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Organic Chemistry - Chemistry has been called the science of what things are. Its intent is the exploration of the nature of the materials that fabricate our physical environment, why they hold the different properties that depict them, how their atomic structure may be fathomed, and how they may be manipulated and changed. Although organic reactions have been conducted by man since the discovery of fire, the science of Organic chemistry did not develop until the turn of the eighteenth century, mainly in France at first, then in Germany, later on in England....   [tags: Chemistry] 1119 words
(3.2 pages)
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Nuclear Chemistry - ... 6428Ni + 20983Bi  272111Rg + 10n Commercial Radioactive Isotopes: • What are commercial radioisotopes and explain how they are produced Commercial radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) are radioisotopes used for commercial/industrial use such as medicine, e.g. cobalt-60 is used for cancer treatment, created by bombarding cobalt-59 with neutrons as it captures a neutron to become cobalt-60. There are two methods of producing radioisotopes 1) from nuclear reactors 2) in cyclotrons. 1) suitable target nuclei are placed in the reactor and are bombarded with neutrons as reactors contain large sources of neutrons....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Chemistry of Pool Water - ... The results were found as the following: pH 7.5 Free available chlorine 2.5ppm Total available chlorine 3.0ppm Combined chlorine 0.5ppm Hardness 210ppm Total Alkalinity 60ppm Temperature 84F According to the swimming pool regulations section 75, chlorine residual should be maintained greater than 0.5ppm when the pH is between 7.4 to 7.8. The temperature of the water should not be higher than 98F. This swimming pool complies with the regulations. Total alkalinity act as a buffer to resist changes in the pH....   [tags: Chemistry] 918 words
(2.6 pages)
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Surface Chemistry of Silica - ... Low temperature drying under vaccum is another effective technique to remove water. Dehydration of only silanol groups is studied by Curthoys et al. [ ], they find that around 400-450 oC half of the silanol group are removed leaving large siloxane areas which are less likely to rehydrate readily. Young and Bush [ ] identifies that siloxane network is essentially hydrophobic in nature and will excessively slow down rehydration. Discussion: Whenever a silica gel is loaded with active metal under ambient condition it is not possible to have strong surface-metal interaction because of the presence of stagnant single or double aqueous layer....   [tags: Chemistry] 1273 words
(3.6 pages)
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Chemistry - Robert Boyle is considered both the founder of modern chemistry and the greatest English scientist to live during the first thirty years of the existence of the Royal Society. He was not only a chemist and a physicist as we know him to be, but also an avid theologian, a philanthropist, an essayist, and a beginner in medicine. Born in Lismore, Ireland to Richard Boyle, first earl of Cork, and Katherine Fenton, his second wife, Boyle was the youngest son in a family of fourteen. However he was not shortchanged of anything....   [tags: essays research papers] 924 words
(2.6 pages)
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Chemistry - Chemistry Aim: I am trying to find out whether the equation 2CuCO3 ® Cu2O + 2CO2 + ½O2 or the equation CuCO3 ® CuO + CO2 is correct for the decomposition of copper carbonate. Introduction: This is my background research, this information may help me when I am trying to see which equation is correct. I have used the book Chemistry 1 by OCR as my reference. Relative Atomic Mass: This is the mass of an atom of the element relative to the mass of an atom of carbon-12 which has a mass of exactly 12....   [tags: Papers] 750 words
(2.1 pages)
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Chemistry and Synaptic Transmitters - Chemistry and Synaptic Transmitters The most common psychoactive substances can be divided into depressants (i.e., alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics), stimulants (i.e., cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy), opioids (i.e., morphine and heroine), and hallucinogens (i.e., PCP, LSD, cannabis). The brain has different effects to different psychoactive substances. They bind to different receptor types, and can increase or decrease the activity of neurons through several different mechanisms. Consequently, these psychoactive substances have different behavioral effects, different rates of development of tolerance, different withdrawal symptoms, and different short-term and long-term effects (Vaccarino & Rotzinger, 2004)....   [tags: Chemistry Science Scientific Essays]
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Chemistry of LSD and Route of Access - Chemistry of LSD and Route of Access Classification Pharmacologically, the commonly abused hallucinogenic substances may be divided into two major groups. The indolealkylamines, including d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and dimethyltryptamine (DMT) bear a structural resemblance to the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). The phenylethylamines, including mescaline and the phenylisopropylamines such as 2, 5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM, "STP"), are structurally related to dopamine, norepinephrine, and the amphetamines (Gelenberg, Bassuk, Schoonover 1991)....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Science Papers]
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Chemistry Coursework – Fuels - Chemistry coursework – Fuels Planning ======== Aim --- In this investigation I will have to find out which of the alcohol fuels: methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol, is the best. The ‘best’ one will be the one which creates the most energy whilst burning. Introduction and prediction --------------------------- A fuel is a substance burned for heat or power. The best type of fuel is one that: can be transported safely without the worry of it catching on fire, gives out a lot of heat for a certain mass, does not cost very much, lights quickly, burns slowly, is safe to use and does not give off any form of polluting gases....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 948 words
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Chemistry lab report - The goal of the project was to characterize an "unknown" organic acid in order to make a proper identification of the acid, while learning proper techniques for scientific measurement and analysis of error. In order to ensure the most accurate data, a purification was performed by the process of recrystallization. To perform the recrystallization the powder was dissolved in a minimal amount of hot ethanol/H2O solvent that allowed the unknown powder to crystallize properly when cooled. This process allowed for the removal of soluble impurities when suction filtered....   [tags: Chemistry] 912 words
