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Aristotle - An ethical issue that is debated in our society is the concern of driving while intoxicated. Although this was naturally not the case during Aristotle&#8217;s time, many of his ethical beliefs can be applied to refute this dilemma. I will prove the standing issue to be unethical through Aristotle&#8217;s discussion of virtue and his concept of voluntary/involuntary actions in the Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle believed that of the virtues learned in our youth, each has a respective excess and deficiency....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1145 words
(3.3 pages)
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Philosophy: Sophist, Syllogism and Propositions - ... Something a student must know to know anything else is an axiom. If a thesis asserts, it’s a hypothesis, otherwise it’s a definition. In summary he remarks that the ground of knowledge is a demonstrative syllogism and the ground of that syllogism is premises so we must know (be convinced of) the primary premises better than the conclusion. Nothing can be better known to a man who seeks knowledge through demonstration than the basic truths. Part 2 Next, Aristotle explains that knowledge is in the answers of four questions: whether there is a connection between an attribute and a thing, the reason for the connection, whether a thing exists, the nature of the thing....   [tags: aristotle, enunciations] 824 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Unmoved Mover: God in Aristotle’s Metaphysics - For millennia, human beings have pondered the existence of supreme beings. The origin of this all-too-human yearning for such divine entities stems in part from our desire to grasp the truth of the cosmos we inhabit. One part of this universe physically surrounds us and, at the end of our lives, consumes us entirely, and so we return from whence we came. Yet there is another, arguably more eternal, part of the cosmos that, in some ways, is separable from the transient, material world we so easily perceive but that, in other ways, is inextricably linked to it by unexplored, divinable forces....   [tags: Supreme Beings, Time] 1471 words
(4.2 pages)
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Aristotle - &#65279;In Contrast to Plato Unlike Plato, Aristotle believed that sensory perceptions in the human soul are reflections of objects, and thoughts in consciousness are based on what we have already seen. He believed that humans have the innate power of reason, and the innate faculty of organizing things into categories and classes, but no innate ideas. No Innate Ideas Plato believed that the idea “chicken” came before the sensory world’s chicken, but Aristotle refused this theory....   [tags: essays research papers] 633 words
(1.8 pages)
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Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics on How to Live One's Life - In the history of early philosophy, there were 3 prominent views on how to live one's life. These were presented by Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics. Plato, presenting the most simple of the three, believed that one should direct their life towards virtue, morality, and harmony of the soul. Explaining himself in his work Gorgias, Plato has Socrates and Polus talking to each other about the relation between happiness and wrong doing. Polus answers yes, happiness and wrong doing go together. Furthering his answer, Polus describes how a happy man is a powerful man....   [tags: history of early philosphy] 867 words
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Aristotle on Nobility and Pleasure - “The lovers of what is noble find pleasant the things that are by nature pleasant; and virtuous actions are such… Their life, therefore, has no further need of pleasure as a sort of adventitious charm, but has pleasure in itself.” Ethics, I.8 Aristotle was a student under Plato, and although he did not believe in the metaphysical Forms that Plato so firmly believed in, he did apply an element of the theory behind the Forms. Instead, what Aristotle postulated was that there was some ultimate, some final goal to which we all reach, but instead of being some unattainable goal, it was very simple: happiness....   [tags: essays research papers] 1094 words
(3.1 pages)
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Virtue Ethics: Aristotle Vs. Al’ Ghazili - Virtue Ethics: Aristotle Vs. Al’ Ghazili What is the purpose of life. This is a question that has been argued since the beginning of time. Countless honorable and wise men have pondered and made conclusions about what our true purpose is in life. Aristotle and al’Ghazili are two philosophers that studied this purpose of life for almost all of their human existence. Their two proposals about the purpose of life and the ethics that are required to accomplish this purpose share some common ideas, while also having serious contrasts....   [tags: purpose of life, happiness] 1076 words
(3.1 pages)
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Aristotle - Aristotle      In our fast paced technologically advanced society today, our governments have evolved into supposedly well oiled machines effectively managing budgets, jails, militaries, as well as many other programs. Unfortunately, many of these governments are not as well organized, as they could be. Democratic countries like France, Germany, and even the United States have some very serious shortcomings to the way their governments are managed. These problems occur, many times at a very basic level, rather than at the minor details....   [tags: essays research papers] 1195 words
