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Your search returned over 400 essays for "Chemistry"
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Chemistry: The Oxygen Family - Also known as the oxygen family, chalcogens are sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium(Te), and polonium (Po). Oxygen (O) is also in group 16, where chalcogens are located on the periodic table. While it is defined as a chalcogen, oxygen and oxides are often separated from chalcogens because its chemical behavior is much different than that of the other elements in the group. The other elements in the group show similar patterns in their electron configurations resulting in similar chemical behavior....   [tags: Elements, Leonardo Da Vinci]
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2129 words
(6.1 pages)
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The Chemical Weaponry Utilised In World War One and their Effects on Modern Ethics and Morals - World War One (1914-1918) remains, even today, one of the most infamous and controversial wars in the history of mankind, with a legacy that, through groundbreaking revolutions in chemical warfare, completely altered the way ethics and morals, as they relate to warfare, are perceived in modern society. The many countries involved in WW1 were the first to employ brutal weapons such as machine guns, torpedoes, tanks and zeppelins, weapons which had never been supplied to armies ever before. However, the greatest developments in weaponry of that time period, and arguably the most disputatious in regards to ethics and morals, were the momentous innovations that took place in the field of chemi...   [tags: War, Chemistry]
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1563 words
(4.5 pages)
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alladium Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions and Their Uses in Organic Synthesis - Palladium Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions and Their Uses in Organic Synthesis Palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are a useful way to create a new carbon-carbon bond in near quantitative yields and relatively moderate conditions.1,2 This makes them very useful tools in both organic and inorganic synthesis as well as materials research. The reaction itself was first discovered and researched almost simultaneously in the 1970’s by Dr. Akira Suzuki of Hokkaido University, Japan, Dr....   [tags: Sinthesis, Chemistry]
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1507 words
(4.3 pages)
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The Life of Linus Pauling - The 20th century was filled with advancements in science and technology as chemists rapidly began introducing new techniques and discoveries into the world. Linus Carl Pauling is one of the most well recognized scientists of the 1900’s as his assortment of knowledge spread across many topics of science. Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon where he was forced to begin working at a young age of twelve due to his father’s death when he was merely nine. Although Pauling was often preoccupied with family responsibilities, he quickly realized his interest in the field of science....   [tags: biography, chemistry]
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1081 words
(3.1 pages)
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History and Uses of Aspirin - Topic Definition Aspirin was invented in late 1890s. More than a hundred years later, due to its fever-reducing and anti-inflammatory effects, it has become one of the world’s most extensively used medicines. Interestingly, this famous medicine, at the beginning, was invented by a German scientist in order to find out an effective remedy to cure his father’s pain. History Innovated by the fact that ancient people use willow bark to ease pain, the first chemically pure and stable acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized by a German chemist called Felix Hoffmann, in 1897 (Bayer AG, 2011)....   [tags: Chemistry, Prostaglandins]
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495 words
(1.4 pages)
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Acid-Base Chemistry Lab - The purpose of this lab was to determine the pH and total acidity of grape juice and wine. A second purpose was to experimentally determine the pKa of a monoprotic weak acid, polyprotic weak acid, as well as, a free amino acid, alanine. Acids and bases were defined by Bronsted-Lowry in 1923, in which acids were described as substances capable of donating a proton and bases are substances capable of accepting a proton (Thompson and Dinh 2009). In addition to defining acids and bases, Bronsted-Lowry further classified acids and bases as being either strong or weak....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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1388 words
(4 pages)
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Chemistry: Gas-Liquid Chromatography - Extraction To obtain oils from plant materials steam distillation is typically used. Solvent extraction is also used to create a resinoid (resembling characteristics of resin). Solvent extraction is commonly used with volatile substances that may be lost with distillation. Solvent used are pentane, hexane, and mixes of solvents such as ethyl acetate and hexane which is commonly used in place of benzene (see Figure 2). Gas-Liquid Chromatography Gas-Liquid Chromatography is the process of separating complex mixtures into the components and measuring the individual components....   [tags: extraction, resinoid, benzene]
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1160 words
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Primo Levi’s The Periodic Table - Primo Levi’s The Periodic Table Primo Levi’s personal relationship to his profession as a chemist shows that philosophically and psychologically, he is deeply invested in it. His book THe PeriOdic TaBLe shows that his methodology cannot be classified as either purely objective or purely subjective. He fits into the definition of dynamic objectivity given by Evelyn Fox Keller in her book Reflections on Gender and Science. Primo Levi’s methodology cannot be called purely objective. Being purely objective would mean being not influenced by personal beliefs or feelings....   [tags: Chemisty Chemistry Science Essays]
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1135 words
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Hermann Emil Fischer: The Fischer esterification - Born Hermann Emil Louis Fischer in Germany, Fischer was best known for his work in the field of chemistry, including the study of sugars and purines . He also developed the Fischer projection, a symbolic way of drawing asymmetric carbon atoms, and discovered the Fischer esterification, a special type of esterification by refluxing a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst . Fischer attended the University of Strasbourg in 1872, and earned a doctorate in chemistry with his study of phenolphthalein under Professor Adolf von Baeyer....   [tags: chemistry, acid catalyst]
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1197 words