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Green Chemistry - Green Chemistry Many companies all over the world produce chemicals for their products that are harmful to the environment, human health, and to all living species. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for the prevention of chemical pollution to the environment by using chemicals that are benign, or not harmful. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that the mission of Green Chemistry is, “To promote innovative chemical technologies that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and use of chemical products.” Green Chemistry contains any aspects and types of chemical processes that reduce the negative effects of certain chemicals, in a way, using chemistry to fight chemistry....   [tags: essays research papers] 453 words
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The History of Chemistry - The History of Chemistry Chemistry is the science of the composition and structure of materials and of the changes that materials undergo. It is also used in improving standards of living, making it possible for such substances as rubber, nylon, and plastics to be made from completely different materials. New materials and new properties of old materials are always being discovered. Some earlier products discovered from chemical reactions are ceramics, glass, and metals. Dyes and medicines were other early products obtained from natural substances....   [tags: Papers] 1237 words
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Green Chemistry - If We Had Known About Green Chemistry In 1951, How Would Things Be Different Today. Green Chemistry is the making of chemical products that reduces or eliminates the use and production of hazardous substances in the designing, making, and use of chemical products. It involves the designing and re-designing of chemical creation and chemical products to prevent pollution which will therefore solve environmental problems. Green Chemistry is environmentally safe and has very little side effects on human health and the environment....   [tags: essays research papers] 724 words
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For the Love of Chemistry - My Love of Chemistry I am applying to the university to study chemistry because this is the subject that I enjoy most. As with science in general, I find it interesting, often fascinating, and I feel that I could gain much from studying it at university. Last year I spent a fortnight on work experience, and enjoyed both of my two placements. At Birmingham University School of Chemistry, I was able to use some techniques that were new to me at the time - such as GCMS, HPLC, and I.R. spectroscopy....   [tags: College Admissions Essays] 543 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Chemistry of Knowledge - The Chemistry of Knowledge Hippeas thought he had all the answers. “I have never found any man who was my superior in anything,” he boasted. Then he meets Socrates. Though he had made thousands of public speeches about virtue, a dialogue with the wisest of Athenians leads Hippeas to confess that he “cannot even say what [virtue] is” (Hippeas 70). Lesser Hippeas discredits Hippeas but offers little more than a negative definition of knowledge. Meno, Phaedo, and the Republic provide a more comprehensive discussion of the definition, the good and the teaching of knowledge....   [tags: Philosophy Knowledge Knowing Plato Essays]
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Chirality in Chemistry - Chirality in Chemistry Chirality is a term which may be applied to any asymmetric object or molecule. It is the property of non-identity of an object with its mirror image. A chiral compound is one which is not superimposable on its mirror image. This property of molecules has a great importance in the chemistry feild as it provides us with an understanding of the shapes of molecules which then in turn, gives us an insight on the way they react in a particular reaction. Chirality in chemistry is described in many ways but the universal defination of chirality was given by Lord Kelvin in 1904 who defined chirality in his 'Baltimore Lectures' on 'Molecular Dynamics and the Wave Theory of Light' as "I call any geometrical figure, or group of points, chiral, and say it has chirality, if its image in a plane mirror, ideally realized, cannot be brought to coincide with itself." Say if a left hand was transplanted in the place of the right hand....   [tags: Papers] 808 words
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Chemistry and Carbohydrates - The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The chemistry of carbohydrates most closely resembles that of alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone functional groups. As a result, the modern definition of a carbohydrate is that the compounds are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. The chemistry of carbohydrates is complicated by the fact that there is a functional group (alcohol) on almost every carbon. In addition, the carbohydrate may exist in either a straight chain or a ring structure. Ring structures incorporate two additional functional groups: the hemiacetal and acetal....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Chemistry of Biology - Chemistry of Biology There are many parts to every living thing. These basic parts have specialized jobs, which give shape and function of everything in the universe. The basic building block for all mass is the atom. There are many different parts to the atom. The electron is a negatively charged particle that revolves around the nucleus in electron shells. The electron is one of the smallest particles that make up the atom. The counterpart to the electron is the proton. This is a larger positive charged particle....   [tags: Papers] 560 words
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The Chemistry of Drugs - The Chemistry of Drugs Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary psychoactive constituent of Cannibis sativa, and is bound to two cannabinoid receptors: CB1 receptors, located primarily in the brain, and CB2 receptors, located primarily in the periphery (Wiley & Martin 2002). A cannabinoid is defined as a substance that has pharmacological properties that resemble those of delta 9 THC i.e. " a drug that binds to CB1 and /or CB2 receptors in vitro and produces a profile of in vivo effects in the tetrad model" (Wiley 2002)....   [tags: Addictions Marijuana Health Science Essays]
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Chemistry study - CHEMISTRY STUDY NOTES: Module 1: The Chemical Earth 1.1 Construct word and balanced formulae equations of chemical reactions as they are encountered. STEPS: 1. General equation 2. Word equation 3. Formula equation 4. Balanced equation 5. Ionic equation Neutralisation: 1. base + acid  salt + water 2. calcium hydroxide (aq) + hydrochloric acid (aq)  calcium chloride + water 3. _____________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________ 5....   [tags: essays research papers] 1587 words
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Chemistry Investigation - Chemistry Investigation Investigation- To investigate the factors involved in the following reaction: Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) à 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + SO2(aq) + S(s) PLANNING STAGE Variables: The following are variables which will affect my investigation. Temperature, Pressure, Concentration of Na2S2O3, Concentration of HCl, Stirring. The key variables which I'm going to investigate are Concentration of Na2S2O3 and Concentration of HCl. What I'm going to find out: I'm going to find out what effect varying the above stated variables has on the rate at which the reaction between Na2S2O3 and HCl takes place....   [tags: Papers] 2021 words
