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Your search returned over 400 essays for "Bacteria"
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Phylogenetic Analysis of Thermophilic Bacteria - We report the community of thermophilic bacteria cultivated from Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring in South Sumatera Indonesia that has temperature 80 – 91 0C and pH 7 – 8. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the 16 sequences of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the community clustered within four distinct genera as Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Brevibacillus, and Bacillus. Two sequences that have 96% similarity with data sequences in GenBank, are potentially as novel species/sub species. Hot spring is a unique area that characterized by high temperature and has a great diversity of natural environments....   [tags: Bacteria, Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring, South Sumatera]
:: 21 Works Cited
1559 words
(4.5 pages)
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Bacteria and Viruses - Bacteria are unicellular organisms called prokaryotes. Viruses are pieces of biomolecules that cannot reproduce independently. Both groups may be pathogens, or may be beneficial- sometimes, the same species or variety may be both, depending on circumstances (Starr, C., and Taggart, R., 2004.) Throughout history, pathogens and more helpful species have played vital roles in the development of humanity as a species and of the human social arrangement. Prokaryotes are divided into eubacteria and archaebacteria....   [tags: Health]
:: 15 Works Cited
1251 words
(3.6 pages)
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The Effects of Music on Bacteria Growth - I. Title The Effects of Music on Bacteria Growth II. Introduction A. Problem The research topic that is being investigated is the effect music will have on bacteria growth. I chose this topic because I am interested in learning about how music can affect bacteria by its sound waves and frequency. I am very interested in learning my topic because it could help lead to conclusions about how to keep different types of bacteria from spreading over the course of time. This could be a useful experiment because if certain types of harmful bacteria don’t grow as quickly when it is exposed to certain types of music, others scientists could figure out a way to prevent harmful types of bacteria from...   [tags: sound, waves, frequency, health, experiment]
:: 8 Works Cited
1499 words
(4.3 pages)
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The Invisible Emperors: The Benefits of Bacteria - The Invisible Emperors talked about some of the misconceptions and new findings about bacteria. It first talked about how we always think that bacteria is bad for us, and how we relate it to sickness. Following this, it mentions how scientists have new tools that allow them to see the DNA of micro-organisms, and how this could someday be a cure for cancer. Among other things, like replicating DNA using bacteria, they mention how it is becoming a very vast and almost limitless field. Following some statistical facts, they talk about how they can now take the DNA and figure out what microbial produced it....   [tags: Informative, Persuasive] 966 words
(2.8 pages)
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An Experiment on Bacteria--Microscopic Organisms - Introduction Bacteria--microscopic organisms present in virtually every habitat on Earth. They are found in water, soil, and even the air we breathe. Bacteria reproduce rapidly and exist in any place conducive to their survival. Although their omnipresence is intimidating from a survival standpoint, the vast majority of bacteria are harmless. Those few that are infectious, disease-causing agents are known as pathogens. Despite their negligible size, these organisms can be lethal when they infect living things....   [tags: antibiotics, bacteriophages]
:: 15 Works Cited
947 words
(2.7 pages)
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Understanding Viruses, Bacteria, and Prions - Many people get viruses, prions, and bacteria confused in multiple ways. However, these are different in several aspects, and once informed about them, people should no longer get them mixed up. For example, the most important and most unique differences between bacteria, prions, and viruses is that bacteria is a living organism, prions are not living organisms, and the debate regarding the living status of viruses has been, and still is, running on without the slightest sight of a resolution. Other pieces of evidence differentiating these is the way they reproduce, the way that they look, as in their shape and size, and the diseases that they cause and can help cure....   [tags: Molecular Expressions Cell Biology]
:: 9 Works Cited
998 words
(2.9 pages)
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Super Bacteria a Dangerous Killer - “Maddy Reimer was just seven weeks old when she lost her battle with MRSA. She and her twin, Luke were born five years ago to parents Beth and Ken Reimer in suburban Chicago. Beth was especially happy to finally have a daughter and it certainly was “Pink World” in their house. Maddy and Luke were premies and spent some time in the neonatal intensive care unit before sent home. One morning Beth Reimer went into the nursery to get Maddy up and she was blue and had trouble breathing, Beth had taken her to her GP the day before and the doctor said she had a cold....   [tags: Antibiotic Resistant, Modern Issues]
:: 4 Works Cited
1486 words
(4.2 pages)
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Description of the Clostridium Difficile Bacteria - Clostridium Difficile (C. difficile) is a bacteria-related gastrointestinal infection that is caused (etiology) by the use of antibiotics therapy or exposure to the C. difficile spores (Swartz, 2013). According to published reports compiled by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), National Safety Network (NHSN), and the Center for Disease Control Prevention (CDC), the rate of CDI have a major financial impact (costs associated with medical management of CDI) on health care institution across the United States....   [tags: gastrointestinal infection, antibiotic therapy]
:: 7 Works Cited
1362 words
(3.9 pages)
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Lesson on Bacteria and Viruses - In the lesson on bacteria and viruses, students will understand the differences between bacteria and viruses and how the spread of them has influenced history. The lesson will integrate math, reading and social studies in order for students to attain the lesson objective. Integration of math will include graphing and analyzing data. Integration of reading and social studies will include reading articles for main ideas and research on how diseases have influenced history. Along with integrating other content areas into the science lesson, it also accommodates different learning styles....   [tags: Lesson Plan] 899 words
(2.6 pages)
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Bacteria strains and DNA extraction - Materials and method Bacteria strains and DNA extraction A collection of standard bacterial strains containing E. amylovora strains and several species of bacteria confirmed by Biochemical, Carbohydrates and Virulence tests for identification of E. amylovora isolates (data not shown) were exploited to estimate the specificity test (table 1). Furthermore, in order to assess the performance of two PCR methods and LAMP assay, about 208 symptomatic plant samples, were used. This collection was obtained from various plant tissues (e.g., flowers, shoots, leaves, fruits, and limbs) belonging to apple, pear and quince cultivars of different regions of Iran, during spring and summer of 2009 and 2010....   [tags: Biology, DNA] 2261 words