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The Chemistry of Natural Waters - Defined in Chemtrek as “The presence of the dissolved divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. . . (which) gives natural waters chemical properties”, hard water has always been a curse to both animals and man 1 . It promotes scale, the buildup of magnesium and calcium to the point where a rock-like substance forms in household and industrial pipes, disrupts natural habitats and reproductive cycles of fresh water fish, and causes many health-related problems in humans 2 . To avoid such problems, it is important to understand ways that commercial businesses and homeowners can test for hard water....   [tags: Science Papers]
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2402 words
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Chemistry planning and designing lab - Lab# Date: Topic: The reactivity series Problem: Which of the following metals are more reactive with acids – magnesium, zinc, aluminum, iron, lead, and copper. Hypothesis: Aluminum is the most reactive with acids because it occurs in group III. Aim: To perform a comparative test on which metal is the most reactive with acids. Experiment: A comparative test is done using time to find which metal has the fastest reaction Skill: P & D Apparatus : Equipment: 1. 6 beakers 2. Water 3. Measuring cylinder 4....   [tags: essays research papers] 344 words
(1 pages)
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Love: A Complex Mix of Chemistry, Psychology, Culture and Emotion - Love is by far one of the most talked about, written about, expressed and implied feelings in the human array of emotions. The Beatles told us that “love is all you need”. Dr. Theodor Geisel, best known under the pseudonym Seuss, stated that “When you are in love you can't fall asleep because reality is better than your dreams.” Douglas Adams gave us a dry warning in his book The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, stressing that, in terms of love, “Avoid, if at all possible.” With all the artists, poets, writers, philosophers, scientists, and thinkers of the world giving us conflicting and equally meaningful views of love, can it really be explained....   [tags: essay on love] 833 words
(2.4 pages)
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Chemistry: Effects of Digestive Supplement on the Human Body - Introduction: The purpose of this lab was to determine the effects that pH had on lactase activity of four different digestive supplements that assist in the breakdown of lactose in the body. Lactase is an enzyme that digests lactose, it is also the primary sugar found in milk (BIOB 260 Lab Manual, 2014). Before it can be broken down lactose needs to be broken down into glucose and galactose for easy absorption into the bloodstream, this is done by the hydrolying of the monosaccharide (BIOB 260 Lab Manual, 2014)....   [tags: pH, lactase, blood stream]
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1302 words
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Radiation Pressure Effect on Polymerization Reactions - A laser trap, or an optical trap, is created by tightly focusing a laser beam with an objective lens of high numerical aperture (NA).1 The trap is formed at the focal point of the objective, which is able to hold a small particle at its center. In other words, a dielectric particle near the focus will experience a force due to the transfer of momentum from the scattering of incident photons. The resulting optical force has two components: a scattering force in the direction of light propagation and a gradient force in the direction of the spatial light gradient....   [tags: Laser Beams, Chemistry, Molecules]
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2123 words
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Understanding How a Battery Works - Have you ever wondered how a small Duracell battery can power your remote for so long. It's not a process that's too to understand. It is important to know about batteries. If you know enough about the battery you can make your own and even decide which type of battery is right for you. There are many different types of batteries, there are even ones that depend on radioactivity. However, because of these many different types of batteries there are advantages and disadvantages, one could be useful but in a way still harm you, another could be not so useful yet are still better than most others....   [tags: chemistry, physics, electricity]
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1423 words
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Should Stimulant Medication be Used in the Treatment of ADHD? - Of all the different treatments, stimulant medications work to change the brain chemistry to that seen in a brain lacking any psychological disorders. This makes them very effective as it gets to the root of the problem, as compared to therapies that try to mask the problem. The FDA approved stimulant medication affects neural transmitters in the brain, allowing for the neural pathways to work more efficiently. With the neurons firing correctly, the symptoms of ADHD are reduced. There is also other non-stimulant medications used to treat ADHD, but these are less commonly prescribed and less effective than the stimulant medication (Facts About ADHD)....   [tags: brain chemistry, psychological disorder]
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1099 words
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Medical School and Low Aceptance Rate - About less than 300 students get accepted per year, depending on the medical school it can be less than that. If they raised their acceptance rate, more students would be able to go to medical schools, including myself. Since I want to attend medical school in the future, I have researched the acceptance rates and have seen that it is very low. I understand that is very competitive, but the way I see it, it is too extreme. Medical schools in California should increase their acceptance rate because of how low their rate is....   [tags: students, biology, chemistry, physics]
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1523 words
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What is Life by Erwin Schrodinger - Erwin Schrodinger is a historic chemist who led a difficult life, but gave the scientific community multiple important contributions. Erwin Schrodinger’s life revolving around chemistry is full of contributions and essential advancements that he gave to the scientific community. Some of Schrodinger’s contributions consist of Schrodinger’s wave equation and Schrodinger’s book “What is Life” which led to valuable progression in biology thanks to his book (“Erwin Schrodinger.” Erwin Schrodinger. Dr.)....   [tags: chemistry, movement, electrons]
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889 words
(2.5 pages)
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The History of the Elements and Periodic Table - Greek thinkers and early people noted around 400BC, that things are different from each other, and can be broken down into smaller groups. They used the words “element” and “atom” to describe different and the smallest parts of matter. For over 2000 years, the four “elements” of Earth, fire, water, and air were used to explain many stories of the world. Something had to of been done to organize our thoughts and observations of our elements. A method was needed by 1860 to organize the sixty elements known by scientists....   [tags: Chemistry, Science, research papers] 990 words
(2.8 pages)