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Chemistry Experiment - Chemistry Experiment How does the change in the electric current used in the electrolysis of copper sulphate solution affect the mass of copper deposited on the copper electrodes. Aim --- The aim of this experiment is to find out whether the mass of copper deposited on copper electrodes during the electrolysis of copper sulphate solution changes when the current used to electrolyse the solution is increased. Hypothesis ---------- I predict that if the current used to electrolyse the copper sulphate solution is increased, then the mass of copper deposited on the copper cathode will increase....   [tags: Papers] 2189 words
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Chemistry Investigation - Chemistry Investigation An investigation to find the optimum temperature that will produce the maximum amount of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide using the enzyme catalase Introduction Hydrogen peroxide is poisonous to all living things if it builds up in the cells but when it is introduced to the enzyme catalase the react between the two makes water and oxygen as byproducts. There are many factors witch affect the production of oxygen these are listed below. For this experiment the enzyme will be held in potato....   [tags: Papers] 817 words
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Chemistry Experiment - Chemistry Experiment An investigation to find out how the rate of the reaction of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate solution is affected by the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate. I am going to investigate the effect of varying the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution in a reaction with hydrochloric acid. The theory behind this experiment is that 'increasing the concentration can increase the rate of the reaction by increasing the rate of molecular collisions.' [IMAGE]Sodium Thiosulphate + hydrogen acid sodium chloride + sulphur +sulphur dioxide + water Or [IMAGE]Na SO (aq) +2HCL (aq) 2NaCL (aq) + SO (I) + SO (g) Plan ==== Prediction ---------- I predict that the greater the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution the faster the chemical reaction will take place....   [tags: Papers] 957 words
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A General Review of the Chemistry and Utility of Scopolamine - The study of scopolamine involves aspects that are manifold and complex. In this investigation, the pathways for biological and laboratory syntheses were elucidated, in additional to the physical and chemical properties and characteristics of scopolamine. 13C-NMR and H-NMR were generated from collected data, and the isolation and uses of scopolamine were discussed. Introduction Scopolamine's uses have roots in ancient times and have pervaded into the present. This heterocyclic tropane alkaloid is naturally found in Solanaceas plants and can be prepared in the laboratory from various precursors....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Heterocyclic Chemistry: The Knorr Synthesis of Pyrroles - ... Finally, the singlet furthest downfield on the spectrum is characteristic of the hydrogen atom on the nitrogen in the ring. This is the most deshielded as it is directly bonded to the electronegative nitrogen atom, which pulls away electron density. The values for chemical shift correlate very well with literature values found.5 The 13C NMR spectrum can also be explained using Figure 1 to assign each carbon atom a peak. These shifts also correlate very well with the literature data showing that the product found was accurate.5 The peak seen at 11.97 ppm is due to C3’ as this carbon is the most shielded....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Chemistry Report: Experiment on Rates of Reaction - Rates of Reaction CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 In this report I will be suggesting my predictions on what the rates of reaction will be and what the actual rates of reaction are. I will do this by collecting data from experiments and I will show this by putting data into a table. The main aim of my experiment is to find the rate of reaction over time taken and the rate of reaction when the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases or decreases. I will try to make my experiment as accurate as I can....   [tags: chemistry experiment, lab report] 3714 words
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The “Chemistry” of Love in Modern America - ... Egan portrays “chemistry” as an essential part of love and that an instantaneous bond shows the start of a romance. Kipnis, on the other hand, believes there is no “chemistry” involved in love, only work and dedication. Kipnis goes as far as saying love is not real. However, there may be real chemistry in this “chemistry” and this scientific viewpoint is explored by Carey as he seeks to explain love. Egan describes online dating in her piece “Love in the Time of No Time.” Here, “chemistry” is an important analytical tool for the success of a date....   [tags: Relationships] 1475 words
(4.2 pages)
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Chemistry: The Other Foreign Language - Chemistry: The Other Foreign Language How is it that a student can come to my office hours, explain the complicated concepts that a problem set question is based on, even go as far as to intuit the right approach for solving the problem, and yet, is not able to derive the right answer. I am sure many GSIs of general chemistry, or of any introductory physical science class for that matter, have asked themselves this question numerous times throughout a semester. One of the biggest problems facing students in general chemistry classes is their inability to communicate what they actually know about the concepts on an exam or a problem set....   [tags: Graduate Admissions Essays] 599 words
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The Chemistry of the Human Digestive System - ... The whole process starts in the mouth. The mouth contains a watery substance called saliva. Saliva is important to the whole process of food digestion, because not only does it help with sensing taste, but it is also made up of enzymes that break down the fats and starches in food at a molecular level. The esophagus is a tube where swallowed food travels down to the stomach. The stomach is a muscular sac that acts as a blender and mixes food with acid, hydrochloric acid, which breaks down the swallowed chum and flushes the nutrients into the small intestine (Columbia University, 2010)....   [tags: Biology, Esophagus, Stomach] 1357 words
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The Father of Modern-Day Chemistry - ... Years before that, in 1771, he married, Marie Anne Paulze. She helped him with his work by taking notes on his experiments, drawing pictures of the process and results of his experiments, and translating his work into English. He also helped her and her family, especially her father, who had his own tax collecting company, by funding it when needed (Tiner 91). Lavoisier had many other occupations other than being a chemist. He was the director of the gunpowder administration, he was on an agricultural committee and started his own model farm, and he was on a board in 1790 that helped move France closer to converting to the metric system....   [tags: Biography, Lavoisier] 1681 words
