity and quality spending the least amount of money as possible. In order to manufacture this type of aforementioned Silicon Nitride, it is required to set proper measurements to pressure, the flow rate of ammonia and dichlorosilane, time and 5 zones of temperature which have dimensions such as 200mtorr, 1000sccm for ammonia and 160sccm for dcs, 120-...   [tags: Chemistry]
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929 words
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Immobilisation of Enzimes - Immobilization of enzymes is one of promising methods in enzymes performances enhancement, such as stability, recovery, and reusability. However, investigation of suitable solid support in enzyme immobilization is still the one of problems to prevent the reduction of enzymes activity. Polyethersulfone (PES) and aminated PES (PES-NH2) as novel materials for the immobilization were successfully synthesized. Structure of synthesized polymers were characterized by NMR, FTIR, and MALDI-TOF. The membranes based on PES and PES-NH2 with various pore sizes (from 10 to 600 nm) was fabricated to be applied as bioreactor to increase the immobilized lipase performances....   [tags: Chemistry]
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1437 words
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Analyzing Citric Acid - The most widely used method for synthesizing citric acid was discovered by an American chemist named James Currie in 1917 in order to contend with the lack of citrus imports caused by the First World War. This method requires the fungus culture “Aspergillus niger”. This mould is fairly common in nature but special strains are used by the major citric acid producing companies to increase the fungus’s production of citric acid. This method involves substances that contain glucose such as simple sugar or molasses being fed to the fungus....   [tags: Chemistry]
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1704 words
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Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrodes - Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Procedure………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Data………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Results and Discussion…………………………………………………………………... 9 Conclusion and Opinion………………………………………………………………... 10 References……………………………………………………………………………..... 11 Introduction Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the weight percent of fluoride in a toothpaste sample by using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Using the fluoride ion-selective electrode will offer an introduction to the procedures of potentiometric analysis [2]....   [tags: Chemistry]
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1537 words
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chemistry (ocean) - What is an iceberg. Why are they blue or green. An iceberg is a large floating block of freshwater ice that has broken off the edge of a glacier and been carried out to sea; about 90% of its mass lies under the water. The bluish streaks of clear, bubble free ice often seen in icebergs results from the refreezing of melt water which fills crevasses formed in the glacier as it creeps over land. The ice is blue because of the natural light scattering characteristics of pure ice. Occasionally airborne dust or dirt eroded from land ends up on the glacier surface eventually forming a noticeably darkened brown or black layer (in any orientation) within the ice of a floating iceberg....   [tags: essays research papers] 872 words
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Physics chemistry - ATHENS, Ohio -- Today's computers and other technological gizmos operate on electronic charges, but researchers predict that a new generation of smaller, faster, more efficient devices could be developed based on another scientific concept -- electronic "spin." The problem, however, is that researchers have found it challenging to control or predict spin – which keeps practical applications out of reach. But physicists in Europe, California and at Ohio University now have found a way to manipulate the spin of an electron with a jolt of voltage from a battery, according to research findings published in the recent issue of the journal Physical Review Letters....   [tags: essays research papers] 517 words
(1.5 pages)
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Chemistry Sodium Thiosulpahte - Introduction Over the next few weeks I will be doing several attempts of the same experiment that involves the reaction of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, I will be closely watching the reaction and how long in takes for the reactants to react. As yet I have not decided which of the several variables I will be changing. I also aim to take results of the reaction down onto a table, which then will be transferred onto a line graph, which will show us the nature of the reaction. Variables There are five factors which affect the rate of a reaction, according to the collision theory: temperature, concentration (of solution), pressure (in gases), surface are (of solid reactants), and...   [tags: essays research papers] 1261 words
(3.6 pages)
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Chemistry of PNA Peptide Nucleic Acid - Abstract For this report I chose to study PNA, or peptide nucleic acid, a biological polymer that was related to the biomedical field of research. I was very interested in this synthesized molecule because of its inimitable and remarkable properties, comparatively to other nucleic acids such as the more commonly known DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, and RNA, or ribonucleic acid. I also wanted to understand its uses and possible uses in everyday life. My main goal was to learn about the structure, significance, and clinical applications of PNA....   [tags: Biology Polymer Medical Biomedical]
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1435 words