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Marie Curie and The Discovery of The X-Ray - When defining the greatest scientist, it is considered someone who thinks out of the ordinary to find answers and explanations to determine the forces of science and their course of action. To prove their scientific excellence, a scientist may receive various awards to show public recognition. Marie Curie is considered the greatest scientist in European history because of her work and commitment to science that has left an impact on all of Europe. Despite the work of other great scientists, namely Antoine Becquerel, Marie Curie proved to be the greatest scientist in European history by earning many awards, becoming the first female scientist, and assisting in the discovery of the X- Ray....   [tags: european scientist, chemistry]
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984 words
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Acid/Base Chemistry - Yeast produce beverages that Americans twenty-one or older enjoy, they make drinks like beer, wine, and etc. One of the most widely seen genus and species is Saccharomycescerevisiae (winemakermag.com). There are many different strands of this organism. But this particular yest genus is so useful that one company seems that they only work with it, Vinters Harvest provides these organisms to home brewers and theirmain yeast is this one. Yeast ferment sugars in order to produce energy and alcohol an unintended byproduct....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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1100 words
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Walter White: Breaking Traditional Views - Walter White from the hit television show “Breaking Bad” is an unusual character. To give a little background, Walter White was once a very promising chemist, co-founding a multi-billion dollar company. For personal reasons, White sells his portion of the company and becomes a chemistry teacher at the local high school, as well as working part-time at a car wash for extra money. White starts becoming more and more ill, until he caves and goes to the doctor, where he is diagnosed with Stage III lung cancer....   [tags: chemistry, Methamphetamine, neurotism]
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1423 words
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Acid Rain and its Impact - Rain is a major component of the water cycle as it is held responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on Earth. (EPA USA, 2014) It not only provides suitable conditions for various ecosystems, but also provides water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. (Andrei, 2012) However, since the start of industrialization in the 18th century, humans have been abusing such important features of life and created acid deposition. (The Ledger, 2014) The pH scale is composed of values starting from zero, the most acidic, to 14.0, the most alkaline....   [tags: Rain, Water, Chemistry]
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867 words
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Activation of Zero-Valent Magnesium using Acetic Acid for the Degradation of Triacetone Triperoxide in Ethanol - Activation of Zero-Valent Magnesium using Acetic Acid for the Degradation of Triacetone Triperoxide in Ethanol Abstract Triacetone triperoxide (TATP), a cyclic peroxide, is an explosive frequently used by terrorists and amateur chemists due to the ease of synthesis and the availability of reagents. A degradation method for degrading TATP in ethanol (EtOH) was proposed using an activated, zero-valent magnesium (ZVMg) system. Different acids were tested to determine their effectiveness in activating Mg for the degradation of TATP, and short chain carboxylic acids, particularly acetic acid, were observed to have the greatest effect on the TATP degradation rate....   [tags: Chemistry]
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2677 words
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Analysis of Kinetic Rate Constant and Oxygen-Inhibition-Effect in Acrylate/Epoxide Hybrid Systems Photopolymerization - I. Introduction Photopolymerization is a process that uses light instead of thermal energy to initiate the reaction that converts monomer to polymer. This process has led to increased productivity, improved physical properties and product performance, new capabilities for users, cost effectiveness, and environmental friendliness when compared with thermal processes. Ultra-violet (UV) formulated product usage has experienced growth for 35 consecutive years starting from 5,000 metric tons in 1970 to 95,000 metric tons in 2005....   [tags: Chemistry ]
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4224 words
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Profile Peculiarities in Semiconductor Etching: Origins & Techniques for Elimination - As the dimensions of virtually every electronic device are pushed smaller and smaller, the ability to etch semiconductors with very small and very dense patterns becomes increasingly important. Increasing the pattern density naturally requires decreasing the lateral dimensions of the various structures etched. In order to maintain functionality at these sub-micron sizes, it is often necessary to etch structures with very large aspect ratios – on the order of 10-100. Dry etching using plasmas is the most efficient way to etch such structures; wet etch processes are crystal orientation dependent and it can be difficult if not impossible to obtain the desired aspect ratios....   [tags: Chemistry] 1997 words
(5.7 pages)
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The Transformation of CO2 to Linear Hydrocarbons Through Electrochemical Reduction - 1. Introduction Due to the demand for petroleum products, the uncertainty of fossil fuel resources reported recently [6] and the greenhouse gas concern are the basis for this paper. The transformation of CO2 to linear hydrocarbons through electrochemical reduction was reported in [2,8,9]. C2H4 being of high yield but only on a small-scale. But by mathematical derivation of k = dM/nF and k = A ∙ e-Ea/RT presented in this paper which are formulated for the industrial production of the feed stock C2H4 for catalytic trimerization to 1-hexene for the cyclization to, C6H6, for the synthesis of 2-O-acetylsalicylic acid....   [tags: Chemistry]
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1259 words
(3.6 pages)
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Limiting Reactant Lab Experiment Using Baking Soda and Vinegar - Baking Soda and Vinegar: Limiting Reactant Lab Background The limiting reactant of a chemical reaction is the substance that places an upper bound on the amount of product that the reaction can produce. The limiting reactant places this upper bound because the reaction must stop once all of the limiting reactant is consumed. If the relative amount of reactants is altered, then the limiting reactant may change accordingly. For example, a balanced chemical equation of a certain reaction specifies that an equal number of moles of two substances A and B is required....   [tags: chemistry] 1472 words
(4.2 pages)
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The Behavior of PTCDA Molecules Absorbed on the TiO2(011) - We have recently reported results of preliminary studies on the behavior of PTCDA molecules adsorbed on the TiO2(011) at very low coverage (approximately 0.05ML) [A. Tekiel, S. Godlewski, J. Budzioch, M. Szymonski, Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 495304]. There we have focused on the self-assembly process leading to formation of one-dimensional chains oriented along the crystallographic direction (Fig. 8a). These chains can include up to 20 molecules, which are uniformly oriented with their longer axis parallel to the substrate oxygen rows (orientation I – see Fig....   [tags: Chemistry] 844 words