(6.5 pages)
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Identification of Bacteria in Wastewater - The analytical techniques for direct detection, enumeration, isolation and identification many different types of pathogenic bacteria in wastewater and accompanying sludge require well-trained technicians. Also it's usually are unpredictable, difficult, hugely expensive, costly and time-consuming procedures. The task would be enormous if one contemplates the monitoring of hundreds of pathogens and parasites on a routine basis in water and wastewater treatment plants, receiving waters, soils and others environmental samples (Lucero-Ramirez, 2000 and Bitton, 2005)....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
:: 1 Works Cited
1014 words
(2.9 pages)
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Our Battle Against Bacteria - Everything today is a product of evolution. From apes to Homo sapiens, humans have evolved from crawling on all fours to walking on two, flat feet. Mammals have grown from tiny rodents to a diverse category of cats, horses, dogs, elephants, dolphins, and many others. However, there wouldn't be evolution without natural selection; it's what sets everything apart and gives unique genes a purpose. Without this, species would not have the chance to adapt and thrive in the various, ever-changing climates of the world....   [tags: Medical Research]
:: 2 Works Cited
2188 words
(6.3 pages)
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Bacteria: Helpful and Harmful - Gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella & E.coli, on the other hand, has lipopolysccharrides (LPS) as its main cell wall constituent activating TLR4. Recognition of these MAMPS with a TLR by SIgA attaching to J-chain-containing Ig polymers and transepithelial transport via M, gives rise to induction of memory cells that change rapidly with the microbial environment (shown in Fig1) [9]. This is in contract to SIgA synergic responses of the immune system where systematic challenge changes memory cells in a slow process....   [tags: health, disease, immune system]
:: 11 Works Cited
1279 words
(3.7 pages)
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Viruses, Bacteria, and Prions - Viruses, bacteria, and prions are all quite different, but they all share one commonality: they can all cause disease in humans. All three are also organic, in one way or another. Despite this, only bacteria are properly alive by most definitions. Bacteria are also the most complex, followed by viruses, and then finally, prions. Bacteria As mentioned in the introduction, bacteria are the most complex organizations that will be covered in this paper. Bacteria were among the first forms of life to evolve on Earth about 3.5 million years ago....   [tags: disease, health, proteins]
:: 7 Works Cited
1195 words
(3.4 pages)
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Bacteria, Viruses and Prions - We’ve all heard of viruses, bacteria and the diseases they can harm us with, but many of us haven’t even heard of prions and most people probably don’t know specific details about viruses or even bacteria for that matter. They’re all very interesting forms of organic matter, though. Bacteria are the only one of the three that are actually considered life forms 100%. The topic of whether or not viruses are to be considered an organism is very debatable in the world of microbiology, because they don’t actually have even a single cell, but they reproduce and have many other things in common with organisms....   [tags: proteins, health, disease]
:: 9 Works Cited
1173 words
(3.4 pages)
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Lactobacillus Johnsonii Bacteria Research - The bacteria, Lactobacillus johnsonii, is known to be a probiotic. Probiotics are defined to be “friendly bacteria” in which have many health aspects in the body. Lactobacillus Johnsonii and many other probiotics are mainly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. L. johnsonii is also a part of the acidophilus complex where it is linked to other Lactobacilli to promote some health aspects such as increased immune function7. An average BIOL 329 student should understand that even though L....   [tags: acidophilus complex,probiotic,biology]
:: 10 Works Cited
894 words
(2.6 pages)
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Bacterial Enumeration of Various Meat Products - The objective of this study was to record a quantitative approximation of how many bacteria are present within various samples of meat products. The bacterial content of each meat sample is vital information in regards to improvements within the meat processing industry, and gives reason for changing or sustaining current feeding and processing conditions. Understanding which methods taken in processing meat that is sold to the public is a matter of public health, as obtaining and maintaining lower levels of bacteria in meats will reduce the likelihood of succumbing to illness from the consumption of such products by the end consumer....   [tags: public health, bacteria, food]
:: 4 Works Cited
1167 words
(3.3 pages)
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Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria - Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria “Antibiotics" is the name given to the group of chemicals, particularly in medicine, that stop or inhibit the growth of, microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and parasites, or that kill the microorganism. They are, however, completely ineffective against viruses. There are two kinds of antibiotics, namely; bactericides, which interfere with the cell wall or contents of the bacteria, thereby killing it, and bacteriostatics, which prevent the bacteria from reproducing....   [tags: Antibiotics, Chemicals, Medicine]
:: 5 Works Cited
1122 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Differences Between Viruses, Bacteria and Prions - I am writing this research paper on the differences and similarities between bacteria, viruses, and prions. In this paper I will define each of the subjects that I am comparing and tell and show you how they are different and how they are similar. I will also tell you about their structure, how they reproduce, and a disease that is caused by each of them. I will first start with defining all three subjects. Bacteria are known as large groups of unicellular microorganism that have cell walls but lack organelles, a nucleus, and bacteria are also prokaryotic....   [tags: dna, rna, cells, living hosts, binary fission]
:: 11 Works Cited
1093 words
(3.1 pages)
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Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria - There seems to be an ongoing battle between the evolution of bacteria and modern medicine. This has become a serious problem in hospitals as bacterial resistant infections continue to be on the rise despite the practice of standard precautions that treat all patients as if they have an infectious disease. One of the leading public health threats today is meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA. With all of the advancements in medicine, it is hard to believe that we do not have the ability to manufacture new antibiotics that would target these resistive organisms....   [tags: medicine, antibiotics, infection, agriculture, EU]