(3.4 pages)
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Ethics and Community in Aristotle - Ethics and Community in Aristotle ABSTRACT: I show that Aristotle’s ethics is determined by his notion of communities which are in turn determined by hundreds of themes in his Topics-sameness and difference, part and whole, better than, etc. These are tools for all dialectical investigations into being and action (viz. Top. I.11 104b2) for they secure definitions and get at essences of things or their aspects. Reflecting structures of being and good, they allow Aristotle to arrive at objective reality and good....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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5410 words
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Justice as Defined by Augustine and Aristotle - Justice as Defined by Augustine and Aristotle “Justice removed, then, what are kingdoms but great bands of robbers?” (Augustine, The City of God against the Pagans, p. 147[1]). Augustine makes quite a claim here. The presence or absence of “justice,” he implies, can make or break a great kingdom. What is this justice that Augustine speaks of. Is it the philosopher kings that define Plato’s “just city[2],” or perhaps Aristotle’s “good life[3]”. Augustine approaches the challenge of defining justice in a different, but not necessarily contradictory way, than his predecessors....   [tags: The City of God against the Pagans]
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1753 words
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Aritotle: Thoughts and Philosophies - ARISTOTLE In 384 BC, Nicomachas and Phaestas experienced the birth of their son, Aristotle, in a small town on the north east coast of the peninsula of Chaldice called Stagira. Descendent of a medical family, Aristotle would pursue studies in physical science, biology, psychology, chemistry, zoology, botany, mechanics, mathematics, and many more. You name it, and Aristotle studied it. He was also interested in the search for knowledge. (Aristotle, Barnes PG. 2). A quote of his states- “ the acquisition of wisdom is pleasant; all men feel at home in philosophy and wish to spend time on it, leaving all other things aside.” In this quote Aristotle uses the word Philosophy, not as a means of...   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1868 words
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Even the Great Fall: The Story of Phyllis on Aristotle - No one ever wants to admit that they have flaws or a weakness. To admit a thing like that would be equivalent to admitting defeat. Possessing strength and self-control creates the atmosphere of being superior. Being put on that high pedestal will only lead to a harder fall. It is impossible to be so grand that neither temptation nor physical faults are to be avoided. It is human nature, a way to learn. However important one may be, or how holy another is, or even someone with great wealth, weakness is within....   [tags: Alexander the Great, ] 1110 words
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Happiness and Impossible Standards in Aristotle's The Nicomachean Ethics - ... This empirical evidence concurs with Aristotle’s definition, with one significant difference. These feelings corresponding to elation are activity, but not in conformity with a singular virtue, as Aristotle so adamantly claims throughout the book. If happiness does not relate to a single set of rigid virtues, and can be reproduced by multifarious stimuli, the virtues themselves must be reconsidered. Happiness is only attained by conforming to those virtues considered most virtuous in a particular society; therefore, happiness must be relative....   [tags: virtues, discover, conform]
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550 words
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Aristotle - y does Plato believe that only Philosophers are fit to rule. Rather than the practical pursuit we are accustomed to, for Plato, Politics is an intellectual faculty. Governance by non-philosophers is to be governed by opinions, beliefs and self-interest; in contrast the philosopher ruler will govern with virtue and justice with no hidden agenda. The philosopher is in love, in love with learning, knowledge and truth. It is important to make a distinction here between the acquisition of knowledge and the acquisition of truth, because knowledge is not necessarily the truth....   [tags: essays research papers] 1143 words
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Aristotle on Paideia of Principles - Aristotle on Paideia of Principles ABSTRACT: Aristotle maintains that paideia enables one to judge the method used by a given speaker without judging the conclusions drawn as well (I.1 De Partibus Animalium). He contends that this "paideia of principles" requires three things: seeing that principles are not derived from one another; seeing that there is nothing before them within reason; and, seeing that they are the source of much knowledge. In order to grasp these principles, one must respectively learn to recognize what distinguishes the subject matters studied in different disciplines, see first principles as coming from experience and acquire the habit of seeking them in one’s experien...   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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3094 words