(2.4 pages)
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CuPc Molecules Absorbed on the TiO2(011) Surface - Figure 6 STM images of CuPc molecules adsorbed on the TiO2(011) surface, panels a) and b) show sample before annealing, two distinct phases are observed, panels c) and d) illustrate sample after 2 hour annealing at 150°C, only phase II is visible, the amount of molecule dislocations, vacancies and defects is decreased after annealing, panels e) and f) show sample after two-hour annealing at 200°C, when completely new phase III is formed with up-right molecules, bias voltage +3.0V, tunnelling current 2pA....   [tags: Chemistry ] 1548 words
(4.4 pages)
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Gas Equilibriums: Examples of Reversible Reactions - Gas Equilibriums: examples of Reversible Reactions Q1. Identify the general chemical and physical characteristics of gas equilibriums as a group. Explain the forward and reverse reaction mechanisms. Use nitrogen dioxide and hydrogen iodide as examples and explain how equilibrium is reached. The general chemical characteristic of gas equilibriums is when the concentrations of reactants and products do not change with time. This is known as the state of reversible reaction. At this state, pressure, density, colour and concentration can be recognised....   [tags: Chemistry ] 1662 words
(4.7 pages)
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Graphene and Its Properties - Graphene and its Properties Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe and the fifteenth most abundant on Earth. It is the sixth element on the Periodic Table of Elements with four valence electrons that are used to bond with other atoms. Atoms tend to fill their outer shell with eight valence electrons to remain stable. This leads to atoms sharing or exchanging electrons to satisfy that requirement. This property lends to the versatile nature of carbon and explains the numerous forms that it comes in and why carbon is essential for all living organisms....   [tags: physical chemistry, carbon]
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1130 words
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chemistry (ocean) - What is an iceberg. Why are they blue or green. An iceberg is a large floating block of freshwater ice that has broken off the edge of a glacier and been carried out to sea; about 90% of its mass lies under the water. The bluish streaks of clear, bubble free ice often seen in icebergs results from the refreezing of melt water which fills crevasses formed in the glacier as it creeps over land. The ice is blue because of the natural light scattering characteristics of pure ice. Occasionally airborne dust or dirt eroded from land ends up on the glacier surface eventually forming a noticeably darkened brown or black layer (in any orientation) within the ice of a floating iceberg....   [tags: essays research papers] 872 words
(2.5 pages)
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Physics chemistry - ATHENS, Ohio -- Today's computers and other technological gizmos operate on electronic charges, but researchers predict that a new generation of smaller, faster, more efficient devices could be developed based on another scientific concept -- electronic "spin." The problem, however, is that researchers have found it challenging to control or predict spin – which keeps practical applications out of reach. But physicists in Europe, California and at Ohio University now have found a way to manipulate the spin of an electron with a jolt of voltage from a battery, according to research findings published in the recent issue of the journal Physical Review Letters....   [tags: essays research papers] 517 words
(1.5 pages)
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Atomic Structure, Moles and Periodicity - Atomic structure, Moles and Periodicity The Periodic Table is guidance or map to access different elements specific information, such as: atomic mass, isotopic richness, nuclear spins, electronic configuration and the position of elements belong to which group and period in table. Over the past decades there were many Scientifics which help to improvement of Periodic table but few of them made the most influence and contribution on Periodic table such as : Johann Dobereiner ,John Newlands , Dmitri Mendeleev and Henry Moseley....   [tags: Chemistry]
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1193 words
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The Knorr Synthesis of Pyrroles - The Knorr Synthesis of Pyrroles Experimental A mixture of ethyl acetoacetate 1 (7.52 g, 7.5 mL) in glacial acetic acid (18 mL) was prepared and cooled to 5oC while stirring. Sodium nitrate solution (2.1 g in 5 mL deionised water) was added at such a rate that the temperature of reaction did not exceed 7oC. Once this addition was complete the mixture was stirred with cooling for 10 minutes before being allowed to warm to room temperature. Zinc dust (4.0 g) was added to the reaction mixture in small portions so that the mixture refluxed gently, the reaction mixture was then heated to reflux for one hour....   [tags: Chemistry] 978 words
(2.8 pages)
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A Study of Iron - Iron is an important element to the scientific community, especially those involved in the branch of chemistry. Consequently, humans rely on iron for many different things. Iron is diverse from all other elements with regards to its natural occurrence, historic and contemporary uses, the origin of its name, and when, how, where, and by whom it was discovered. It also has unique characteristic physical and chemical properties. Without the discovery, and distinctive properties of iron, life on Earth would never be the same as it is now....   [tags: chemistry, table of elements]
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1067 words
(3 pages)
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The Properties of Seawater - Water: it is the driving force behind our planet. It is what makes life possible on earth. Water is what runs so many other environmental and biological systems on our planet. But to know how water drives our planet, we first need to know what is the driving force behind water. Water has the ability to absorb and release vast amounts of heat. This helps to keep the earth’s surface thermostatic. This also helps regulate weather patterns. Heat currents travel from the equator to the poles and then back....   [tags: Chemistry]
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1748 words
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Background Information on Nickel - Background Information on Nickel Nano wires can be made out of many different matierals to fit the specific need of the scientist. They can be made out of alloys, elements, oxides, and other materials. Additionally, they can be tailors to fit specific geometric requirements. In the semiconductor industry, when the demand for transistors is extremely high, many elements are experimented with. As time goes on, and technology advances, more and more objects can be put onto a substrate. A very common element that nanowires are being created and researched with is Nickel....   [tags: Chemistry] 2325 words