:: 7 Works Cited
1383 words
(4 pages)
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Applying Staining Techniques to View and Identify Bacteria - Abstract The main objective of this lab was to identify different bacteria by simple, negative, and gram staining. To view each bacteria cell, the bacteria was transferred aseptically to a slide, and they were then viewed by using oil immersion, by a light microscope. From this lab, it was determined that E. coli and B. megaterium are gram negative and B. subtilis and S. Marcesans are gram positive. Introduction The purpose of this lab was to view the different characteristics of bacteria by applying various staining techniques....   [tags: Bacterial staining methods] 688 words
(2 pages)
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Asexual Reproduction: Spore Forming Bacteria - Spore forming bacteria Introduction The spore formation is kind of asexual reproduction which happens when the environmental conditions around the Bactria become not suitable for it and for protection too. Spores all the time haploid and unicellular and are generated by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under convenient conditions the spore can use mitotic division to promote into a new organism, which produce a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes....   [tags: biology, endospores, bacillus]
:: 4 Works Cited
1259 words
(3.6 pages)
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Staphylococcus Aureus and Other Infectious Bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus also known as the staph infection is a group of bacteria that can cause a number of diseases as a result of infections of various tissues of the body. (Stoppler, 2014) S. aureus has long been recognized as one of the most important bacteria that cause disease in humans. It is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections such as abscesses (boils), furuncles, and cellulitis. Although most staph infections are not serious, S. aureus can cause serious infections such as bloodstream infections, pneumonia, or bone and joint infections....   [tags: health, streptococcus, prevention]
:: 9 Works Cited
1173 words
(3.4 pages)
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The Bacteria Clostridium Botulinum and Botulism Condition - Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by toxins from bacteria called Clostridium botulinum (Botulism, 2012). Botulinum neurotoxins or, as abbreviated BoNTs, are some of the most extreme and dangerous substances that are known to the human population. There are 3 forms of botulism which include infant botulism, food borne botulism and wound botulism (Botulism, 2012). This specific genus of Clostridium causes “flaccid muscle paralysis by blocking acetylcholine release at nerve muscle junctions through a specific and exclusive endopeptidase activity against SNARE proteins of presynaptic exocytosis machinery” (Kukreja & Singh, 2005)....   [tags: neurotoxins, celebrity, serotypes]
:: 5 Works Cited
910 words
(2.6 pages)
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Group B Streptococcus Bacteria Test - It is not unusual for some healthy women to harbor Group B streptococcus bacteria in their rectum and vagina. These microorganisms do not usually cause disease when few in number, but when they grow in number and colonize these areas, bacterial infection can become severe. A woman who is pregnant and tests positive for Group B strep or GBS may pass the bacteria to her baby during childbirth. GBS affects one out of 2,000 newborns in the US although not all babies born to GBS-positive mothers become ill....   [tags: women, vagina, microorganism]
:: 1 Works Cited
961 words
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Why Dieses-Causing Bacteria are Resistant to Antibiotics and what can the Medical Profession do About This - What is resistance. Resistance is the ability to not be affected or damaged by a certain thing. It is known for the bacterial resistance to antibiotics in the medical fields. What are bacteria. Bacteria are singled cell micro-organisms. Many of them are not harmful, some are beneficial to us but there are also dieses-causing bacteria. They are found all over the human body, inside and out. They are not found in the blood and the spinal fluid. Infections are usually seen by the symptoms that the patient produces from the dieses-causing bacteria....   [tags: bacterial resistance, antibiotics, infections]
:: 1 Works Cited
999 words
(2.9 pages)
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The Evolution of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria - The Evolution of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Since antibiotics, such as penicillin, became widely available in the 1940s, they have been called miracle drugs. They have been able to eliminate bacteria without significantly harming the other cells of the host. Now with each passing year, bacteria that are immune to antibiotics have become more and more common. This turn of events presents us with an alarming problem. Strains of bacteria that are resistant to all prescribed antibiotics are beginning to appear....   [tags: Papers] 1427 words
(4.1 pages)
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Isolation of a Urea Degrading Bacteria - Isolation of a Urea Degrading Bacteria Introduction Urea was the first organic chemical to be synthetically produced1, previously it was thought that only living creatures could produce organic compounds Urea is naturally produced by the kidneys as waste from the degradation of amino acids. It is because of this that urea is commonly found in soils and is a useful nutrient source for bacteria that are able to utilise it, such as, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumonia, all species of Proteus and Micrococcus luteus....   [tags: Biology]
:: 5 Works Cited
795 words
(2.3 pages)
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Bacteria - Describe the structure and life processes of bacteria. Bacterial cells, like plant cells, are surrounded by a cell wall. However, bacterial cell walls are made up of polysaccharide chains linked to amino acids, while plant cell walls are made up of cellulose, which contains no amino acids. Many bacteria secrete a slimy capsule around the outside of the cell wall. The capsule provides additional protection for the cell. Many of the bacteria that cause diseases in animals are surrounded by a capsule....   [tags: essays research papers] 611 words
(1.7 pages)
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Bacteria - Bacteria Bacteria are the most common and ancient microorganisms on earth. Most bacteria are microscopic, measuring 1 micron in length. However, colonies of bacteria grown in a laboratory petri dish can be seen with the unaided eye. There are many divisions and classifications of bacteria that assist in identifying them. The first two types of bacteria are archaebacteria and eubacteria. Both groups have common ancestors dating to more than 3 billion years ago. Archaebacteria live in environments where, because of the high temperature, no other life can grow....   [tags: Science Chemistry Biology Experiment Essays]