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aristotle - In my opinion the consequences of our actions should play as a reminder in our effort to assess what is ethical behavior and what is not. It can be said as a reminder because, individuals may learn from their actions. The consequences of their actions are either ethical or not. Therefore, every time the individuals look back to their actions, they will remember whether the actions have left them a good result or not. Thus, they will create a habit that may help them to make choices on whether their actions are ethical or not....   [tags: essays research papers] 480 words
(1.4 pages)
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An Overview of the Philosophies of Hume, Kant, Aristotle, Augustine, and Epictetus - Hume mentions that reason alone does not move one to act. He says the force that propels one to act is passion. Passion is the driver of the inner being as well as reason is the slave of the passions. This leads to the conclusion of impulse does not arise from reason itself, but is directed by it. What makes us act is the love, anger, fear, anxiety, envy we have. When someone is angry, they are possessed with a passion. One does not just say to oneself, “I am going to be angry today.” Thought really is not put into being angry or in love....   [tags: passion, moral, happiness] 936 words
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Sir Isaac Newton: Standing on the Shoulders of Galileo and Aristotle - The general and widespread acceptance of Sir Isaac Newton’s models and laws may often be taken for granted, but this has not always been so. Throughout history, scientists and philosophers have built on each other’s theories to create improved and often revolutionary models. Although Newton was neither the first nor the last to bring major innovations to society, he was one of the most notable ones; many of his contributions are still in use today. With the formulation of his laws of motion, Sir Isaac Newton contributed to the downfall of Aristotelianism and provided a universal quantitative system for approximating and explaining a wide range of phenomena of space and the physics of motion,...   [tags: Contributions of Isaac Newton] 1458 words
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Positve Psychology and Aristotle's Virtue Ethics Converge - Positive psychology and Aristotle: A convergence of ideas The field of positive psychology, founded by Martin Seligman (1998), seeks to influence individuals whose lives are “neutral” and increase their psychological well-being. Positive psychology offers a unique perspective on mental health through focusing on individual strengths rather than dysfunction, pathology, and mental illness (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). The goal of positive psychology is to assist individuals in creating meaningful lives through the promotion of positive emotions, individual character strengths, as well as, eudemonic happiness, as key components to optimal mental health....   [tags: Hedonism, PERMA]
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1570 words
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Freud and Aristotle’s Theories of Human Nature - “Psychological - or more strictly speaking, psychoanalytic -investigation shows that the deepest essence of human nature, which are similar in all men and which aim at the satisfaction of certain needs... [are] self-preservation, aggression, need for love, and the impulse to attain pleasure and avoid pain...” At its simplest form, this quote perfectly explains Sigmund Freud’s theory on human nature. Human beings, according to Freud, are in a constant state of conflict within themselves; trying to satisfy their animalistic instincts, while also maintaining a socially appropriate life....   [tags: metapysics, state of conflict, satisfaction] 1307 words
(3.7 pages)
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Aristotle - Aristotelian Ethics & Distributive Justice Concern with material equality as the central form of distributive justice is a very modern idea. Distributive justice for Aristotle and many other writers for millennia after him was a matter of distributing what each ought to get from merit or desert in some sense. The idea of equality was arguably anathema to Aristotle and most other theorists, including Catholic philosophers, until modern times, indeed until the nineteenth century. A common view was that social hierarchy and its attendant inequality was natural....   [tags: essays research papers] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Aristotle - Aristotle believes that happiness is the ultimate goal in life. You can’t reach happiness unless you work hard and become successful. That is where virtue comes into play. A human’s function is to engage in “an activity of the soul which is in accordance with virtue” and which “is in conformity with reason” (page 76, Palmer). The two kinds of virtue are intellectual and moral. Our virtues are what make us all individual and all different. Intellectual virtues are what we are born with and what we learn....   [tags: Happiness Virtue] 1059 words
(3 pages)
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Psychology in Greek Philosophy, Paragraphs - ... There are no fixed laws, yet it is a discipline comprised of valid theories and evolving possibilities. I believe it is a field that strives for an understanding of how individuals think, behave and perceive the world, and what factors play a part in framing their personalities, hopes, fears, limitations and abilities. To be part of this discipline requires a fervent curiosity, a willingness to constantly explore new realms, a level of healthy skepticism, and a desire to improve the quality of life of others....   [tags: plato, aristotle]