(6.6 pages)
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Chemical Composition of Glass - Abstract Soda-based glass samples were fabricated in a laboratory scale using quartz sands that was a by-product of feldspar floatation in Tak Province, northern Thailand, and 25-wt% commercial-grade Na2CO3 as the main compositions. Fe2O3 of 0.1 to 10.0 wt% concentrations was doped into the glass mixture. Well-mixed and dried powders were melted in a ceramic crucible for 4 hr at 1250ºC using an electric furnace. Transparent and bubble-free glass samples were obtained as results. It was found that Fe2O3 dopant turned the otherwise colorless glass to dark brown....   [tags: Chemistry] 1004 words
(2.9 pages)
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Mixture and Compound Differences - Mixture and Compound Differences 1 One difference between mixtures and compounds is that compounds have a certain composition as opposed to mixtures that can be varied. Chemical compounds are made up of at least two elements that are bonded together in a fixed mass ratio that can only be split apart by chemical means. And a mixture is a substance created by merging at least two different materials with no chemical reaction. Also compounds can only be separated if they are destroyed. But the elements in mixtures can be physically separated from each other easily....   [tags: Chemistry ] 634 words
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Chemical Bonding Essay Question - Bonds are the attraction between atoms involving the transferring and sharing of valence electrons to achieve stability and complete its valence shell. With these interactions of molecules, which are formed by bonds, properties of life emerge. Bonds vary in type, with each having their own specific properties, effects and strengths. These varying types of bonds consist of: covalent, ionic and hydrogen. A covalent bond is the chemical bonding in which the attractive force between atoms is created by the sharing of electrons, resulting in the formation of a cell's molecules and is categorized into two subtypes, non-polar and polar....   [tags: Chemistry] 555 words
(1.6 pages)
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Microencapsulation purpose and definition - Microencapsulation Definition Microencapsulation is the technology of packaging solid, liquid and gaseous materials into small capsule by coating the materials with protective matrix or wall materials (Hogan et al. 2001; Cerdeira et al., 2007; Champagne and Fustier, 2007; Madene et al., 2005). In other words, it is a process in which tiny particles or droplets are surrounded by a coating, or embedded in a homogeneous or heterogeneous matrix (Gharsallaoui et al.,2007). The materials within the capsule that are surrounded by coating materials are known as core, internal phase or fill....   [tags: Chemistry]
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834 words
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The Structure of Proteins - The Structure of Proteins Introduction Campbell and Farrell define proteins as polymers of amino acids that have been covalently joined through peptide bonds to form amino acid chains (61). A short amino acid chain comprising of thirty amino acids forms a peptide, and a longer chain of amino acids forms a polypeptide or a protein. Each of the amino acids making up a protein, has a fundamental design that comprises of a central carbon or alpha carbon that is bonded to a hydrogen element, an amino grouping, a carboxyl grouping, and a unique side chain or the R-group (Campbell and Farrell 61)....   [tags: Chemistry]
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1526 words
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Chemistry Sodium Thiosulpahte - Introduction Over the next few weeks I will be doing several attempts of the same experiment that involves the reaction of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, I will be closely watching the reaction and how long in takes for the reactants to react. As yet I have not decided which of the several variables I will be changing. I also aim to take results of the reaction down onto a table, which then will be transferred onto a line graph, which will show us the nature of the reaction. Variables There are five factors which affect the rate of a reaction, according to the collision theory: temperature, concentration (of solution), pressure (in gases), surface are (of solid reactants), and...   [tags: essays research papers] 1261 words
(3.6 pages)
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Chemistry of PNA Peptide Nucleic Acid - Abstract For this report I chose to study PNA, or peptide nucleic acid, a biological polymer that was related to the biomedical field of research. I was very interested in this synthesized molecule because of its inimitable and remarkable properties, comparatively to other nucleic acids such as the more commonly known DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, and RNA, or ribonucleic acid. I also wanted to understand its uses and possible uses in everyday life. My main goal was to learn about the structure, significance, and clinical applications of PNA....   [tags: Biology Polymer Medical Biomedical]
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1435 words
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Le Chatelier's Principle - ... At this time, Le Chatelier also worked as a chemistry lecturer at École Polytechnique, and in 1887, Écoles des Mines offered Le Chatelier the position of professor in industrial chemistry and metallurgy, and remained at Écoles des Mines until his retirement in 1897. In 1907, Le Chatelier was elected to the French Academy of Sciences. During World War I, Le Chatelier assisted in the reorganization of shell products and explosives of military equipment (Lette, 2007). Henry-Louis Le Chatelier died on September 17, 1936....   [tags: the equilibrium law, physical chemistry]
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1173 words
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Statement of Purpose - ... Chicago had accepted her application but she decided to go elsewhere. "The school seems great and all, but I think you would like it more since it is kind of... weird" she trailed off, unsure how I would reply to her comment. I laughed because I knew to what she was referring. When she presented her work during class critiques, she would let her beautiful watercolor representations speak for themselves, while I had to make sure not to rattle on to long about the concepts I was trying to reference in my own work....   [tags: mathematics, chemistry, education] 516 words
(1.5 pages)
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Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy - Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a technique that is part of a broader range of techniques that are commonly referred to as scanning probe microscopy. It has a wide array of applications in chemistry, biology, and even the material sciences. SECM uses a ultramicroelectrode to measure the local electrochemical behavior of a substrate in a solution. When introduced, the ultramicroelectrode acts as the electron conductor in the substrate and the added electrolyte acts as the ionic conductor in the solution....   [tags: chemistry, biology, instrument]