:: 3 Works Cited
1313 words
(3.8 pages)
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How Does Music Affect Bacteria Growth? - My experiment is going to be how music affects bacteria growth. However because bacteria is “deaf” and actually cannot hear music it can only hear the vibrations emitted from the music. I am going to test how different genera vibrations from rock, classical, pop, and techno music affect the growth. However, before we see why music affects bacteria you would need to know how bacteria grows normally. For bacteria to grow you need four components: food, temperature, moisture, ph. level, oxygen and time....   [tags: vibration, temperature, oxygen, ultrasound]
:: 3 Works Cited
1290 words
(3.7 pages)
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Lab Experiment: The Effectiveness of Different Antibiotics on Bacteria - Objectives: 1. To investigate the effect of different antibiotics on bacteria 2. To develop problem solving and experimental skills, for example, information is accurately processed and presented, experimental procedures are planned, designed and evaluated properly, producing valid results, recording results, and valid conclusion is drawn. 3. To develop the aseptic techniques for preparing agar plates and bacterial culture. Problem statement Do antibiotics have the same effect on killing different types of bacteria....   [tags: microbiology, lab report] 3110 words
(8.9 pages)
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Gut Bacteria: How Can It Affect Weight and Health? - Enteric bacteria are major microorganisms that colonise human’s gastrointestinal tract- a long tube containing specialised sections such as the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, intestines, rectum and the anus. Gut bacteria make up approximately 95 percent of the total cells in the body, with the colon containing the densest microbial communities (Gibson, Rastall and Fuller 2008: 52). Human gastrointestinal tract consists of 100 different prokaryotic species, and with two bacterial species, firmicutes and bacteroicidetes dominating them (Brooker et al....   [tags: gastrointestinal tract, bacterium, gut flora]
:: 12 Works Cited
1073 words
(3.1 pages)
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Bacteria, Viruses, and Prions: Cell Structure and Reproduction - Commonly known for causing diseases in humans, bacteria are also a valuable key in a healthy lifestyle and other aspects of life. From manufacturing Vitamin K to giving yogurt its tangy taste, bacteria come in many shapes, sizes and forms. Bacteria lack a well-defined nuclei and membrane-bound organelles, and with chromosomes containing a single closed circle of DNA, they are categorized as Prokaryotes. Each bacterial cell typically has the same structures that have a certain function within the cell....   [tags: biology, biochemestry]
:: 10 Works Cited
860 words
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Bioremediation with the Use of Genetically Engineered Bacteria, Serratia Marcescens - Bioremediation: The word “remediate” means to solve a problem, so the word “bioremediation” refers to the use of biological organisms to solve an environmental problem. Bacteria, fungi, protists and other microorganisms in a non-polluted environment are constantly breaking down organic matter, and when the soil is polluted, some of the organisms may die, but others will still be able to break down the pollutants. Bioremediation provides organisms that can consume the pollutants with fertilizer, oxygen, and other conditions to encourage the rapid growth of these organisms....   [tags: envrionment problem, organisms]
:: 4 Works Cited
1161 words
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Bacteria Host in Squid Samples - Nyholm and Mcfall-Ngai. 1998. Sampling the Light-Organ Microenvironment of Euprymna scolopes: Description of a Population of Host Cells in Association with the Bacterial Symbiont Vibrio fisceri. Biol. Bull. 195: 89-97 Upon collecting a species of squid, Euprymna scolopes, from the coast of Oahu, Hawaii, it was revealed that a light organ contained near its mandible is host to a bioluminescent bacteria, Vibrio fisceri. These light-organ crypts have lateral pores that expel a dense matrix consisting of live and dead host cells with the bacterial cells often adhered to their surface, in response to exposure to a light cue, which in its natural seawater habitat would occur every day at da...   [tags: essays research papers] 389 words
(1.1 pages)
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Features of Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi - Features of Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi Infectious diseases are diseases or illnesses (caused by bacteria or viruses) that can be transmitted from person to person or from organism to organism by touch or the exchange of blood or saliva and also could be passed through air molecules. For instance, the common cold and AID's are infectious diseases, whereas illnesses such as diabetes and gout are non-infectious diseases. Simple Hygiene: Because many cold viruses are spread by contact with infected secretions, frequently washing the hands, carefully disposing of used tissues, and cleaning items and surfaces can help to reduce their spread....   [tags: Papers] 1918 words
(5.5 pages)
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Clostridium Botulinum Bacteria: Main Types of Botulism - Introduction: This research analysis places significant emphasis on the rare, but potentially life-threatening bacteria known as clostridium botulinum, which is a disease that is caused by the neurotoxin type A, B, E, or F type (Davis, 2012). The neurotoxin is produced by bacteria called clostridium botulinum which rapidly paralyzes muscles within the body. The toxin produces skeletal muscle paralysis by producing a presynaptic blockade to the release of acetylcholine (Cherington, 1998, p. 701)....   [tags: neurotoxin, prevention, contamined food]
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1646 words
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Evolution of Yersinia Pestis, the Bacteria that Causes the Bubonic Plague - Introduction Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes the bubonic plague, in which one of its well-known symptoms is swollen lymph nodes called buboes to appear on the body (Perry and Fetherson 1999). Yersinia pestis evolved from clones of Y. pseudotuberculosis within the last 1,500 to 20,000 years, where it evolved separate times in China (Achtman et al. 1999). Yersinia pestis is spread through fleas feeding on infected and uninfected blood as well as open wound contact with infected blood (Titball et al....   [tags: Microbiology, Health]
:: 11 Works Cited
1303 words
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Living Hybrid Materials: Escherichia Coli bacteria - Existing in nature ever since mammals first had teeth and bones, and crabs first carried their shells around on their backs, living hybrid materials have a long history on planet Earth. New innovations in science and technology seek to purposefully mix living materials and nonliving materials, and create objects and substances that are both. In a recent study at MIT, scientists found E. coli to be useful in the production of a biofilm circuit board; moreover, hybrid materials will someday help humans in the areas of architecture, health, and electronics....   [tags: hybrid materials, coli cells, e. coli]