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1392 words
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Comparing Aristotle and Miller´s View on Tragedy - In ancient Greece citizens hoped to go unnoticed by the Gods. The Gods played a huge role on what occurred in a citizen’s life. If a prophecy was decided by a God, then there was no altering it. Aristotle believes that this is what makes up a true tragedy. He suggests that tragedy is plot driven, and if the plot is set then there is no way around it. In Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, Oedipus is paying for the sins of his father King Laios. Laios was given horrible future by the Gods for angering them when he rapes another man....   [tags: Arthur Miller, Oedipus Rex, tragic hero]
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1241 words
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Aristotle, Connectionism, and the Brain - Aristotle, Connectionism, and the Brain Can a mass of networked neurons produce moral human agents. I shall argue that it can; a brain can be morally excellent. A connectionist account of how the brain works can explain how a person might be morally excellent in Aristotle's sense of the term. According to connectionism, the brain is a maze of interconnections trained to recognize and respond to patterns of stimulation. According to Aristotle, a morally excellent human is a practically wise person trained in good habits....   [tags: Philosophy Psychology Papers]
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4277 words
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Shakespeare's Macbeth - Aristotelian Tragedy - Macbeth: Aristotelian Tragedy The definition of tragedy in an excerpt from Aristotle's "Poetics" is the re-creation, complete within itself, of an important moral action. The relevance of Aristotle's Poetics to Shakespeare's play Macbeth defines the making of a dramatic tragedy and presents the general principles of the construction of this genre. Aristotle's attention throughout most of his Poetics is directed towards the requirements and expectations of the plot....   [tags: Macbeth essays] 1814 words
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Plato and Aristotle´s Philosophy of Perfecting Society - ... In book VI of The Republic, Plato also argues; “For they are lovers of the knowledge of the eternal and of all truth; they are haters of falsehood; their meaner desires are absorbed in the interests of knowledge; they are spectators of all time and all existence; and in the magnificence of their contemplation the life of man is as nothing to them, nor is death fearful. Also they are of a social, gracious disposition, equally free from cowardice and arrogance. They learn and remember easily; they have harmonious, well-regulated minds; truth flows to them sweetly by nature....   [tags: wisdom, courage, moderation, justice, ruling] 1987 words
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Aristotle's Beliefs on Elements Needed to Live a Happy Life - According to Aristotle, there are three basic kinds of goods that are necessary to possess in order to live a happy life. “These three goods are: bodily goods, external goods, and goods of the soul also known as psychological goods”. Bodily goods are non-tangible, and they would be considered anything that would lengthen a human beings life expectancy. Good health, no or very few illnesses, vitality, freedom from pain, and no or few injuries would all fall into this category. External goods are tangible items that make living and going about everyday life much easier....   [tags: philosophy] 827 words
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Aristotle and Virtue: How People View The Virtue of Forgiveness - After learning about Aristotle’s review of virtues, two of them stand out, justice and forgiveness. No one can touch justice or forgiveness, but you can see the outcomes when they are demonstrated. Justice and forgiveness are two different virtues that demand motion, with forgiveness it requires a deep feeling to let go, whereas with justice it requires an action a person takes. Forgiveness requires people to participate in a process of releasing bitterness, hate and anger toward someone or something....   [tags: justice, forgiveness, christians]
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Creon' Exemplification of Aristotle's Tragic Hero in Antigone by Sophocles - Throughout literary history, tragic heroes have been defined as a great or virtuous character in a dramatic tragedy who is destined for downfall, suffering, or defeat. However, philosophers such as Aristotle tried to find connections between tragic heroes in Greek plays. This in-depth analysis of tragic heroes lead Aristotle to create six criteria for a true tragic hero: He or she has to be a Noble figure of royalty and noble in character, has to be imperfect by design, has a flaw or error that is a choice, is punished excessively for this choice flaw, has to undergo a downfall that leads to a realization, and the story of this tragic hero has to make the audience reach a moment of catharsi...   [tags: noble, flaw, downfall] 1509 words