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Alchemy -the Predecessor Of Modern Chemistry - There are many ways to examine the subject of alchemy, including alchemy as a source of symbolism, psychology, and mysticism. It has also been an influence on the world view of various writers, artist, and musicians. The focus of this report is alchemy as a pre-chemistry, which gave a new impulse towards the preparation of medicinal remedies and also was a major influence on today's scientific investigations.Alchemy is an ancient art, practiced in the Middle Ages. The fundamental concept of alchemy stemmed from Aristotle's doctrine that all things tend to reach perfection....   [tags: essays research papers] 659 words
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Personal Narrative - Chemistry - Personal Narrative - Chemistry Twelve was a terrifying age for me. It was the year that everything became open to doubt. That year I questioned all subjects from God to gravity. My friends seemed unreliable so I ostracized myself, avoiding all intimacy and any semblance of amiability. I stopped listening in church because my Sunday-School lessons brought up more questions than I was capable of dealing with. Instead I concentrated on the two constants in my life, school and family. Education and love became the two pillars my world was balanced on....   [tags: Personal Narrative 123 essays] 990 words
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The Gender and Chemistry of Suicide - The Gender and Chemistry of Suicide Suicide is a perplexing aspect of human behavior. There are hundreds of possible causes for suicide, but one underlying reason usually prevails. When life seems unbearable and hopelessly dreary, the only apparent way out for some individuals is to end their own painful existence. To other mentally "stable" individuals, suicide can be a question that can never be answered. Suicide is final, and no one comes back to explain why the decision was made to end their own life....   [tags: Papers] 940 words
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The Value of Chemistry in Society - The Value of Chemistry in Society For some time in the modern world, and especially subsequent to the events of September 11th, there has been a wave of concern regarding chemistry and its potential destructive powers. There are many people who hold a fearful attitude towards the chemical industry and its products. This is because the threat of chemical and bio-chemical weapons is very real and is a negative aspect of the business. Also it is often deemed environmentally unfriendly and unsafe for the nearby public....   [tags: Papers] 1239 words
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The Importance of Chemistry in Everyday Life - The Importance of Chemistry in Everyday Life During laboratory technique 1 we learned how to separate insoluble liquids from solids by means of filtration, and how to separate a dissolved solid from a liquid by means of evaporation. I have often asked myself the importance of some of the required classes in my schedule and how they can relate to everyday life. I believe in the saying that if you don’t use it you will lose it, meaning that if the concepts I learn cannot be applied to something that I will remember on a daily basis then the possibilities of me not remembering them at all are greater....   [tags: Papers] 398 words
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The Chemistry of Natural Waters - The Chemistry of Natural Waters Defined in Chemtrek as “The presence of the dissolved divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. . . (which) gives natural waters chemical properties”, hard water has always been a curse to both animals and man 1 . It promotes scale, the buildup of magnesium and calcium to the point where a rock-like substance forms in household and industrial pipes, disrupts natural habitats and reproductive cycles of fresh water fish, and causes many health-related problems in humans 2 ....   [tags: Science Papers]
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Chemistry Study Guide - Chemistry Study Guide Chapter 9- Thermodynamics KE= ½ mv2 w= F∆x w= force × distance ∙ A state function refers to a property of the system that depends only on its present state. ∙Internal Energy = heat + work ∆E = q + w ∙Pressure = Force/Area = P = F/A ∙Work= - external pressure × change in volume w = - P∆V Enthalpy H = E + PV qp = ∆E + P∆V ∆H = qp ∆H = H products – H reactants Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT Energy “heat” = 3/2 R∆T Cv = 3/2 R = “heat” required to change the temp of 1 mol of gas by 1K at constant volume Energy required = “heat” – energy needed - energy needed to do to change the translational the PV work energy Cp = 3/2 + R = 5/2 R = Cv + R = Cp E = 3/2 RT (per mole) ∆E = Cv∆T (per mole) ∆E = nCv∆T “Heat” required = qp = nCp∆T = n (Cv + R) ∆T = nCv∆T + nR∆T (∆E) (PV) ∆H = ∆E + ∆(PV) ∆H = ∆E + ∆(nRT) = ∆E + nR∆T ∆H = nCp∆T Energy released = energy absorbed = m × Cp × ∆T (mass)(specific heat)(change in Temperature) ∆E = q + w = q= qv Bomb calorimeter = ∆H = ∆TCp ∆Hºreaction= ∑∆Hºf (products) - ∑∆Hºf (reactants) Chapter 12 c = λν speed of light (3.0E8 m ) = (wavelength)(frequency) ∆E = nhv or ∆E = hv if n=1 Planck’s constant = h= 6.626 × 10-34 J s Ephoton = hv = hc/λ KEelectron = ½ mv2 = hv – hvo E=mc2 De Broglie λ = h/mv PE = -Z e2/r Z= atomic number R= distance between nucleus Ηψ = Εψ Ψ2 = Probability Density n = energy level l = shape ml = orientation ms = spin Effective nuclear charge = Zeff = Zactual – effect of electron-electron repulsion 1 eV = 1.602 × 10-19 J Ionization Energy X(g) → X+(g) + e- ∙ First Ionization energy increases as we go across a period from left to right due to shielding effects ∙ Shielding occurs because electrons repel each other ∙ First ionization energy decreases as we go down a group....   [tags: essays research papers] 523 words
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Chemistry- Collision Theory - .Experiment for Chemistry Coursework For this investigation I am looking at how the concentration of acid can change the reaction and how I can explain this using collision theory. My Prediction: I predict that the greater amount of concentration the faster the reaction will take place. Therefore, particles in the two compounds will collide faster. Due to my prediction if it is correct, I expect to see the cross on the paper disappear faster. As I already know that increasing one quantity will speed up the reaction as the particles are more likely to collide....   [tags: essays research papers] 1125 words
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Metal Chemistry Experiment - Metal Chemistry Experiment Aim My aim is to plan and carry out an investigation that will enable me to put 5 metals in order of reactivity. The 5 metals are zinc, magnesium, copper, iron and calcium. I am also provided with Copper (II) Sulphate solution. Equipment Zinc, magnesium, copper, iron, calcium, 500 cm3 CuSO4, Polystyrene cup with lid, thermometer, measuring cylinder, stop watch, spatula and safety specs. Safety In the experiment I am using substances that are irritant and harmful....   [tags: Papers] 615 words