:: 10 Works Cited
1392 words
(4 pages)
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Mutation of Bacteria from Virus Sensitivity to Virus Resistance - The usage of antifungal agent 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) as a treatment of cryptococcal diseases has been ineffective due to the development of resistance during the treatment [1]. Block et al. conducted fluctuation analysis in order to characterise the nature of 5-FC resistance to see if the resistance was a result of interaction between yeast cells and 5-FC or due to spontaneous mutation. The procedure was carried out in accordance to the experiment performed by Luria and Delbruck [2]. Initially, the minimal concentration of the 5-FC and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) that inhibited the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans or simply minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined....   [tags: antifungal agent, fluorocytosine, treatment]
:: 2 Works Cited
537 words
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Nematode and Bacteria Symbiosis - "Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus bacteria colonize the intestines of the infective soil-dwelling stage of entomophagous nematodes, Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. These nematodes infect susceptible insect larvae and release the bacteria into the insect blood. The bacteria kill the insect larvae and convert the cadaver into a food source suitable for nematode growth and development. After several rounds of reproduction the nematodes are recolonized by the bacteria before emerging from the insect cadaver into the soil to search for a new host....   [tags: Mutualism Pathogenesis Evolutionary Biology]
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1217 words
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Extraction by Bacteria Leaching - Extraction by Bacteria Leaching Copper and Gold can be extracted from their ores by using bacteria leaching. A long time ago, engineers investigating the possibility of reopening the Roman workings noticed a blue-green liquid running from the mountains of excavated rock. When the fluid ran across old iron implements, it left a brown film. When scraped off, the film was pure copper. In 1947, US microbiologists discovered that the transformation was in fact the work of microorganisms....   [tags: Papers] 860 words
(2.5 pages)
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Bacteria and Foodborne Illness - Foodborne illness results from eating food contaminated with bacteria (or their toxins) or other pathogens such as parasites or viruses. The illnesses range from upset stomach to more serious symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and dehydration. Although most foodborne infections are undiagnosed and unreported, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that every year about 76 million people in the United States become ill from pathogens in food. Of these, about 5,000 die....   [tags: contaminated food] 1756 words
(5 pages)
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Bacteria Facts - Bacteria Facts Bacteria is something we are all reminded of on a daily basis by merely switching on our televisions where we are bombarded with advertisements for both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ bacteria contrary to the view of the past when only so-called ‘bad’ bacteria was ever talked about, so what has changed. This essay will address the facts about bacteria including their ideal conditions for growth as well as looking at specific examples of how they can be both helpful and harmful to humans....   [tags: Papers] 1503 words
(4.3 pages)
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Bacterial Meningitis - There are three different types of meningitis; viral, fungal, and bacterial meningitis. Although not as common as viral meningitis, bacterial meningitis is more likely to leave individuals with permanent disabilities. In children, disabilities can range from deafness, hearing loss, and cerebral palsy. the most common after effects. And in adults, septic shock, brain swelling, and hydrocephalus are most likely to occur if the disease advances without treatment within a sufficient time period. The three main bacteria responsible for bacterial meningitis are streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenza type B (Hib), and neisseria meningitidis....   [tags: Medicine Bacteria]
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1605 words
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Identifying Two Unknown Species of Bacteria - Identifying Two Unknown Species of Bacteria Materials and Methods Week 1, Day 1 (10 November 2000) The first day an unknown sample was assigned to each group of students. The first test applied was a gram stain to test for gram positive or gram-negative bacteria. The morphology of the two types of bacteria was viewed under the microscope and recorded. Then the sample was put on agar plates using the quadrant streak method for isolation. There were three agar plates; one was incubated at room temperature, the second at 30 degrees Celsius, and the third at 37 degrees Celsius....   [tags: Escherichia Coli Staphylococcus Biology Essays]
:: 2 Works Cited
1333 words
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Yersinia pestis - Bacteria Virulence and Symptoms - Yersinia pestis - Bacteria Virulence and Symptoms Yersinia pestis appeared fairly early in history and is still prevailing today. Humans have come in contact with this bacterium in massive outbreaks throughout history, including the most famous Black Death of the 14th century. From the lack of knowledge of the bacteria and its ability to infect populations rapidly, the human race has suffered immensely. The bacterium is specialized with specific plasmids, Yersinia outer proteins as well as other toxins that it uses to disrupt the body's immune response....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease Plague]
:: 1 Works Cited
1440 words
(4.1 pages)
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Necrotizing Fasciitis (flesh eating bacteria) - Necrotizing Fasciitis (flesh eating bacteria ) from an essay by Katrina Tram Duong, edited by S.N. Carson M.D. Necrotizing fasciitis, known commonly known as "flesh eating bacteria [infection]", occurs in a wide range of people 1. It occurs in the elderly, middle aged and younger patients. It occurs in athletes and debilitated individuals. It can occur in drug abusers with self inflicted wounds and healthy individuals with incidental injuries. It may occur in those with metabolic disorders such as diabetes and those with suppressed immune systems....   [tags: essays research papers]
:: 4 Works Cited
1651 words
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Sample Questions for a Biology Exam or Essay Topics: Viruses and Bacteria - ... The animal with the reservoir acts as a continual source for the virus for other host species. Some examples of this reservoir virus that causes disease in humans include the avian influenza and West Nile encephalitis which is carried in wild birds. Rodents carry viruses that causes Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, mosquitoes carry yellow fever and raccoons carry rabies. 4. Describe the general viral replication cycle.p326 The general viral replication is like a car assembly factor it starts with attachments which bind virus cell surface receptor....   [tags: Organisms, Structure] 799 words