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Aristotle & Plato's Differences in Art and its Culture - ... However, in today’s world where art has become such a variety, imitation has transformed. Plato believes that this is so because man’s imagination is trustworthy, the real infinite that separates reality. The world as known in the brain is far from reality that it devours the seen and portrays the unseen. How the human mind creates from what it understands is noted as truth. The culture of today has transformed to simplicity as mentioned earlier is also interpreted as how people understands the importance of being simple, hence the art transformation to something so ‘free and easy’ and ‘relaxed’....   [tags: documentation, recording, analysis]
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1011 words
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Aristotle: Above the Mean - Aristotle: Above the Mean With the strict oppression of thought by religion and government in the 2nd century B.C.E., it’s a surprise in itself that Aristotle, a man with such revolutionary thoughts and ideas was able to let his thinking be known to the entire world (as it was known back then). It is therefore even more surprising that his idea’s have survived these many centuries though books, a medium of writing that has a notorious reputation of being burned when something in its contents doesn’t match the current beliefs of the established system of government or the church....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1196 words
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Comparing Aristotle and Plato - Comparing Aristotle and Plato We have two great philosophers, Plato and Aristotle. These are great men, whose ideas have not been forgotten over years. Although their thoughts of politics were similar, we find some discrepancies in their teachings. The ideas stem from Socrates to Plato to Aristotle. Plato based moral knowledge on abstract reason, while Aristotle grounded it on experience and tried to apply it more to concrete living. Both ways of life are well respected by many people today. Plato started his teachings in remembrance of his good friend, Socrates....   [tags: Papers] 791 words
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Ars Poetica by Archibald MacLeish - “Better a witty fool than a foolish wit.” Spoken like the artistic genius he was, Shakespeare provides an excellent example of how the world used to speak. Another example, which shall be noted as the inspiration of this paper, would be Ars Poetica by Archibald MacLeish. In this poem, he explains how he thinks a poem should be: “A poem should not mean But be.” This last line from the poem basically says that a poem should be more important than words on a page. It should be a physical being instead of something out of the dictionary....   [tags: shakespeare, poem, greatest writers]
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1162 words
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ASPCA ASPCA Uses Aristotle's Power of Persuasion - ... This is an animal that should not have to live their life this way; it can really tug at some heartstrings, and cause many emotions like sad, anger, and even happy. For instance something like this makes most people think wow how can someone do this to a poor innocent animal; what can I do to make a difference, what can I do to help. As they continue to look through the advertisement they notice how some of the animals got helped and found a home, this usually gives them the feeling of happiness....   [tags: advertisements, pet owners, prevention] 606 words
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Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle - Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle In his book Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle seeks to define the guidelines for human beings to achieve happiness as a community. Happiness is something that human beings must constantly work for and not a state that can just exist forever without struggle. Aristotle believes that the only possible way for a society as a whole to be happy is through the study of political science. In Book I, Chapter 1, Aristotle declares that all human life consists of activity. He further claims that human beings engage in these activities to arrive at some end....   [tags: Classic Literature, Greek] 318 words
(0.9 pages)
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Application of Aristotle's Nature of Tragedy to the Tale of Oedipus - Out of Aristotle’s apprehension of tragedy, four out of the six ideas are used in the tragic drama, “Oedipus the King” by Sophocles. These ideas are tragic hero, hamartia, peripeteia, and anagnorisis. The tragic hero is a person of greatness, and noble stature who usually contributes to their own downfall. Oedipus has greatness and noble stature; he’s sublime, in the way that he cares for his people. What leads to his own downfall is his own pride, which came out when he solved the riddle of the Sphinx and was praised by marrying the queen of Thebes, making him feel untouchable, “Here I am myself- you all know me, the world knows my fame: I am Oedipus....   [tags: Sophocles, Literary Analysis] 971 words
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Aristotole's View that Virtue is the Ability to Know Good and Do Good - ... Some very good ways to instill proper morals into children is to be a positive role model from the very beginning to them. Take the time out to show them what is considered right and what is considered wrong. Some methods of teaching children good and positive morals are being lost in this modern day and age, such as going to church, or sitting down together and sharing a meal. Why is this happening. Simple, parents of today are forced into having both parents work because it is no longer a one-paycheck life style....   [tags: virtue, compassion, moral]