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The Chemistry of Painting Cars - The Chemistry of Painting Cars It is necessary to paint cars because the paint protects the steel of the car from corrosion, paint fills and smooths out any imperfections in the steel surface and it provides a durable, decorative, glossy appearance. If rusting continually takes place the car becomes unsafe. When water and oxygen come in contact with the metal of the car surface, several redox reactions happen. The oxygen is reduced to hydroxide ions and iron is oxidized to Fe2+ ions which pass into solution....   [tags: Papers] 1045 words
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Chemistry Case Study - Chemistry Case Study We are the research chemist at Valentines metal extraction company. We have received the following letter: Dear Sirs, We have just discovered a blue mineral which we believe contains a copper compound. Could you please analyse the sample we have enclosed to see if there is any copper in it and see if it can be extracted. Yours Sincerely Freddie Jones I am sure that there is copper in the compound as it is a blue colour. All compounds that are blue or green contain copper in them....   [tags: Papers] 970 words
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Chemistry Investigation on Neutralisation Reaction - Chemistry Investigation on Neutralisation Reaction Plan Neutralisation is the reaction that occurs when an acid has its acidity, that is its hydrogen ions removed by, another chemical containing OH- hydroxide ions. Chemicals that can cancel out an acid in this way are: bases (metal oxides or hydroxides), alkalis (bases that dissolve), metals (e.g. magnesium) or metal carbonates (e.g. marble chips) All of these have a similar way of removing the hydrogen from the acids (they swap it or their metal atoms) but the reactions are quite different....   [tags: Papers] 2294 words
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Chemistry Pilot Experiment - Chemistry Pilot Experiment Aim: The aim was to become accustomed to working with the equipment and to find optimum levels of hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon to produce 60cm of hydrogen, a sensible amount to produce in the real experiment. We also began to investigate the effect of temperature on the rate and the result of the product (hydrogen). It also served to discover any errors in the procedure which could affect the final result and prevent us getting accurate results, thus allowing us to eliminate these errors in the real experiment....   [tags: Papers] 671 words
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Understanding Brain Chemistry - Understanding Brain Chemistry What is it that makes us human. Is it our actions, our sense of purpose, or our ability to keep our mind on as well as perform complex tasks. Is it that we analyze our own mental processes, as well as the processes of others. What exactly is a mental state, and what creates it. Is it a level of attentiveness, an impulse, or an emotional state. What is it that allows us to experience these things. The answers all lie within our brains. The brain, like the rest of the nervous system, is composed by and large of neuralgia (glial cells), nerve cells (neurons), that are immersed in a constant flow of cerebrospinal fluid....   [tags: Papers] 1216 words
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Bioinorganic Coordination Chemistry - Bioinorganic Coordination Chemistry This experiment uses H2TTP made during the last lab and hydrated copper (II) acetate to convert the H2TTP to Cu(TTP). The reaction proceeds by being refluxed for 30 minutes. The final product is a non-iridescent purple color, unlike the vivid, shimmering purple color of the starting H2TTP. Introduction Thin layer chromatography, or TLC, is used as a prerequisite for column chromatography. When performing types of chromatography, like TLC, the polarity of solvents is extremely important....   [tags: Papers] 1030 words
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Chemistry Catalyst Investigation - Chemistry Catalyst Investigation Aim To devise and carry out an investigation into how the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in a solution with distilled water will affect the rate of the catalysed reaction between hydrogen peroxide solution and manganese oxide. I will be studying the chemical catalyst manganese and its reaction with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. The liquid hydrogen peroxide decomposes according to the equation: 2H202 (l) 2H20 (l) + 02 (g) So to measure the rates of reactions we will measure the amount of oxygen given off by the reaction....   [tags: Papers] 3891 words
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chemistry - When I was sixteen years old I was going through teen peer pressure of trying to fit in with the people in high school. Well, one hot summer day I decide to relax and color my own hair without my mother’s permission. I went to B-Plus hair designs and purchased a Dark and Lovely relaxer and Ms. Clairol honey blonde permanent dye. Once I got home from the hair store I sat outside and talked with my mother and neighbor Deatrice. As soon as my mother turned her back to go to the ice cream man I ran in the house and started relaxing my hair with the dark and lovely relaxer....   [tags: essays research papers] 646 words
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chemistry - Question: What is the solubility curve of KNO3 Prediction: Draw a sketch to show the shape of the curve you expect for the solubility of a typical solid dissolving in water at different temperatures. Plot solubility on the y-axis and temperature on the x-axis. Materials: Large test tube Balance Stirring wire Two-hole stopper to fit the test tube, with a thermometer inserted into one hole 400mL beaker graduated cylinder or pipette or burette hot plate or Bunsen burner with ring clamps and wire gauze retort stand and thermometer clamp potassium nitrate, KNO3 distilled water Procedure: 1....   [tags: essays research papers] 460 words
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Chemistry - Thermochemistry Answer Key Assignments 1- 8 Page 1. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Answers to Energy Assignment 1 1. Indicate whether the following scenarios illustrate matter possessing mainly potenial energy, or kinetic energy. a) There are 30 liters of fuel in the tank of a stationary automobile. •Potential energy (chemical energy in fact) b) A large rock is perched at the edge of a 40m cliff. •Potential energy (of the gravitational type) c) Energy is supplied to a beaker of water raising its temperature from 20oC to 40oC •The warming water is increasing its kinetic energy content d) The average speed of a molecule of a gas at room temperature is about 1000 m/s....   [tags: essays research papers] 3215 words