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The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs - The Thermus Aquaticus project’s purpose is to identify a species of thermophilic bacteria found in a local hot spring, Vulcan Hot Springs, through genetic sequencing and analysis. The polymerase gene in other Thermus bacterias has proven useful in genetic reactions. The Vulcan bacteria grows at a higher temperature than other thermophilic bacterias, giving it the potential to have a more effective polymerase gene than what is currently available. My own research has been focused on designing effective primers for the polymerase gene in the bacteria....   [tags: Genetics]
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Urinary Tract Infection: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment - Introduction The urinary tract makes and stores urine, which is one of the waste products of the body. Urine is made in the kidneys and travels down the ureters to the bladder. The urethra in a male is about 8 inches (20cm) long and opens at the end of the penis. The urethra provides an exit for urine as well as semen during ejaculation (Urology Health, 2014). Normal urine is sterile and contains no bacteria. However, bacteria may get into the urine from the urethra and travel into the bladder, causing an infection....   [tags: pyelonephritis, bacteria]
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2041 words
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Isolation of Fungal Strains: An Experimental Study - ... It is widely used in the traditional medicinal practice of peoples living in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand to treat ailments like fever, jaundice, hyperglycemia, wounds, intestinal worms and skin infections. Moreover, T. crispa is also used to treat tooth and stomach ache, coughs, asthma and pleurisy. In several studies, T. crispa has been demonstrated to possess antibacterial, antifilarial, antipyretic, antihyperglycaemic antiproliferative, and antimalarial activities and also has a mild cardiotonic effects (Al-alusi et al....   [tags: Plants, Bacteria] 1060 words
(3 pages)
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Aseptic Transfer Techniques, Culture Characteristics and Colony Counting of Bacteria - Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to be able to aseptically transfer media into a test tube, move Serratia marcescens cells from a broth culture, move S.m. cells from a slant, understand growth patterns of Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis and Mycobacterium smegmatis in broth and agar slants and count colonies of Escherichia coli on plates and from that determine the number of cells present on each plate. Materials and Methods: Please refer to handout. 3.0mL of liquid media was placed in the three sterile test tubes, two that contained S.m....   [tags: Science Experiment] 914 words
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The Identification of Bacteria Through Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry, or MALDI-MS, is considered a laser-based soft ionization method. 7 MALDI allows the direct analysis of large, non-volatile and thermally unstable compounds in ionic gaseous states. 2,3,7 MALDI is modified form of laser desorption (LD) ionization. The difference between MALDI and LD is the addition of the matrix.2 A matrix is chosen based off of its ability to isolate the analyte from itself and its adsorption properties. Sample preparation consists of a solution of matrix, analyte and solvent....   [tags: sample, whole cells, experiment]
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Antibacterial Soap Causes Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria -      The next time you are in your kitchen, look at the area where you prepare food.  Do you wonder how many disease-causing bacteria could be living there?  There most certainly are some.  But don't let that image drive you to throw down this magazine and run for the antibacterial cleanser under the sink.  Right now it is pretty tough for those bacteria to make it into your body and begin wreaking havoc, because there just aren't enough of them right there in your kitchen.  But TV commercials for antibacterial cleansers would have you believe otherwise.  Those cheery soccer moms want you to be so afraid of the bacteria living in your kitchen that you make sure to buy their product-the one...   [tags: Expository Cause Effect Essays]
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The Never-Ending War Against Bacteria and Viruses - The enemy is everywhere. Trillions of them surround you, invisible, intangible, their mere existence quite capable of killing you. You have defenses, but they can avoid or destroy those defenses and work their will upon your body. From bacteria and viruses, there is no escape. Throughout human history, we have been at war with them… the front lines our very bodies. It is a war we are not winning. We have developed few effective tactics against them. Our oldest tactic, sterilization, was first used circa 3000 B.C....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Preventing Bacteria from Creating Resistance to Drugs - Preventing Bacteria from Creating Resistance to Drugs In 1943, the antibiotic era began when penicillin, a member of the [beta]-lacam family of drugs, was developed. Since then, tens of thousands of derivatives of penicillin have been developed, but only seventeen antibiotics of this family are currently marketed in the United States. Penicillin and its derivatives work by preventing certain bacteria from building strong cell walls that keep their shape and integrity. Without well-integrated cell walls, "bacterial trying to grow in the presence of penicillin puff up and die."1 Almost all bacterial diseases have evolved some level of resistance....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Investigating the Effect ofTeeth Cleaning Agents on the Growth of Bacteria - Investigating the Effect of Different Teeth Cleaning Agents on the Growth of Bacteria On account of the price and variety of tooth cleaning agents available on the market, an investigation was conducted into the effect of different tooth cleaning agents containing different ingredients on the growth of teeth bacteria. The tooth cleaning agents tested were Colgate total antibacterial toothpaste with Triclosan (3 pence/ml), Boots non fluoride toothpaste (less than a penny/ml), Dental care baking soda toothpaste (2 pence/ml) and a twig from a natural toothbrush tree Salvadora persica commonly known as ‘Muswak’ (30 pence for two weeks supply, toothbrush not required as twig carries out the fun...   [tags: Biology] 1832 words
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Flesh-eating Bacteria - Some call it “horror'; and some call it “the super germ';, but now, our always known “regular'; bacteria, those one-celled creatures once considered under control with antibiotics, have invaded our hospitals and headlines with a vengeance. The vengeance used against us is caused by an existing organism called necrotizing fasciitis, the so-called flesh-eating bacteria, caused by Group A streptococcus. What this organism does is progressively destroy the human body tissue all the way to the bone....   [tags: essays research papers] 1746 words
(5 pages)