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Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics: Happiness - From pursuing pleasure to avoiding pain, life seems to ultimately be about achieving happiness. However, how to define and obtain happiness has and continues to be a widely debated issue. In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle gives his view on happiness. Aristotle focuses particularly on how reason, our rational capacity, should help us recognize and pursue what will lead to happiness and the good life.';(Cooley and Powell, 459) He refers to the soul as a part of the human body and what its role is in pursuing true happiness and reaching a desirable end....   [tags: Nicomachean Ethics Essays] 1043 words
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Aristotle's Concept of Teleology - Aristotle's Concept of Teleology In his Physics, Aristotle examines the theories and ideas regarding nature of his predecessors and then, based upon his own ideas, theories and experiments, argues against what he believes are incorrect conclusions. One idea that Aristotle argues specifically is teleology. Teleology is the idea that natural phenomena are determined not only by mechanical causes but by an overall design or purpose in nature. In this essay, I will examine what Aristotle's concept of teleology was and look at why he held this conception....   [tags: essays research papers] 874 words
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Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle - Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, three men considered to be the quintessential basis of ancient Greek philosophy. Not only were they responsible for Greek enlightenment, but also foreshadowed the coming of Christ in there speculations. Plato, the protégé of Socrates, became the first to document the philosophy of his teacher, which in turn is passed down to Aristotle. This process of mentoring aided ancient man in the intellectual evolution of politics and religion, known as the linear concept....   [tags: essays research papers] 868 words
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Active Intellect In Aristotle, - All men by nature desire to know. An indication of this is the delight we take in our senses; for even apart from their usefulness they are loved for themselves; and above all others the sense of sight”. This is the foundation of human knowledge Aristotle presents us with in Book Alpha of the Metaphysics. The next question which we must naturally ask ourselves is, How. How is it that we can have any knowledge at all. We by our very nature desire to know and we love the senses in themselves but what is the relationship between the two and by what faculty are we able to call anything knowledge once sense perception has occurred....   [tags: essays research papers] 1045 words
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Aristotle's Views on Citizenship - Aristotle's Views on Citizenship For Aristotle the human is "by nature" destined to live in a political association. Yet not all who live in the political association are citizens, and not all citizens are given equal share in the power of association. The idea of Polity is that all citizens should take short turns at ruling (VII, 1332 b17-27). It is an inclusive form of government: everyone has a share of political power. Aristotle argues that citizen are those who are able to participate in the deliberative and judicial areas of government (III, 1279a32-34)....   [tags: Papers] 1194 words
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Aristotles Notion Of Body And Soul - Aristotele’s Notion of Body and Soul, and My opinion What is Aristotele’s notion of body and soul. According to Aristotle, everything in the world is divided between superior and inferior. Man is superior to the animals, the male to the female, and the soul to the body. “The soul is more noble than our possesions or our bodies';. Therefore, man should act through his soul, and not through his body. The soul services the greater good. If a man does not act from his soul, and thus lets his body rule the sole, he is not worthy of politics, and is a ‘natural slave’....   [tags: essays research papers] 513 words
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Aristotle and His Theories - Am Phronesis According to Aristotle and his theories, there are two basic types of intellectual virtues by which we live our lives. The two intellectual virtues that he speaks of are wisdom and phronesis. Wisdom is a virtue that we are able to gain and increase throughout our lives through experience and time. Of the two different intellectual virtues that Aristotle speaks of, wisdom is more of a scientific knowledge, it is the type of knowledge that would be expected of an intellect. While phronesis is not a virtue acquired through an education or books, it is more of a virtue that is learned and built from social interaction and real life experiences....   [tags: essays research papers] 1982 words