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Chemistry - Lab Report Title: The Concept and Measurement of Density Purpose: To gain an understanding of the physical property of density. To gain skill in measurement of mass and volume, in addition to the construction of graphs and the physical interpretation of slope. Procedure: Part 1 Regular solids 1. Use the metric ruler to determine the length, width, and height of aluminum and iron cubes to the nearest 0.5cm. 2. Use the balance to measure the mass of each item listed above to the nearest 0.1g....   [tags: essays research papers] 520 words
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Chemistry - Chemical Warfare and Its Uses Chemical warfare is the use of natural and man-made toxic substances to incapacitate or kill an enemy. There are many different types of agents used in chemical warfare, some of which are mustard gases, nerve gases, psychotomimetic agents, tear gases, hydrogen cyanide, and arsines. All of which are very poisonous and lethal when exposed to humans in large amounts. Until the 20th century such warfare was primarily limited to starting fires, poisoning wells, distributing smallpox-infected articles, and using smoke to confuse the enemy....   [tags: essays research papers] 675 words
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The Relationships between Chemistry and the End of Somehting - The Relationships between Chemistry and the End of Somehting In Chemistry and The End of Something we are told of different relationships and how they get stronger or in some cases break. Both authors use different literacy techniques that bring out the best and worst of the relationships so that we the readers are succumbed to each twist and turn that the characters themselves experience. Both stories start with very descriptive language before starting to explain the personality and relationships of each character....   [tags: Papers] 699 words
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A Comparison between Chemistry and the End of Something - A Comparison between Chemistry and the End of Something Both in Chemistry and The End of Something authors explain to the readers how relationships can be essential and also how they can just break and end in an instance. Both the authors use various techniques to explain and describe these relationships using different literary techniques. At the beginning of Chemistry, Graham Swift describes a very secure relationship between: the boy, the grandfather and the mother. The boy is very comfortable with this relationship as he enjoys the company of both his mother and grandfather....   [tags: Papers] 436 words
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Chemistry of Psilocybin and Synaptic Transmitters Involved - Chemistry of Psilocybin and Synaptic Transmitters Involved Psilocybin is a type of hallucinogenic mushroom that is ingested by eating the raw fungi. The mushroom can also be made into a tea and drunk. In some of the later studies done on psilocybin, the drug was synthetically produced and then either inhaled or injected by an IV. The drug enters the blood stream and can cross the blood brain barrier because of it relative metabolic similarity to serotonin (Fuller 1985). This means that since psilocybin is chemical resemblance to the neurotransmitter serotonin, psilocybin can trick the protein channels embedded in the membrane of the blood vessel and pass through as if it were serotonin and not a drug....   [tags: Chemical Drugs Drug papers]
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Lasting Love Requires Chemistry and Commitment - ... In the fairy tale, the difference in social status did not thwart love. It would have been highly unlikely that the prince would have chosen Cinderella under normal circumstances. However, fate chose her for him. It all occurred in one magical moment in time. Such a thing is possible apart from the world of make believe. Two people meet away from the ordinary, attraction occurs, romance is sparked and lasting love begins to blossom. Young girls desire to experience love. Many times beginning with the foundational beliefs that have been formed by the fairy tales of childhood....   [tags: Relationships Love Gender Roles]
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Chemistry Experiment on the Reaction of Different Metals When Exposed to Acid - Before the experiment, I wrote down a prediction. My hypothesis towards the experiment was that magnesium would have a bigger reaction with the acids. The reactivity of an element depends on its ability to gain or loose electrons which are used for bonding. The more reactive an element, the more easily it will combine with others. From this information, I know that magnesium has a stronger ability to gain or loose electrons which makes the metal more reactive. I gathered together four different metals and acid compounds which all reacted with one of the elements in the past, for example, Iron Sulphate (FeSO4) contain iron....   [tags: chemistry lab] 856 words
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Chemistry by Graham Swift, Snowdrops by Leslie Norris, and finally - Chemistry by Graham Swift, Snowdrops by Leslie Norris, and finally Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit by Sylvia Platt. How do the authors of the anthology deal with the subject of change. In this essay I am comparing three stories together. These stories are ‘Chemistry by Graham Swift’, ‘Snowdrops by Leslie Norris’, and finally ‘Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit by Sylvia Platt.’ I will investigate how the stories are similar and different, and also how they come across to the reader....   [tags: English Literature] 1401 words
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Statement of Teaching Philosophy, and My Experience Teaching Chemistry in India - ... Goal of teaching My goal as a teacher is not only effectively communicate the fundamental concepts and facts of chemistry, but also the excitement and rewards of making original discoveries in this most fundamental and ubiquitous experimental science. Moreover, I believe that by incorporating some historic discoveries and recent research results and implications would create interest among students. If a teacher makes the material covered in a course interesting, the students are more likely to learn and keep the information presented....   [tags: Philosophy of Education] 1058 words
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The Rhetorical Analysis of “The Chemistry of Wine Making” as an Example of Scientific Writing. - ... It is not ready to be tasted until at least the following May-the origin of the young, and often very harsh, ‘May Wine.’ This time sequence coincides with the typical school year and thus provides an ideal opportunity to have a continuing demonstration. As the year passes and the course progresses, continued reference can be made to the various stages of the wine production…. The suggested demonstration of making wine in the classroom and using it as the central point in many discussions of chemical reactions has not been widely practiced because of local custom, the lack of a near-by vineyard, and the necessary knowledge of just how to make wine....   [tags: Science]
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Comparing Stories Your Shoes versus Flight versus Chemistry - Explore how conflict between two characters is communicated in the short stories studied. Introduction: The short stories I have chosen to focus on for this essay are ‘Flight’ by Doris Lessing and ‘Your Shoes’ by Michele Roberts. I will briefly refer to a third, Graham Swift’s ‘Chemistry’. I will show the character’s desire for control or continuity which conflicts with the choices or sense of independence of another character also, the theme of the generation gap and imagery, dialogue to convey conflict or a sense of understanding by the characters....   [tags: Doris Lessing Michele Roberts Graham Swift] 1833 words