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The History, Function, and Resistance Associated with Vancomycin, a Glycopeptide Antibiotic - Ever since the discovery of antibiotics in the 1920’s, treating bacterial infections in humans, and animals alike, has emerged as a revolutionary possibility. Antibiotics are drugs that are naturally produced by bacteria or fungus to defend against other bacteria via death or inhibiting reproduction (1). Since their detection, antibiotics have been diversified into many different forms and classes which are arranged by mode of action. Glycopeptides are a class of antibiotics which are composed of glycolsylated cyclic or polycyclic nonribosomal peptides that inhibit cell wall synthesis in susceptible bacteria (2)....   [tags: bacteria, toxicity and otoxicity, symptoms]
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The Black Death: Bubonic Plague’s Worst Disaster - The Black Death: Bubonic Plague’s Worst Disaster It has been called “the greatest catastrophe ever.” That statement was made in reference to the Black Death which was one of many bubonic plague epidemics. Throughout history, the bubonic plague proved itself to be an extremely lethal disease. Outbreaks of the bubonic plague were devastating because of the stunning number of deaths in each of the populations it reached. The Black Death was the worst epidemic and disaster of the bubonic plague in all of history....   [tags: plague, bacteria, victims]
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Cholera Symptoms, Causes, Vaccine, Treatment and History - Produced by the bacteria, vibrio cholerae that creates a toxin that affects the absorption of water in the small intestine, Cholera is an infectious disease. The majority of the bacteria is wiped out by gastric acid when ingested, while the surviving bacteria settle in the small intestine and begin making the toxin that produces the symptoms of Cholera. The toxin created by the bacteria, Vibrio Cholerae, is a exotoxin. Vibrio Cholerae is a member of the Vibrionaceae family of curved gram-negative rods....   [tags: health, bacteria, vibrio cholerae]
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Oral Health: The Disease of The Gum - There are many diseases that affect the body and make the body incompetent. However, some of these diseases become chronic and so common among people. Among these is the disease of the GUM. In fact, oral health is an important component of health in general. Good oral health enables the individual to speak, eat and socialize without any embarrassment and discomfort. Oral diseases cause untold pain and suffering that disrupt daily activities and therefore present an economic burden on the individual and the society....   [tags: gingivitis bacteria, toxins, chemicals]
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The Emergence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - Human civilizations have existed for thousands of years but with the existence of these civilizations diseases were right there with them. Even before great civilizations emerged, such as the Greeks and Romans, diseases have been around preying on animals and villages. When a civilization emerges it means that people have come together and built a society. These societies allow for diseases to spread easily because of unsanitary conditions and people being in close contact with each other on a normal basis....   [tags: diseases, bacteria, antibiotics, mutations]
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The Discovery and Development of Penicilin - Penicillin has been considered a miracle drug by doctors ever since it was first used in 1942. It could cure nearly every disease that it was prescribed for and was the cause of a major turning point in World War 2. Yet, for the past forty years there have been bacteria strains discovered that can withstand the power of Penicillin. The mass production and misuse of penicillin has caused the miracle drug to become ineffective towards serious infections. Penicillin is a form of anti-biotic. The first antibiotic was discovered by Paul Vuillemin, who studied the effects of Antibiosis or the process in which an organism takes another’s life in order to maintain its own life (Porter 455)....   [tags: miracle drug, bacteria, antibiotic]
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The Cause of The Bubonic Plague - A germ identified as Yersinia pestis, also known as the plague bacteria, causes the bubonic plague. Yersinia pestis are Gram-negative bacteria found in some parts of the world, mainly Africa, Asia and South America. The bacteria caused around 1000 to 3000 plague cases each year, however only about 10 to 20 of these cases are in the United States. Yersinia pestis is found most commonly in rats, however it is occasionally found in other animals. Some of the other animals known to carry the bacteria are: - Mice - Fleas - Lice - Prairie dogs - Cats - Dogs - Squirrels - Wood rats - And Chipmunks....   [tags: yops, yersinia pestis, bacteria]
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Photosynthesis: The Emergence and Early Evolution of Biological Carbon-Fixation. - Introduction As the world’s population increases, availing adequate food for the population will be a challenge due to need to improve crop cultivation, production of fertilizer, and agricultural yields (Berg et al, 2010). However, carbon fixation is an essential limitation that affects crop yields because plants rely on converting carbon (IV) oxide into biologically functional molecules (Berg et al, 2010). Through various carbon fixation pathways, green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are able to convert inorganic carbon into organic compounds useful to all living organisms on earth (Aresta and Wiley, 2010)....   [tags: green plants, bacteria]
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Symtomps and Causes of Bacillus Anthracis - Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) is a bacterium that infects organisms through sporulation. Bacillus anthracis can be aerobic (needs oxygen) or, facultative anaerobic (does not require oxygen). It is also a gram positive bacterium that can be found in the soil of humid and damp climates (Hicks, 2012). The bacterium is part of the species Bacillus Cereus (Koehler, 2009). It is known to infect life forms four different ways. Infection can be caused through digestion, eating food that is contaminated with the bacteria....   [tags: anthrax, bacteria, lethal toxins]
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Does Hand Sanitizer Actually Kill 99.9 Percent of Germs? - Does hand sanitizer actually kill 99.9 percent of germs. Well throughout this paper you will find out. Throughout this paper you will also find out what is in hand sanitizer, how it is made, how it kills germs, and the history of it. Hand sanitizer is a very important tool to many people who work in the medical field, and in an office. Without it, there would be many more viruses and germs around and that would not be good. First, hand sanitizer is made up of key ingredients. There is an active ingredient, which is the ingredient that kills the germs....   [tags: ingredients, illness, bacteria] 833 words