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Comparing Aristotle and Plato - Comparing Aristotle and Plato Aristotle argues that in order for a polis to emerge, a union between man and women must convene. Later a household must be introduced which unites with other households to form a village, villages come together to form city-states. This theory is Aristotle’s natural view that an individual can not be self sufficient Plato argues that, in order to achieve absolute justice, a city-state is needed. In The Republic, Plato builds around the idea of Philosopher Rulers....   [tags: Papers] 1323 words
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Locke, Aristotle and Aquinas - Locke, Aristotle and Aquinas      In the tomes of history, many philosophers have outlined their visions of a perfect society.  Until recently however, few have ventured into the waters of religious tolerance.  One such philosopher was John Locke.  Writing in the late 17th century, Locke advocated a complete separation between church and state.  He argued for an unprecedented tolerance of people of all faiths.   Although Locke's views became widely popular throughout Europe and the Americas, they did not meet with unanimous approval.  Many earlier philosophers disagreed with Locke.  Two such philosophers were Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas.  Aquinas disagreed in three key respects:  Compuls...   [tags: Philosophy essays]
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2199 words
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A Survey of Tragedy - A Survey of Tragedy A modern tragedy of today and a tragedy of ancient Greece are two very different concepts, but ironically, both are linked by many similarities. In “Poetics”, Aristotle defines and outlines tragedy for theatre in a way that displays his genius, but raises questions and creates controversy. Aristotle’s famous definition of tragedy states: “A tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious, and also as having magnitude, complete in itself in language with pleasurable accessories, each kind brought in separately in the parts of the work; in a dramatic, not in a narrative form: with incidents arousing pity and fear; wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotion...   [tags: Oedipus The King, Death of a Salesman]
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995 words
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The Doctrine of the Mean in Aristotles Politics - The Doctrine of the Mean in Aristotle’s Politics. Examining the texts of Aristotle’s “Nicomachean Ethics” and “Politics” side by side, one is bound to find parallels between his reasoning with regard to the individual and to the state. In “Nicomachean Ethics” Aristotle discusses happiness, virtue, and the good life on an individual level and lays out necessary provisions for the good life of a person. He maintains that virtue is a necessary element of happiness: a man will be happy if he has virtues of justice, courage, and temperance, each constituting a balance between the extremes....   [tags: essays research papers] 2162 words
(6.2 pages)
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Aristotle's Analysis - Aristotle in his time wrote papers on what he believed the perfect tragedy should be like. He used the work of Sophocles tragedy Oedipus the King as his perfect example of what a tragedy should be compared to. Aristotle felt that Oedipus the King followed his six features of an ideal framework for a flawless tragedy and he wrote, ."..every tragedy has six constituents, which will determine its quality. They are plot, character, diction, thought, spectacle, and song." And from his explanations in of these six features incorporated with perfect examples from Sophocles tragedy it seems that Oedipus the King is the perfectly written tragedy....   [tags: World Cultures] 587 words
(1.7 pages)
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Plato vs. Aristotle - Plato vs. Aristotle How do we explain the world around us. How can we get to the truth. Plato and Aristotle began the quest to find the answers thousands of years ago. Amazingly, all of philosophy since that time can be described as only a rehashing of the original argument between Plato and Aristotle. Plato and Aristotle's doctrines contrast in the concepts of reality, knowledge at birth, and the mechanism to find the truth. Firstly, Plato's concept of reality contrasts with Aristotle's concept....   [tags: Papers] 350 words
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Plato vs Aristotle - In ancient Greece two great written philosophers lived. First there was Plato and then Aristotle. Aristotle was a pupil of Plato. Despite being taught by Plato they had different theories and views. Their ethics were very typical and traditional of ancient Greece but Aristotle detailed virtue ethics and the path to happiness. Plato’s political theories for a utopian society varied from Aristotle’s view of ‘best state for each society’. Their metaphysical theories are complete opposites and very contradicting....   [tags: Greek Philosophy Virtue Ethics Happiness Society] 1826 words
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Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics - Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics Throughout Aristotle’s life and career as a philosopher, he modified and formulated many ideas that deal with the psyche and state of the mind and body. One of the most prevalent ideas that he studied was the quest for happiness. He had many theories about it, but most merged to become the Nicomachean Ethics As Socrates also believed, Aristotle thought that the life of the philosopher was the most pleasant and had the potential to bring the most happiness to oneself....   [tags: Papers] 338 words