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The Applications and Making of Artificial Diamonds - The Applications and Making of Artificial Diamonds Diamonds are very unique. Their hardness and beauty have enticed people for many years. Now some of the same attributes that make them appealing also make them useful. To understand these attributes the chemistry of carbon is very important. This unique chemistry is what makes them so hard to make. Much research has gone into the making of diamonds and this has led to many successes in the field. These discoveries have led to machines and processes that make diamond making more efficient and reliable....   [tags: Diamond Diamonds Chemistry Essays]
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1578 words
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Investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction - To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction Background Information: Chemical reactions take place all the time at many different rates, some are incredibly fast like an explosion-where you get no time to see what's happening or like rusting which could take years before the iron is completely rusted. The rate of reaction is extremely important because you need to know how long before the end of the session or you may not get results in time. In living organisms it's vital that all the chemical reactions take place at the rates which supply the cells with the things they need exactly when they need them....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3176 words
(9.1 pages)
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What Causes OCD? - What Causes OCD Researchers still are unsure on what causes OCD but their research suggests different brain chemistry and genetics could possibly play a role with those you have this disorder (International OCD Foundation, 2012). The brain chemical serotonin, which is otherwise known as the chemical messenger for the brain, may play a part in the lack of communication between the frontal cortex and the rest of the brain in those affected with OCD (International OCD Foundation, 2012). Research has found that serotonin medications and CBT (cognitive behavior therapy) has helped normalize the circuits in the brain that is involved with OCD in some people (International OCD Foundation, 2012)....   [tags: Chemistry, Genetics, Obssesive Compulsive Disorder]
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1852 words
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Investigation to find out if changes in concentration of acid affect the rate of a chemical reaction - Investigation to find out if changes in concentration of acid affect the rate of a chemical reaction PLANNING – Title – Investigation to find out if changes in concentration of acid affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Introduction – The rate of reaction can be defined as the speed at which a reaction takes place. The rate of reaction tells us how quickly a chemical reaction has happened. There are many things that can affect the rate of reaction, (some of these are shown in figure 1 below.) In this coursework I am going to investigate what effect the change in acid concentration has on a chemical reaction....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2613 words
(7.5 pages)
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How the concentration of an acid affects the rate of reaction on marble chips - How the concentration of an acid affects the rate of reaction on marble chips Background: These different speeds of reaction are referred to as their rates. The rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. Particles have to collide in order to react, and the have to collide hard enough as well. This is called the collision theory. When the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker. If they are moving quicker then they are going to have more collisions....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1986 words
(5.7 pages)
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How concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate - How concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate Chemistry Coursework How Concentration Affects a Reaction Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate. Introduction: This experiment will be carried out by drawing a cross on a piece of paper and mixing hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate together to see if the cross disappears. The concentration of hydrochloric acid would change every reaction to show that concentration effects a reaction....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1294 words
(3.7 pages)
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Carbon Dioxide produced by Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate - Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of carbon dioxide produced by a reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips (calcium carbonate). Chemistry Coursework To investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of carbon dioxide produced by a reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips (calcium carbonate) Planning experimental procedures Aim In this coursework I will be investigating to see how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction with marble chips....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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2527 words
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Investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction - Investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction Chemistry Coursework This experiment is aimed at investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction: The reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium will be used to investigate how different concentrations of the acid affect the rate of reaction. The gas produced from the reaction will be measured and used to display the average rate of reaction. The rate of reaction is a measure of how fast a reaction is going and how long it takes to complete....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1990 words
(5.7 pages)