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Efficacy of Three Mouth Rinses in Reducing Dental Plaque and Gingivitis - Dental plaque formation is started by the deposition of a thin biofilm onto the tooth surface. In a healthy individual, when 1-2 layers of bacteria are present on the tooth surface, the individual’s immune mechanism can carry on with these microorganisms, and the subject can thus show a healthy gingiva. Therefore, disturbing dental plaque formation is of high priority. One approach in plaque control thus is to combine the use of antimicrobial agents with the mechanical methods.1 The rationale for the use of antiplaque agents as adjuncts to mechanical cleaning is based on two reasons....   [tags: biofilm, tooth surface, bacteria]
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The Importance Of Responsible Nutrient Management to the Future of Agriculture - Microorganisms Although they are small microorganisms have a humungous impact in the structure of soil and plant formation. Microorganisms, which include many different fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes, are considered the architects of the soil as they have the ability to create a strong ecosystem in the soil. Microorganisms work best in communities to develop the structures for plants. For microorganisms to thrive there has to be a diverse amount of nutrients in the soil for them to feed off of....   [tags: microorganisms, fungi, bacteria]
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Microbiology: Microorganisms That Co-exist With Life on Earth - A diverse collection of microorganisms co-exist with life on Earth; most of them as inhabitants among plants or oceans, many as normal flora in humans, and some in remote locations in the most extreme habitats. Despite being ubiquitous in nature and typically harmless, bacteria get particular attention for causing disease in humans. Correct identification of a microorganism allows for proper investigation of a particular species, and prevention or treatment of a disease if necessary. During lab, students were instructed to choose a test tube inoculated with an unknown organism and then prompted to initiate a series of appropriate lab tests to correctly identify the organism....   [tags: bacteria, plants, oceans, species]
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Detection and Treatment of Patients with Severe Sepsis - Pathophysiology Pathophysiology of infection, inflammation response, and sepsis leading to septic shock (the cascade) is a major area of interest in the literature. Under normal circumstances, when a pathogen enters a human host and tissue damage occurs, the host initiates an inflammatory response to repair the tissue. The main types of pathogens include viruses, bacteria, and parasites (Porth & Matfin, 2009; Raghavan & Marik, 2006). Cellulitis is an example of an acute infection, which affects the skin and or subcutaneous tissue often in lower limbs....   [tags: immune system, bacteria, cellulitis]
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Is Avian Botulism Considered a Contagious Disease? - What is a disease you may ask yourself at first. Disease can be defined in many ways, but a common definition would be any impairment that would interfere or modify normal functions, with responses to factors such as nutrition, infectious agents, defects, or toxicants (Wobeser 1997). Disease outbreaks follow a simple three way path that involves a host, agent, and the environment. Wide arrays of avian diseases are found throughout the bird world, but much is still unknown about them. According to Karstad, “disease in wildlife populations is rarely a one-cause, one-effect situation....   [tags: Waterfowl, Bacteria Strain]
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The Many Infectous Diseases Caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes - Streptococcus Pyogenes: Multi-Purpose Monsters Streptococcus pyogenes is a type of group A streptococci that causes many infectious diseases. This bacteria is commonly found in a variety of organisms, but is usually harmless unless the organisms defenses are compromised. When detrimental, group A streptococci cause infections such as impetigo, ecthyma, scarlet fever, and necrotizing fasciitis. Each of these infections displays different symptoms and requires different treatment. These treatments are primarily by antibiotics, because antibiotics are still the chief cure for GAS bacterial infections....   [tags: Medical Bacteria]
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1307 words
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Bioengineering and Its Subsidiary Fields - Bioengineering and the Flaws of Consequentialism Pierce College Abstract In 1973 the first bacteria were genetically modified. In 1974 mice were genetically modified. And in 1982 genetically modified bacteria capable of producing insulin were commercialized. Genetically modified food has been sold since 1994. In a similar time frame, the ideologies of stem cell research and therapeutic reproductive cloning have come to fruition. It is the aim of this paper to demonstrate through consequentialist ethical reasoning, particularly using the concepts of utilitarianism and relativism that no definitive judgment can be made on the morality and ethical correctness of bioengineering and its subsidiar...   [tags: Bacteria, Genetically Modified] 1771 words
(5.1 pages)
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The Many Types of Typhus - Typhus is a bacterial disease spread by lice, fleas, and rodents. There are two specific types of Typhus: Endemic (also known as Murine Typhus) and the deadlier of the two, Epidemic Typhus. (Davis, 2011) “Typhus is endemic in many parts of the world with epidemic outbreaks often associated with wars and natural disasters, or any cause of overcrowding and poverty.” (Kavanagh & Borton, 2010) “Typhus is diagnosed by patient history, physical exam, and several tests (PCR, histological staining) based on immunological techniques....   [tags: Clinical Infection, Bacteria]
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1414 words
(4 pages)
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Braces and Crohn's Disease - When an individual receives braces, there may be some discomfort and aphthous stomatitis. Although this may seem like something most do not experience, this problem is more commonly called a canker sore. Although the sore may seem more annoying than anything else, there are links between patients with cankers and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease. These small lesions may change the microbiota of the mouth, leading to a change of the gut microbiota. Because it is believed that Crohn’s disease is related to a change in the gut microbiota, it is possible that the oral lesions and Crohn’s disease are related, but now it might be true that braces also have an effect....   [tags: microorganisms, mouth, bacteria]
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1077 words
(3.1 pages)
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Ear Infection: Otitis Externa - External otitis is an infection of the skin covering the outer ear and ear canal. It is also known as swimmers ear. It is most often a bacterial infection caused by the streptococcus, staphylococcus, or pseudomonas bacteria. Acute external otitis is usually caused by excessive water (usually from water sports), trapped in the external ear canal by cerumen. This trapped moisture can cause the skin in the ear canal to become a breeding ground for bacteria. As always, any cuts or abrasions can leave the any part of the body, including the ear canal, susceptible to bacteria and infections....   [tags: pseudomonas bacteria, diabetis mellitus]
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