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1911 words
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The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution - Introduction In chemistry, catalyst is a substance which increases the rate of reaction with itself does not combine in reaction. The aim of this essay is researching more about catalyst, for instant how does catalyst work and the example of catalyst. Also, this research might useful for science international foundation students for support revision. First of all, this essay will describe Maxwell Boltzmann distribution diagram and give the meaning of collision theory, then it will discuss on Activation Energy....   [tags: Chemistry, Catalyst, Substance, Reaction]
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Development of Density Functional Theory - Ab initio (aka First Principle) calculations are based on the basic laws of physics without any empirical parameters or fitting models. Simulations originating from the First Principles have played a more important role in studies in condensed matter physics and chemistry. A solid system comprises electrons and nuclei, and interactions among them determine the total energy of the system. Also, the outer shell electrons have great influences on the electronic and optic properties of solids. As there are many particles inside a real solid system, “single-electron” approximation is essential to make simulation possible....   [tags: ab initio, physics, chemistry, energy]
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Decomposing Hydrogen Peroxide - Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to gain an understanding of factors which influence the rates of reactions. Several experiments will be conducted using various combinations of concentrations of the reactant (hydrogen peroxide) and a catalyst (potassium iodide), as well as one pairing in which a change in temperature is the only variable. Data collected will be used to determine the rate law, rate constant, and activation energy for each of the reactions Hydrogen peroxide (H_2 O_2) naturally decomposes into water (H_2 O) and oxygen gas (O_(2 )) according to the following balanced equation....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Myogenic Cell Lines - GH is not able to modulate H2O2-induced apoptosis in myogenic cell lines Different studies have already shown the induction of apoptosis by H2O2 in myogenic cell lines (6, 33). To ascertain whether hGH modulates the induction of apoptosis, we treated C2C12 and L6C5 myogenic cells for 1 h or 24 hrs with H2O2 500 and 200 µM, respectively, in presence or not of hGH, and evaluated the resulting cell death, morphological changes and specific markers related to the activation of the apoptotic process....   [tags: Chemistry] 725 words
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The Krebs Cycle - The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions which occur in the mitochondria and results in the formation of ATP and other molecules which undergo farther reactions to form more ATP. Cellular respiration can be divided into four sequences. The first sequence is glycolysis, its breaks down one molecule glucose into two molecules pyruyate. Transition takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria and it’s referred to the beginning of aerobic respiration. The process takes place if there is enough amounts of oxygen in the mitochondria....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Manufacturing Silicon Nitride - As it has been recognized previously in the first memo Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) is manufactured by using Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition. OSU’s Virtual CVD reactor is an apparatus demonstrating the growth and measurements of Silicon Nitride. It might be essential not to just manufacture Silicon Nitride, instead, to produce it in a high quantity and quality spending the least amount of money as possible. In order to manufacture this type of aforementioned Silicon Nitride, it is required to set proper measurements to pressure, the flow rate of ammonia and dichlorosilane, time and 5 zones of temperature which have dimensions such as 200mtorr, 1000sccm for ammonia and 160sccm for dcs, 120-...   [tags: Chemistry]
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Immobilisation of Enzimes - Immobilization of enzymes is one of promising methods in enzymes performances enhancement, such as stability, recovery, and reusability. However, investigation of suitable solid support in enzyme immobilization is still the one of problems to prevent the reduction of enzymes activity. Polyethersulfone (PES) and aminated PES (PES-NH2) as novel materials for the immobilization were successfully synthesized. Structure of synthesized polymers were characterized by NMR, FTIR, and MALDI-TOF. The membranes based on PES and PES-NH2 with various pore sizes (from 10 to 600 nm) was fabricated to be applied as bioreactor to increase the immobilized lipase performances....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Analyzing Citric Acid - The most widely used method for synthesizing citric acid was discovered by an American chemist named James Currie in 1917 in order to contend with the lack of citrus imports caused by the First World War. This method requires the fungus culture “Aspergillus niger”. This mould is fairly common in nature but special strains are used by the major citric acid producing companies to increase the fungus’s production of citric acid. This method involves substances that contain glucose such as simple sugar or molasses being fed to the fungus....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrodes - Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Procedure………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Data………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Results and Discussion…………………………………………………………………... 9 Conclusion and Opinion………………………………………………………………... 10 References……………………………………………………………………………..... 11 Introduction Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the weight percent of fluoride in a toothpaste sample by using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Using the fluoride ion-selective electrode will offer an introduction to the procedures of potentiometric analysis [2]....   [tags: Chemistry]
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The Applications and Making of Artificial Diamonds - The Applications and Making of Artificial Diamonds Diamonds are very unique. Their hardness and beauty have enticed people for many years. Now some of the same attributes that make them appealing also make them useful. To understand these attributes the chemistry of carbon is very important. This unique chemistry is what makes them so hard to make. Much research has gone into the making of diamonds and this has led to many successes in the field. These discoveries have led to machines and processes that make diamond making more efficient and reliable....   [tags: Diamond Diamonds Chemistry Essays]