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An Investigation into the Enthalpies of the Combustion of Alcohols - An Investigation into the Enthalpies of the Combustion of Alcohols ================================================================== Planning My aim for this experiment is to see the energy produced from different alcohols. This investigation involves burning alcohol in the air. ‘GCSE Chemistry’ by B.Earl and L.D.R Wilford says that "alcohols form, another homologous series, with the general formula Cn H2n+1OH ". The alcohol reacts with the oxygen in the air to form the products water and carbon dioxide....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3784 words
(10.8 pages)
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Factors Affecting the Decomposition of Marble Buildings by Acid Rain - Factors Affecting the Decomposition of Marble Buildings by Acid Rain Background Acid Rain: Nitrogen acids and sulphur dioxides come out of tall chimneys and vehicles. These go into the air, and air currents carry the gases away, and they react with water vapour and oxygen. This produces H2SO4 (sulphuric acid) and HNO3 (nitric acid). The acids become part of a cloud, and it falls down to earth, as acid rain or snow. This can end up miles away from the original source. The acid rain removes nutrients from soil, so plants can not get to them, so this eventually kills surrounding die....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1583 words
(4.5 pages)
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The electrolysis of copper sulphate solution and copper electrodes - The electrolysis of copper sulphate solution and copper electrodes Introduction: For my GCSE Chemistry assessment I will be investigating the electrolysis of copper sulphate solution with the copper (ii) plates. Aim: My intention for this observation is to find out how the current has an effect on the mass of copper deposited in the electrolysis of copper sulphate and copper (ii) plates. Safety Precautions: In this investigation I will make sure that everything is as safe as possible and that there are no chances of accidents occurring....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1255 words
(3.6 pages)
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Comparing the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Different Alcohols - Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols Planning What are alcohols. ================== Alcohol is the common family name for the hydrocarbon group alkanols. They are part of a homologous series. At least one of the hydrogen groups in the molecule is replaced by an OH group. GRAPH Propane Propan-2-ol They are all organic compounds. The general formulas for the alcohols are: CnH(2n+1)OH Where n represents a number. The first and simplest member of the alkanols family is methanol....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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4536 words
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The Effect of Catalyst an the Rate Of Reaction - The Effect of Catalyst an the Rate Of Reaction Chemistry Coursework Does The Number of Drops of Catalyst Effect The Rate Of Reaction Candidate Name: Ben Dodds Candidate Number: 7158 School: Oundle School Completion Date: Introduction We are studying the reaction between zinc and sulphuric acid, the reaction is catalysed by copper sulphate and this experiment is to test whether the amount of drops effect the rate of reaction. Word Equation Zinc(s) + Sulphuric acid(aq) à Hydrogen(g) + Zinc Sulphate(aq) Symbol Equation Zn + H2SO4 à H + ZnSO4 This reaction is catalysed by Copper sulphate (CuSO4) Ionic Equation - Cancel Spectator ion (SO42-) Zn + 2H+ à Zn2+ + H2 For this reaction...   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1447 words
(4.1 pages)
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The Reaction Between Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid - Using the syringe method I am going to investigate the reaction between Marble chips and hydrochloric acid by measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed. Chemistry Using the syringe method I am going to investigate the reaction between Marble chips and hydrochloric acid by measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed. This reaction rate will tell me how fast or slow a chemical reaction is and there are four things that could affect this greatly they are- * Concentration-An increase in concentration means there are more particles....   [tags: Chemistry Lab Experiment] 818 words
(2.3 pages)
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An investigation of neutralization reactions - An investigation of neutralization reactions Aim Question : What is the effect of changing the concentration of an alkali, on the volume of acid needed to neutralise it, when acid is added to it. The plan is to use two acids (Hydrochloric & Sulphuric) and one alkali (Sodium Hydroxide). The reason I need to use two acids is; because the question applies to all acids and alkalis and to just use one of each would not enable me to come to a general conclusion. If there had been more time available, ideally I would have preferred to use two alkalis as well as two acids....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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1489 words
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The Rate of Reaction in the Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate - To see how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. Planning; Aim To see how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. Background; All reactions occur because of the particles that make up the reactants will collide, and if they have sufficient energy, react forming or breaking bonds. All four methods of increasing the rate of reaction can be explained in terms of increasing the number of collisions....   [tags: Chemistry]
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2300 words
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Kinetic Production of Isoborneol through the Oxidation-reduction Sequences of Borneol - Through an oxidation-reduction reaction sequence, Borneol is converted to isoborneol. First, borneol is oxidized through a reaction with sodium hypochlorite at 400C to form camphor. When the camphor is then reduced by sodium borohydride, isoborneol is formed. The percent yeild of isoborneol collected was 56.4%, and the melting point range was found to be between 174.2-179.90C. Through analysis of the product through 1H NMR spectroscopy the percent purity is found to be 77.2% pure isoborneol. Introduction Oxidation-reduction reactions can be used to stereochemically control and produce many different organic molecules....   [tags: Chemistry] 635 words