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chemistry (ocean) - What is an iceberg. Why are they blue or green. An iceberg is a large floating block of freshwater ice that has broken off the edge of a glacier and been carried out to sea; about 90% of its mass lies under the water. The bluish streaks of clear, bubble free ice often seen in icebergs results from the refreezing of melt water which fills crevasses formed in the glacier as it creeps over land. The ice is blue because of the natural light scattering characteristics of pure ice. Occasionally airborne dust or dirt eroded from land ends up on the glacier surface eventually forming a noticeably darkened brown or black layer (in any orientation) within the ice of a floating iceberg....   [tags: essays research papers] 872 words
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Physics chemistry - ATHENS, Ohio -- Today's computers and other technological gizmos operate on electronic charges, but researchers predict that a new generation of smaller, faster, more efficient devices could be developed based on another scientific concept -- electronic "spin." The problem, however, is that researchers have found it challenging to control or predict spin – which keeps practical applications out of reach. But physicists in Europe, California and at Ohio University now have found a way to manipulate the spin of an electron with a jolt of voltage from a battery, according to research findings published in the recent issue of the journal Physical Review Letters....   [tags: essays research papers] 517 words
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Chemistry planning and designing lab - Lab# Date: Topic: The reactivity series Problem: Which of the following metals are more reactive with acids – magnesium, zinc, aluminum, iron, lead, and copper. Hypothesis: Aluminum is the most reactive with acids because it occurs in group III. Aim: To perform a comparative test on which metal is the most reactive with acids. Experiment: A comparative test is done using time to find which metal has the fastest reaction Skill: P & D Apparatus : Equipment: 1. 6 beakers 2. Water 3. Measuring cylinder 4....   [tags: essays research papers] 344 words
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Chemistry Sodium Thiosulpahte - Introduction Over the next few weeks I will be doing several attempts of the same experiment that involves the reaction of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, I will be closely watching the reaction and how long in takes for the reactants to react. As yet I have not decided which of the several variables I will be changing. I also aim to take results of the reaction down onto a table, which then will be transferred onto a line graph, which will show us the nature of the reaction. Variables There are five factors which affect the rate of a reaction, according to the collision theory: temperature, concentration (of solution), pressure (in gases), surface are (of solid reactants), and catalysts....   [tags: essays research papers] 1261 words
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Acid/Base Chemistry - ... White grape juice and 8 am 9-6 had lower values (0.42; 0.52), as compared to 7 am 9-5 (0.61), 1 pm 9-4 (0.65) and 8 pm 9-5 (0.65) (Table 1). These results are similar to the total acidity range (0.11 to 0.70 g/100 mL) reported by Kallithraka and others (1997). Results indicate that °Brix depends on degree of fermentation. Results for 7 am 9-5 (4.5), 1 pm 9-4 (5.0), 8 pm 9-5 (5.0) and 8 am 9-6 (10.2) were similar to previously reported Brix range of 4.6 to 11.8 (Wintersteen and others 2005)....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Acid/Base Chemistry - ... In grapes most of them are sugars. (Jayasena 2008). So to judge consumer approval, a Brix/ acid ratio is used to try and get a better grasp for what might be better received. While this process measures soluble solids, pH measures how acidic the product is. The lower the pH and the more tart the final product will taste. This lab comprises several goals. The first section deals with grape juice at differing maturity levels and it’s pH and total acidity of each sample. Next the experimenter works with weak and amino acids, working to get a titration curve for each....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Chemistry of PNA Peptide Nucleic Acid - Abstract For this report I chose to study PNA, or peptide nucleic acid, a biological polymer that was related to the biomedical field of research. I was very interested in this synthesized molecule because of its inimitable and remarkable properties, comparatively to other nucleic acids such as the more commonly known DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, and RNA, or ribonucleic acid. I also wanted to understand its uses and possible uses in everyday life. My main goal was to learn about the structure, significance, and clinical applications of PNA....   [tags: Biology Polymer Medical Biomedical]
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A Stoichiometry Experiment Involving Potassium Chlorate - Introduction In any science that requires computation, specifically in Chemistry, gathering measurements of various physical and chemical properties need to be strictly accurate and precise for it is in this most crucial phase that either make or break the quality and value of science. No matter how good the experiment was performed, without forethought on how to gather and process data correctly, the collected information would not be reliable enough to draw out a conclusion on it. This experiment is divided into two parts, thus having dipartite objectives for the whole experiment....   [tags: Chemistry] 1258 words
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The Health Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water - ... Also discuss the risk of congenital cardiac defects which is caused by using chlorinated water. This research provides good information which is support my hypothesis that chlorinated water has some negative impacts on the human's body. However, this research should be supported by more articles which provide more and specific information related to the effects of chlorinated water. Works Cited Introduction Analytical Chemistry is a branch of chemistry concerned with the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the elements or compounds that consists of the material to be analyzed....   [tags: Chemistry]