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Investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction - To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction Background Information: Chemical reactions take place all the time at many different rates, some are incredibly fast like an explosion-where you get no time to see what's happening or like rusting which could take years before the iron is completely rusted. The rate of reaction is extremely important because you need to know how long before the end of the session or you may not get results in time. In living organisms it's vital that all the chemical reactions take place at the rates which supply the cells with the things they need exactly when they need them....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3176 words
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What Causes OCD? - What Causes OCD Researchers still are unsure on what causes OCD but their research suggests different brain chemistry and genetics could possibly play a role with those you have this disorder (International OCD Foundation, 2012). The brain chemical serotonin, which is otherwise known as the chemical messenger for the brain, may play a part in the lack of communication between the frontal cortex and the rest of the brain in those affected with OCD (International OCD Foundation, 2012). Research has found that serotonin medications and CBT (cognitive behavior therapy) has helped normalize the circuits in the brain that is involved with OCD in some people (International OCD Foundation, 2012)....   [tags: Chemistry, Genetics, Obssesive Compulsive Disorder]
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Investigation to find out if changes in concentration of acid affect the rate of a chemical reaction - Investigation to find out if changes in concentration of acid affect the rate of a chemical reaction PLANNING – Title – Investigation to find out if changes in concentration of acid affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Introduction – The rate of reaction can be defined as the speed at which a reaction takes place. The rate of reaction tells us how quickly a chemical reaction has happened. There are many things that can affect the rate of reaction, (some of these are shown in figure 1 below.) In this coursework I am going to investigate what effect the change in acid concentration has on a chemical reaction....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2613 words
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How the concentration of an acid affects the rate of reaction on marble chips - How the concentration of an acid affects the rate of reaction on marble chips Background: These different speeds of reaction are referred to as their rates. The rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. Particles have to collide in order to react, and the have to collide hard enough as well. This is called the collision theory. When the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker. If they are moving quicker then they are going to have more collisions....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1986 words
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How concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate - How concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate Chemistry Coursework How Concentration Affects a Reaction Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate. Introduction: This experiment will be carried out by drawing a cross on a piece of paper and mixing hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate together to see if the cross disappears. The concentration of hydrochloric acid would change every reaction to show that concentration effects a reaction....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1294 words
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Carbon Dioxide produced by Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate - Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of carbon dioxide produced by a reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips (calcium carbonate). Chemistry Coursework To investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of carbon dioxide produced by a reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips (calcium carbonate) Planning experimental procedures Aim In this coursework I will be investigating to see how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction with marble chips....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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Investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction - Investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction Chemistry Coursework This experiment is aimed at investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction: The reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium will be used to investigate how different concentrations of the acid affect the rate of reaction. The gas produced from the reaction will be measured and used to display the average rate of reaction. The rate of reaction is a measure of how fast a reaction is going and how long it takes to complete....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1990 words
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An Investigation into the Enthalpies of the Combustion of Alcohols - An Investigation into the Enthalpies of the Combustion of Alcohols ================================================================== Planning My aim for this experiment is to see the energy produced from different alcohols. This investigation involves burning alcohol in the air. ‘GCSE Chemistry’ by B.Earl and L.D.R Wilford says that "alcohols form, another homologous series, with the general formula Cn H2n+1OH ". The alcohol reacts with the oxygen in the air to form the products water and carbon dioxide....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3784 words
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Factors Affecting the Decomposition of Marble Buildings by Acid Rain - Factors Affecting the Decomposition of Marble Buildings by Acid Rain Background Acid Rain: Nitrogen acids and sulphur dioxides come out of tall chimneys and vehicles. These go into the air, and air currents carry the gases away, and they react with water vapour and oxygen. This produces H2SO4 (sulphuric acid) and HNO3 (nitric acid). The acids become part of a cloud, and it falls down to earth, as acid rain or snow. This can end up miles away from the original source. The acid rain removes nutrients from soil, so plants can not get to them, so this eventually kills surrounding die....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1583 words
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The electrolysis of copper sulphate solution and copper electrodes - The electrolysis of copper sulphate solution and copper electrodes Introduction: For my GCSE Chemistry assessment I will be investigating the electrolysis of copper sulphate solution with the copper (ii) plates. Aim: My intention for this observation is to find out how the current has an effect on the mass of copper deposited in the electrolysis of copper sulphate and copper (ii) plates. Safety Precautions: In this investigation I will make sure that everything is as safe as possible and that there are no chances of accidents occurring....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1255 words