(1.8 pages)
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Percent Composition by Mass of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate - % Composition By Mass of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate Objective: The purpose of this lab was to calculate the percent composition by mass of oxygen in potassium chlorate. Procedure: 1.The mass of the crucible and the cover was measured. 2.KClO3 was added to the crucible. 3.The mass of the crucible, cover and KClO3 was measured. 4.MnO2 was added in the crucible. 5.The mass of the crucible, cover, KClO3 and MnO2 was measured. 6.The Bunsen Burner was lit. 7.The covered crucible was placed over the flame of the Bunsen Burner using a ring stand....   [tags: Chemistry] 359 words
(1 pages)
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Equilibrium Constant of an Ester Hydrolysis Reaction - The Equilibrium Constant of an Ester Hydrolysis Reaction Abstract The first step in determining the equilibrium constant of an ester hydrolysis reaction is to prepare five different reaction mixtures with the volume given in Table 1. the bottles have different mixtures of HCl, H2O, an unknown ester, and one bottle has alcohol. We will later determine the equilibrium constant for the reaction between the unknown ester and water to produce an unknown alcohol, and unknown acid....   [tags: Chemistry] 1197 words
(3.4 pages)
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Lithium and Bipolar Disorder - Lithium and Bipolar Disorder INTRODUCTION The drug lithium has been used for a variety of disorders such as gout, diabetes, and epilepsy for over 100 years. It was not until 1949 when John Cade discovered that lithium had a calming effect on guinea pigs that the possibilities of it being used for mania were explored (Paykel, 1992). Since then, lithium has been established as one of the primary treatments for manic depression disorder. In the body of this paper we will explore the chemistry of lithium, the synaptic transmitters involved, the parts of the neuron affected, the inhibitory and excitatory potential changes, the ion channels effected, the physiological changes, the pri...   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Essays]
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1894 words
(5.4 pages)
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Determination of Cu2+ by Titration - Determination of Cu2+ by Titration Introduction: The purpose of this lab is to determine the concentration of copper ions in an unknown solution. Complexometric titration will be used to determine the concentration. A buret will be used to deliver the complexing agent to the unknown solution. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid will be used as the complexing reagent. An indicator, Murexide in our case, will be used to indicate the endpoint of the reaction. Theories and Concepts: The anion of the acid, EDTA4-, will complex to the metal....   [tags: Chemistry] 507 words
(1.4 pages)
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Determination of an Equilibrium Constant - OBJECTIVE: To determine the equilibrium constant for the following reaction: Fe3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) -----> Fe(SCN)2+(aq) BACKGROUND: In this experiment, the equilibrium constant, K, for the above reaction is given by the expression: K = [FeSCN 2+] [Fe 3+][SCN 1-] where the concentrations of the substances are those at equilibrium. The equilibrium concentrations of these substances will be determined and used to determine K....   [tags: Chemistry] 939 words
(2.7 pages)
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Analysis of Carbon Dioxide CO2 - Analysis of Carbon Dioxide CO2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a colorless gas, which was first discovered in 1577 by Van Helmont who detected it in the products of both fermentation and charcoal burning. CO2 is used in solid, liquid, and gas forms in a variety of industrial processes. These include: beverage carbonation, dry ice, welding and chemicals manufacturing. It is produced by the combustion of all carbonaceous fuels and can be recovered in an abundance of ways. It is widely used today as a by-product of synthetic ammonia production, fermentation, and from flue gases by absorption process....   [tags: Chemistry] 294 words
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The Uses of Salt - The Uses of Salt Mineral halite, best known as common salt, has been one of the most abundant and used minerals over the centuries. It is essential for the human diet and is an important commercial chemical. Pure salt consists of two elements, which are sodium and chlorine [chloride]. Its chemical name is sodium chloride (NaCl). “In chemistry, common salt is one of a large number of electrolytic compounds classified as salts. The compound occurs as a mineral in the form of crystals and the forms of the crystals are generally cubic and are transparent.” (Encyclopedia Americana 163) Halite (sodium chloride) comes from the Greek “halos”, meaning salt and “lithos” meaning rock, and is better...   [tags: Chemistry Salts Essays]
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610 words
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The K+ Channel Revisited - The K+ Channel Revisited Many scientists enter the field of neuroscience with a desire to understand how the human brain functions to create our actions. Some take a large approach and study reactions to stimulus in live animals. This approach leaves us still wanting to know about things that aren't a result of an outside stimulus. Other scientists take the minimalist approach and start by studying the exact mechanisms of individual cells of the brain. But, what good does that do us for everyday life....   [tags: Chemical Neuroscience Chemistry Papers]
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1870 words