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How Water Contributes To The Structure And Behavior Of Biological Molecules - ... However, when two non-polar molecules surrounded by water molecules come together, the water ‘cages’ (Quotes from Biochemistry, 2011 page 9) join together and some water molecules are released, increasing the entropy of the system (Biochemistry, 2011). The ability for non-polar molecules to join together in water is more favorable than with less polar solvents. This is known as the hydrophobic effect, and is one of the most important properties of water, because it allows water to be used as a universal solvent, used in protein folding etc (Wikipedia- hydrophobic effect)....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Reduced Nickel Centers - Reduced nickel centers are important in a number of interesting and useful transformations including catalytic cross coupling of alkyl electrophiles,145,146 evolution of dihydrogen by protonation of nickel hydrides,147 dioxygen activation,148 as well as imparting catalytic activity to several metalloenzymes.149 Our interest in nickel(I) centers derives from our longstanding interest in reductive dehalogenation reactions using transition metal complexes.31,70,76-79,122,150 Nickel-mediated dehalogenation has been observed with factor F430 (Figure 4.1), the nickel-containing prosthetic group associated with methyl-coenzyme M reductase in methanogenic organisms.22,49,151 This cofactor has been shown to dehalogenate a range of substrates in its reduced form and its dehalogenation activity has been modeled experimentally using reduced nickel octaethylisobacteriochlorin anion,123-126,152 variously saturated nickel porphyrins,152,153 and tetraazamacrocyclic nickel complexes.154,155 Figure 4.1....   [tags: Chemistry] 787 words
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Improvements on the Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell for Biological Treatment of Hexavalent Chromium - ... Works Cited BLOWES, D. 2002. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: Tracking Hexavalent Cr in Groundwater. Science, 295, 2024-2025. BRANDHUBER, P., FREY, M., MCGUIRE, M. J., CHAO, P., SEIDEL, C., AMY, G., YOON, J., MCNEILL, L. & BANERJEE, K. 2004. Low-Level Hexavalent Chromium Treatment Options: Bench- Scale Evaluation. American water works association Research Foundation. C.E.P.A. 1999. Public Health Goal for Chromium in Drinking Water. California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment....   [tags: Chemistry ]
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Separation of M-toluic Acid, Acetanilide, and NaCl - Discussion Overall this experiment was a success yielding 98.8% of the initial 1.34g of known compounds. Looking at Table 1 the problem of separation quickly becomes apparent, both M-Toluic Acid and Acetanilide are insoluble in water. This left two non-salts in one mixture, and what solvent to use to separate these two was the most important question as their respective melting points are also very similar. After looking at both compounds and noticing the M-Toluic Acid (Image 2) had an OH group hanging off of it next to a double bond, the H ion on the end would be susceptible to a base....   [tags: Chemistry] 505 words
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Laws of Conservation of Mass and Energy - Introduction In any science that requires computation, specifically in Chemistry, gathering measurements of various physical and chemical properties need to be strictly accurate and precise for it is in this most crucial phase that either make or brake the quality and value of science. No matter how good one may perform the experiment, without forethought on how to gather data correctly, the collected information would not be reliable enough to draw out a conclusion on it. The main objective of this experiment is to explain thoroughly the reacting system which can be done through scientific observation because it is through this vital step that the facts needed to elucidate the reacting system are obtained....   [tags: Chemistry] 1224 words
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The Chemical Dynamics of Cadmium in the Soil Environment - ... As Cd is a toxic metal to humans [3] and animals alike, the environmental and soil contamination with Cd is becoming of great concern in the last few decades. Therefore, it is important for chemists, environmental scientists and engineers to understand the chemistry of Cd interactions in soils to understand its bioavailability. Millions of tonnes of hazardous waste containing CD are generated in the world on yearly basis. Because of the inefficient waste handling techniques and hazardous waste leakage in the past, thousands of sites, especially in industrial world were contaminated by heavy metals, organic compounds and other hazardous materials....   [tags: Chemistry] 979 words
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The Affects of Different Yeast on the Rate of Fermentation - ... This is therefore an anaerobic process. This is the final stage and this is where the final conversion of fructose and glucose into ethanol and improvements to the aromas and final flavours of the wine are produced. (WineDefintions Staff Writer) There is also a third process of fermentation known as malolactic fermentation. This can occur naturally in the wine if there is wild yeast remaining but is often encouraged by winemakers by adding in bacteria to cause this process to occur. In malolactic fermentation, malic acid is converted into lactic acid by a naturally occurring process in which bacteria feeds on the malic acid....   [tags: Chemistry ] 1156 words
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Enaminone Derivatives - ... The NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian Mercury VXR-300 NMR spectrometer.1H NMR (300 MHz) and 13C NMR (75.46 MHz) were run in deuterated chloroform (CDCl3) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO-d6). Chemical shifts were related to that of the solvent. Mass Spectra were recorded on a Shimadzu GCMS-QP1000 EX mass spectrometer at 70 eV. Elemental analyses were carried out at the Microanalytical Centre of Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. All reactions were followed by TLC (Silica gel, Aluminum Sheets 60 F254, Merck)....   [tags: Chemistry ] 2461 words
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Social Relevance Report: Caffeine - ... 2.2 Physical Properties of Caffeine Pure caffeine is odourless, white in colour, looks like fleecy masses, glistening needles or powder and has a bitter taste. Table 1.1 Physical properties of caffeine Physical property Values/ Measurements Boiling point 178 °C (sublimes) Melting point 238 °C Density 1.2 g/cm³ Volatility 0.5% Vapour pressure 101 kPa at 178 °C pH value 6.9 (1% solution) Solubility in water 2.17% Vapour density 6.7 g/m³ Molecular weight 194.19 g/mol (PERGAMON PRESS, 1996) 2.3 How Caffeine Works in the Human Body Caffeine is believed to act on the brain and other organs by blocking adenosine receptors (thereby blocking a pathway that leads to the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP)....   [tags: Chemistry]
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phase diagram - ... However, the temperature probe notices the first changes in temperature, and from the data points collected one can determine when the slope of the graph starts to plane, and therefore determine when crystallization occurs. Furthermore, the ice water bath had a tendency to cause some condensation on the outside of the beaker, which at times made it difficult to see what was happening in the test tube containing the solution. Crystallization starts near the walls, and on the surface of the solution making it impossible to see if there is more than one set of crystallization temperatures for a mixture....   [tags: Chemistry]
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