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Comparing the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Different Alcohols - Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols Planning What are alcohols. ================== Alcohol is the common family name for the hydrocarbon group alkanols. They are part of a homologous series. At least one of the hydrogen groups in the molecule is replaced by an OH group. GRAPH Propane Propan-2-ol They are all organic compounds. The general formulas for the alcohols are: CnH(2n+1)OH Where n represents a number. The first and simplest member of the alkanols family is methanol....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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The Effect of Catalyst an the Rate Of Reaction - The Effect of Catalyst an the Rate Of Reaction Chemistry Coursework Does The Number of Drops of Catalyst Effect The Rate Of Reaction Candidate Name: Ben Dodds Candidate Number: 7158 School: Oundle School Completion Date: Introduction We are studying the reaction between zinc and sulphuric acid, the reaction is catalysed by copper sulphate and this experiment is to test whether the amount of drops effect the rate of reaction. Word Equation Zinc(s) + Sulphuric acid(aq) à Hydrogen(g) + Zinc Sulphate(aq) Symbol Equation Zn + H2SO4 à H + ZnSO4 This reaction is catalysed by Copper sulphate (CuSO4) Ionic Equation - Cancel Spectator ion (SO42-) Zn + 2H+ à Zn2+ + H2 For this reaction...   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1447 words
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The Reaction Between Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid - Using the syringe method I am going to investigate the reaction between Marble chips and hydrochloric acid by measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed. Chemistry Using the syringe method I am going to investigate the reaction between Marble chips and hydrochloric acid by measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed. This reaction rate will tell me how fast or slow a chemical reaction is and there are four things that could affect this greatly they are- * Concentration-An increase in concentration means there are more particles....   [tags: Chemistry Lab Experiment] 818 words
(2.3 pages)
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An investigation of neutralization reactions - An investigation of neutralization reactions Aim Question : What is the effect of changing the concentration of an alkali, on the volume of acid needed to neutralise it, when acid is added to it. The plan is to use two acids (Hydrochloric & Sulphuric) and one alkali (Sodium Hydroxide). The reason I need to use two acids is; because the question applies to all acids and alkalis and to just use one of each would not enable me to come to a general conclusion. If there had been more time available, ideally I would have preferred to use two alkalis as well as two acids....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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The Rate of Reaction in the Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate - To see how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. Planning; Aim To see how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. Background; All reactions occur because of the particles that make up the reactants will collide, and if they have sufficient energy, react forming or breaking bonds. All four methods of increasing the rate of reaction can be explained in terms of increasing the number of collisions....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Kinetic Production of Isoborneol through the Oxidation-reduction Sequences of Borneol - Through an oxidation-reduction reaction sequence, Borneol is converted to isoborneol. First, borneol is oxidized through a reaction with sodium hypochlorite at 400C to form camphor. When the camphor is then reduced by sodium borohydride, isoborneol is formed. The percent yeild of isoborneol collected was 56.4%, and the melting point range was found to be between 174.2-179.90C. Through analysis of the product through 1H NMR spectroscopy the percent purity is found to be 77.2% pure isoborneol. Introduction Oxidation-reduction reactions can be used to stereochemically control and produce many different organic molecules....   [tags: Chemistry] 635 words
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Percent Composition by Mass of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate - % Composition By Mass of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate Objective: The purpose of this lab was to calculate the percent composition by mass of oxygen in potassium chlorate. Procedure: 1.The mass of the crucible and the cover was measured. 2.KClO3 was added to the crucible. 3.The mass of the crucible, cover and KClO3 was measured. 4.MnO2 was added in the crucible. 5.The mass of the crucible, cover, KClO3 and MnO2 was measured. 6.The Bunsen Burner was lit. 7.The covered crucible was placed over the flame of the Bunsen Burner using a ring stand....   [tags: Chemistry] 359 words
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Equilibrium Constant of an Ester Hydrolysis Reaction - The Equilibrium Constant of an Ester Hydrolysis Reaction Abstract The first step in determining the equilibrium constant of an ester hydrolysis reaction is to prepare five different reaction mixtures with the volume given in Table 1. the bottles have different mixtures of HCl, H2O, an unknown ester, and one bottle has alcohol. We will later determine the equilibrium constant for the reaction between the unknown ester and water to produce an unknown alcohol, and unknown acid....   [tags: Chemistry] 1197 words
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Lithium and Bipolar Disorder - Lithium and Bipolar Disorder INTRODUCTION The drug lithium has been used for a variety of disorders such as gout, diabetes, and epilepsy for over 100 years. It was not until 1949 when John Cade discovered that lithium had a calming effect on guinea pigs that the possibilities of it being used for mania were explored (Paykel, 1992). Since then, lithium has been established as one of the primary treatments for manic depression disorder. In the body of this paper we will explore the chemistry of lithium, the synaptic transmitters involved, the parts of the neuron affected, the inhibitory and excitatory potential changes, the ion channels effected, the physiological changes, the pri...   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Essays]
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Determination of Cu2+ by Titration - Determination of Cu2+ by Titration Introduction: The purpose of this lab is to determine the concentration of copper ions in an unknown solution. Complexometric titration will be used to determine the concentration. A buret will be used to deliver the complexing agent to the unknown solution. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid will be used as the complexing reagent. An indicator, Murexide in our case, will be used to indicate the endpoint of the reaction. Theories and Concepts: The anion of the acid, EDTA4-, will complex to the metal....   [tags: Chemistry] 507 words
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Determination of an Equilibrium Constant - OBJECTIVE: To determine the equilibrium constant for the following reaction: Fe3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) -----> Fe(SCN)2+(aq) BACKGROUND: In this experiment, the equilibrium constant, K, for the above reaction is given by the expression: K = [FeSCN 2+] [Fe 3+][SCN 1-] where the concentrations of the substances are those at equilibrium. The equilibrium concentrations of these substances will be determined and used to determine K....   [tags: Chemistry] 939 words
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