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Psilocybin and Body Changes - Psilocybin and Body Changes Physiological (Whole Body) Changes Psilocybin, the active psychotomimetic, hallucinogenic chemical found in the psilocybe genus of mushrooms, is absorbed through the mouth and stomach and is a monoamine-related substance (Levitt 1975, Grilly, 1998). This means that psilocybin's biochemical effects are mediated by changes in the activity of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the central nervous system (made up of the brain and the spinal cord) primarily by way of 5HT2a receptors (Grilly 1998, Hasler 2003)....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Drugs Papers]
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1772 words
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Second Law of Thermodynamics - The second law of thermodynamics involves the concept of entropy, an idea that explains disorder in our world. The concept of entropy associates useful matter and waste with low entropy and high entropy, respectively. In order to look at entropy, we must first define the system of interest. For the remainder of this paper, the system will be Earth. Many people believe that everything we use up can be recycled and reused if we can develop the appropriate technology. However, the Second Law makes it essentially impossible to achieve complete recycling....   [tags: Chemistry] 431 words
(1.2 pages)
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Cloning, Pros and Cons - The young couple sat in the waiting room of the doctor's office with their heads hung low. They mumbled between themselves, wondering what the doctor would say at this visit. It is their ump-teenth check-up to try and figure out why they have not been able to conceive a child for the past 5 years. The woman wants with all of her heart to give birth to a child of her very own. They wondered if the doctor could do anything else to help them. Would the dream of having a baby of the couple's own blood vanish....   [tags: Chemistry] 2997 words
(8.6 pages)
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Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation - <ol> <li value="9">6: Option - Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation <li value="9">6.1: The chemical composition of the ocean implies its potential role as an electrolyte </ol> Identify the origins of the minerals in oceans as: <ul> <li> leaching by rainwater from terrestrial environments <li> hydrothermal vents in mid-ocean ridges </ul> Identify - recognise and name There are 2 major sources of the salts in seawater: <ol> <li value="1"> Leaching by rain and ground water. <li value="2"> Dissolution of salts by water passing through hydrothermal vents....   [tags: Chemistry] 3833 words
(11 pages)
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Copper Sulfide? Who Knows? - Objective: The objective of this lab was to calculate the ratio of the copper sulfur compound to conclude whether the compound is made of copper I or II. Procedure: <ol> <li value="1"> A copper coil was twisted. <li value="2"> The mass of the copper coil was found. <li value="3"> The copper coil was placed in a crucible. <li value="4"> A sulfer powder was added to the crucible to cover the copper coil. <li value="5"> The cover was placed on the crucible. <li value="6"> The Bunsen burner was lit....   [tags: Chemistry] 580 words
(1.7 pages)
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Rates of Chemical Reactions - RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS REACTION ORDER FOR IODATE ION OBJECTIVE: <ol> <li value="1"> To determine the order of a KIO3-NaHSO3 reaction with respect to the iodate ion. <li value="2"> To determine a difference on the rate of the reaction when the solution is 10oC higher than a room temperature. </ol> BACKGROUND: The rate of a chemical reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted to products....   [tags: Chemistry] 979 words
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Notes on Chemical Bonding - Chemical notes on bonding Ionic bonding - This occurs between metals and non metals - Fe2+/3+, Cu+/2+, Zn2+, No3- - Metals loose electrons, non metals gain electrons. - Ionic compounds conduct electricity when dissolved, but not when solid, they also have high m & b points due to strong giant 3d lattice. They are also soluble in water as they have a charge - Metal atoms always form positive charged electrons while non metals from negatively charged electrons Metallic Bonding - They conduct electricity due to a sea of delocalised electrons - They have a lattice of positive atoms....   [tags: Chemistry] 807 words
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Mentos Experiment - MENTOS + SODA = . Problem: Which brand of soda tested spews the most liquid when three Mentos are doped into a 2-liter of each brand. We know that the reaction between Mentos and soda is an explosion, but what we are trying to figure out is which brand causes the biggest reaction. Hypothesis: If three Mentos are dropped into a 2-liter of Diet Coke, Diet 7-Up, and Dr Thunder, then the Diet Coke will have the largest reaction to the Mentos. Materials: 1 pkg. Mint Mentos candies 2-liter Diet Coke 2-liter Diet 7-Up 2-liter Dr....   [tags: Chemistry] 604 words
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Hydrogen Bond - Polar molecules have a weak, partial negative and partial a positive charge. For example in water the negative charge is the oxygen atom and the positive the hydrogen atoms in the water. When water molecules are close together, the regions that are positively and negatively charged are attracted to the oppositely charged regions or nearby molecules. The dotted lines shown on the picture are called hydrogen bonds. Each water molecule is bonded to four other molecules. The hydrogen bonds that are created between the water molecules are some of the essential and unique properties of water....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Liquid Crystals - We were all taught that there were four states of matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases, and Plasma, but some states of matter cannot be defined by one the these four. One of which are liquid crystals. These crystals have properties of both liquids and solids. They physically flow like liquids, but also share characteristics of crystalline solids. There is also more then one type of liquid crystals along with their different phases. Since they have so many properties, its no wonder how much we use them today....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Emulsion Studies - The system of primary interest in this study was water-in-diluted Athabasca bitumen films. Formation of very stable water-in-oil emulsions is a major challenge for recovery of bitumen from oil sand deposits in Alberta-Canada. Emulsion studies 14-17 and works on single emulsion films 18,19 have shown that emulsion and film stability depends on type of solvent and solvent to bitumen (S/B) ratio. Furthermore, it was found that film behavior changes dramatically at so called critical (S/B) ratio 20, which coincides with formation of asphaltenes precipitates in solutions....   [tags: Chemistry] 1497 words
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Intermolecular Forces - Analysis: 2. Of the alcohols tested 1-Butanol was found to contain the strongest intermolecular forces (IMF) of attraction, with Methanol containing the weakest. It was discovered through experimentation that Methanol induced the highest ?T of all alcohols tested, and that conversely 1-Butanol induced the lowest ?T. The atomic structure of all four alcohols is very similar, as starting with 1-Butanol a CH2 group is lost as you move from 1-Butanol to 1-Propanol to Ethanol and then again to Methanol....   [tags: Chemistry] 815 words
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Hybrid Photopolymerization - Hybrid photopolymerization has the potential for solving the oxygen inhibition and moisture problem that plagued the free-radical and cationic photopolymerization reactions respectively. The problem, however, with the hybrid system is the deficiency in the fundamental knowledge of the reaction in the system. This project tends to address these deficiencies by studying hybrid systems in order to understand how experimental variables affect oxygen, moisture and alcohol sensitivity. This understanding will be archived by the following objectives; Determine the kinetic rate constants for the hybrid systems....   [tags: Chemistry] 2154 words
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Sodium (Na) - Sodium (Na) Sodium has an atomic number of 11 and a mass of about 23g. It is a silvery white-metallic element classified under the alkali metals. Sodium has been known since early times and was used by the people of Mesopotamia and Egypt to make glasses. Sodium is the sixth most common element found on the earth. It is usually not found in nature but more often in compounds such as salt (NaCl). Sodium conducts heat and electricity easily. Without this element life could not exist. Each compound is used for a certain reason....   [tags: Science Chemistry] 732 words
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Magnetic Fluids - 1.1 PRELUDE: The phenomenon of ferromagnetism is associated only with the solid state of matter; like iron, nickel, cobalt and some rare earth metals and their alloys. Thus, up to now, there is no intrinsic homogeneous fluid having ferromagnetic properties; although, theories admit the possibility of ferromagnetism in the liquid state, and suggest that there is no inherent reason why they should not exist [1-3,5]. Ferromagnetism occurs when paramagnetic ions in a solid lock together in such a way that their spins all point (on the average) in the same direction ....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry] 1353 words
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Sodium Thiosulphate Reaction Time Experiment - Introduction: In the investigation I am going to see how long it takes for sodium thiosulphate to react with hydrochloric acid, the sodium thiosulphate will be diluted with water, I will do this by having 60 ml sodium thiosulphate and 40 ml water but each time I will change the amount of sodium thiosulphate and water but they will both add up to equal 100ml, I will know when the reaction has taken place because the beaker with the chemicals in will go cloudy, we will put the beaker on a piece of paper with a x on it....   [tags: chemistry, chemistry experiment] 912 words
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Acids and Bases - PURPOSE To investigate the reactions of a typical acid (dilute hydrochloric acid) with metals, metal oxides, carbonates and bases. APPARATUS The following materials in order to complete this experiment: <ul> <li> Dropper bottles containing 0.1M solutions of hydrochloric acid or limewater (calcium hydroxide) and sodium hydroxide. <li> Dropper bottle of bromothymol blue indicator <li> Small samples of the following metals: zinc, copper turnings, magnesium and iron <li> Copper (II) oxide powder <li> Magnesium oxide <li> Marble chips (calcium carbonate) <li> Sodium carbonate <li> 12 test tubes and test tube holder <li> Bunsen burner <li> Stopper or cork <li> Wax taper and matches </ul> PROC...   [tags: Chemistry] 1014 words
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Specific Heat Lab - Objective: The purpose of this lab was to calculate the specific heat of a metal cylinder Procedure: 1. The 100ml Graduated cylinder was filled with water and a rubber stopper. 2. The metal was placed in the Graduated cylinder, water displacement was found. 3. The beaker was filled with water and the metal was placed in the water. 4. The Bunsen burner was lit. 5. The water in the beaker was boiled using the Bunsen burner. 6. The Styrofoam cup was filled with approximately 100ml of water....   [tags: Chemistry] 357 words
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Marie Sklodowska Curie and The Discovery of Radium and Polonium - Both a remarkably intelligent and profound female in the science world, Marie Skłodowska Curie changed the way science would be looked at in the future. Curie discovered the elements radium and polonium, as well as administering ground-breaking research in radioactivity. Both a chemist and a physicist, Curie won an extent of awards and honors in multiple fields. Curie set the stage for many years of boundless discoveries. Born to Bronisława née Boguska and Władysław Skłodowski on November 7 1867 in Warsaw, Kingdom of Poland, Marie Sklodowska Curie was one of five children....   [tags: radioactivity, physics, chemestry]
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Storage Duration of Mother Scales' Effects on Soluble Carbohydrates and Amylases in Lily Scale Bulblets - 1. Introduction The scaling is a technique for propagation of Lilium (Gray, 1974; Marinangeli and Curvetto, 1997; Marinangeli et al., 2003). The mother bulbs are scaled and stored in a favorable substrate. Scale bulblets develop on the sides of the individual mother scale (Gray, 1974). This method was studied and reported earlier (Matsuo, 1972; Matsuo and Van Tuyl, 1984; Matsuo et al., 1989; Cabrera, 2002). Addai (2010) found the sucrose as an essential and major carbohydrate in Lilium bulb, because breaking and metabolism of this sugar are important to facilitate the growth of storage organ, inflorescence and others....   [tags: botany, chemistry]
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Use of Guava Leaves as a Bio Absorbent for Waste Elimination - Introduction Nowadays, industrial activity in the world has grown very fast. In addition to induces positive impacts, the growth of industry also generates a new problem for the environment and so we need to search an effective and efficient handling ways of negative impacts such as waste. One example of pollutions due to industrial wastes is a pollution caused by waste containing in dissolved heavy metals. Waste with a high content of heavy metals could be dangerous pollutants. One of heavy metals that are harmful is chromium....   [tags: Chemistry, Chromium] 1129 words
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The Invention of Plastic and Its Effects on Practically Everything - ... All of these things add up and use a lot more energy than needed. The creation of plastics in a variety of ways and different types will impact and change the way society was to a new time conserving, energy saving world. The production of plastic has advanced the use of natural resources. A couple of examples would be carbon and hydrogen. Hydrogen and carbon are what could be considered as never ending supplies that cater to the needs of many things. Scientists had been producing hydrogen for years before it was recognized as an element....   [tags: history of chemistry] 1083 words
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What Was Society Like Before the Discovery of Technology - ... Our lives are more comfortable in many ways and we are much more healthy in general because of technology in medicine, food-preparation and storage, home construction etc. From the first technological advance of Morse code to today’s Skype, the ability to communicate with people has changed dramatically. Almost everyone today has a phone, a computer, and uses both to communicate with their friends, family, and business. Technology has changed the way that people communicate. One example is soldiers who are deployed....   [tags: history of chemistry] 908 words
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Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Power outside of WWII - Most people only know of the nuclear power that went to nuclear warfare and the bombs that were a part of World War II. However, nuclear has made a name for itself in the last seventy years or so. There are plants all over the country, most are east of the Mississippi, but there is quite a bit to the west as well. There is a total of one hundred in the country, the quad cities alone has two nuclear power plants. All over the world plants have been built, the world has seen what an asset nuclear energy can be....   [tags: Chemistry, Fission]
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Why does Benzene Undergo Only Electrophilic Substitution Reactions? - Why does Benzene undergo only electrophilic substitution reactions. This property can be attributed to the remarkable stability of Benzene, due to the 6 delocalised electrons forming a ᴨ cloud of electrons. Instead of the electrons forming three stationary C==C bonds, they form a delocalized ring which gives benzene greater stability, and this is seen in the enthalpy change when breaking the delocalized ring of electrons in benzene. Comparing the structures of benzene and 1, 3, 5-cyclohexatriene: One would expect to have similar enthalpy changes for breaking the delocalized ring of benzene and the 1, 3, 5 pi bonds of the 1, 3, 5-cyclohexatriene, but in real life it is around 150 kJ/mol in...   [tags: chemistry, electrons] 1039 words
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Investigation of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid - The purpose of this investigation is to record the amount of time taken for a reaction to occur when sodium thiosulphate is mixed with hydrochloric acid. The equation for this reaction is: Na2S2O3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + S + SO2 +H2O Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), after reacting with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) produces yellow sulphur, which is the cause of the solution becoming cloudy. The amount of time taken for the reaction to occur is known as the reaction rate. The rate of a reaction can be commonly explained by Collision Theory....   [tags: Chemistry, observation] 641 words
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The Adverse Effects of Exposure to Benzene - 1. INTRODUCTION Benzene (also known as benzol) is a colourless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet odour. It evaporates into the air very quickly and partly dissolves in water. Most people can begin to smell benzene in air at approximately 60 ppm of air and recognize it as benzene at 100 ppm. It was first discovered and extracted from coal tar in the 1980s and subsequently from petroleum due to vast increase in its demand. Since then, various industries use benzene to make other chemicals, such as styrene, cumene and cyclohexane....   [tags: chemistry, chemical] 1712 words
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An Analysis of Graphene and It's Uses - Graphene is a two dimensional structure that is formed into a honeycomb structure. The honeycomb structure is composed of carbon atoms that form the pattern of hexagons. These structures can form several other structures, which include cylinders, pentagons, and layers of graphene, which still have the same physical properties. The properties of the honeycomb structure allow the graphene to show the electronic properties it has. Since, the two dimensional structure is a flexible structure the properties of the honeycomb are shown....   [tags: physical chemistry]
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Preparing and Observing the Properties of Esthers - ... Apparatus and Materials  Hot Plate  1 Test tube  Test tube rack  Methanol (2 ml)  Concentrated sulphuric acid (4 drops)  250 ml beaker  Test tube holder  Salicylic acid (2grams)  Electronic balance  Evaporating dish Method and Procedures  2 ml of methanol was poured in a test tube  1 gram of salicylic acid was added  4 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid was then added to the solution in the test tube.  The test tube was then placed in a beaker filled with water and placed on the hot plate until it got to a gentle boil....   [tags: chemistry experiments]
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Defending Against Anthrax Use as Bioterrorism - Bioterrorism is a recent invention, gaining its reputation in the 20th century and reaching the height of its fame during 2001 in the United States where 5 were killed and 22 injured from Anthrax contaminated letters. It is defined at the use of microorganisms as weapons of catastrophic effect, where catastrophic effect refers to any weapon that causes a negative impact on well being of a nation and resulting in a major modification of routine activity and thereby inflicting harm on a wider population (Christian, 2013)....   [tags: Chemistry, Bioterrorism]
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The Role of Caffeine in Society - ... It can also be significantly altered by drugs or hormonal states. In healthy adults, caffeine's half-life has been measured with a range of results. Some measures get 4.9 hours, and others are at around 6 hours. Heavy cigarette smokers show a decrease in half-life of 30–50%, oral contraceptives can double it, and pregnancy can raise it even more, to as much as 15 hours during the last trimester. In newborn infants the half-life can be 80 hours or more; however it drops very rapidly with age, possibly to less than the adult value by the age of 6 months....   [tags: history of chemistry] 969 words
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Exploring Factors That Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction Involving Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid - What factors affect the rate of this chemical reaction: Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid  Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq)  MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) Prediction I think that my results will show that the hydrochloric acid with a molarity of 2 will finish reacting the quickest because it is the strongest hydrochloric acid and I predict that the slowest experiment to finish reacting will be the 0.4 molar strength of hydrochloric acid. I think that the results will go slower and slower the nearer they are to the 0.4 strength of hydrochloric acid....   [tags: chemistry, chemistry experiment, lab report] 1528 words
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Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cell Line - Introduction There are many different cell lines that have been used in order to examine genotoxicity exposure of agents such as human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line - TMK1, human colon cancer - COL2, particularly human B lymphoblastoid cell line - TK6 is more often used. TK6 is a cell line heterozygous at the thymidine kinase locus from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in T cell lineage blast crisis which included Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22)(q34;q11), an abnormality in chromosome 6 (a deletion of the long arm), and chromosome 7, for example, del(6)(q21); ins(1;-)(q21;-); del(1)(q21;q32); dic(7)(:p13 cen q32:11.2 cen pter) (Watanabe et al., 1995; Tomita et al., 199...   [tags: Chemistry, Cell] 1632 words
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Water in the Biochemical Process - Water is a vital part for the function of organisms, as it is involved in the “energetics” of molecular interactions and conformational adaption of macromolecules in animal and plant cells, due to its structure, flexibility and several unique properties (Rand, 2004). In an organism’s cell, various types of water are present. They are known as bound, hydration, vicinal and bulk water. 95% of watery body fluid is composed of bulk water, since they function as “space filling medium”, which supports life and creates an aqueous medium for cellular reactions (Watterson, 1987) ....   [tags: Chemistry Science]
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Elements of Quality of Lif - Introduction:- The Elements of life are the most important things in our environment and in the world. This essay will discuss the elements of life. The subject is very significant because it discusses the importance of elements of life. Also, it explains each of its elements oxygen, fire, water and earth. Water The chemical formula of water is H20, meaning it is made of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. The hydrogen atoms each attach to one side of the oxygen atom and have a positive charge, whereas the oxygen atom has a negative charge....   [tags: chemistry, h2o]
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The Imporance of Polymers Today - ... With the use of polymers scientist were able to create an effective and cost efficient substitute for metals and ivory, which we used to use for making common items such as handles, pool balls, and game pieces. They were all made of ivory and since ivory is very rare and hard to obtain it raises the prices of all items made of this material. With out plastics plates, cups and silverware would still be being made of metals or other expensive material. But eventually people started replacing these things with plastic....   [tags: history of chemistry] 644 words
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