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Aristotle's Political Ideal - Aristotle's Political Ideal ¡§It is not Fortune¡¦s power to make a city good; that is a matter of scientific planning and deliberative policy.¡¨ Aristotle, along with most of the prominent thinkers of his time, theorized upon what the Ideal Political State would be and through what means it could be obtained. Aristotle wrote on this discussion of the Ideal State in books VII and VIII of The Politics. What Aristotle observed around him were the prevalent city-states of ancient Greece. It is commonly believed that he did not have a vision of the large nation-state and especially not such great federations as the United States and Russia....   [tags: Papers] 1698 words
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Biography of Aristotle (384 -322 BC) - Aristotle (384 -322 BC) ARISTOTLE'S LIFE Aristotle, Greek philosopher and scientist, is one of the most famous of ancient philosophers. He was born in Stagira, Greece to a physician to the royal court. When he became eighteen, Aristotle entered Plato's School in Athens and remained at this academy for twenty years, as a student and then as a teacher. He was recognized as the Academy's brightest and was given the title of "The Intelligence of the School". When Plato died in 347 BC, Aristotle left Athens and joined a group of disciples of Plato, with his friend Hermias....   [tags: essays research papers] 329 words
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Aristotle’s Idea of the Four Causes - Aristotle’s Idea of the Four Causes Aristotle explained that things could be seen in four different ways. He named these the four causes. These were the material, formal, efficient and the final cause. “Aition” is the nearest translation for the word cause, which means a responsible explanatory factor. The material cause, this answers the question what is it made of. One example could be a clay pot, this is made from clay. But Aristotle argued that the material is not enough on it’s own to make it what it is....   [tags: Papers] 343 words
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Nichomachean Ethics by Aristotle and Plato's The Republic - Where Does Voluntary Begin. Nichomachean Ethics by Aristotle attempts to define the meaning of ethics and to create the perfect society as did Plato in The Republic. In Aristotle’s attempt at definition he discusses the difference and significance of voluntary and involuntary action. Beginning by defining, Aristotle soon realizes many situations are too complex for just black vs. white terms and he introduces another term; non-voluntary. This leads to discussion of choice and deliberation, bringing his viewpoints into applicable terms, out of philosophy and into everyday life....   [tags: essays research papers] 1469 words
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Aristotle vs. Plato - Aristotle vs. Plato Excellence is a function which renders excellent the thing of which it is a function is Plato’s definition of virtue. What does this definition really mean though. Plato and Aristotle both had their own unique arguments devoted to the topic at hand, and their own ways of describing what virtue really is. Defining virtue may seem to be an easy taste, but to truly understand the arguments behind the definition can prove to be very challenging.      Before discussing virtue, the sole must first be considered....   [tags: Virtue Philosophy Life Essays Papers] 1406 words
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Virtue and Happiness - Happiness is the goal of every human beings according to Aristotle, however what does happiness imply. It is in his attempt to define happiness and to find a way to attain it that Aristotle comes across the idea of virtue. It is thus necessary to explain the relationship between these two terms. I will start by defining the good and virtue and then clarify their close link with the argument of function, I will then go into more details in explaining the different ways in which they are closely related and finally I am going to give an account of the apparent contradiction in Book X which is a praise of the life of study....   [tags: Aristotle, Philosophy]
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Aristotle's Concept of Tragedy Applied to Hamlet - Aristotle’s Concept of Tragedy Applied to Hamlet Aristotle’s concept of a well written tragedy is that it is “…an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude, in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play, the form of action, not of narrative, through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions” (McManus). According to Aristotle, the plot is the “soul” of the tragedy from which the other parts such as characters, diction, thought, spectacle, and melody stem (McManus)....   [tags: William Shakespeare]
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Aristotle, Conflicting lifestyles - When comparing the contemplative lifestyle to the moral virtuous lifestyle, one finds the differences to rest on the three types of good: goods of the body, external goods, and goods of the soul. One conflict comes between leading a courageous, brave life and desiring happiness. To explain the aforementioned I feel it necessary to define true courage. It seems true courage revolves around death. Not every kind of death is considered noble, for example death from drowning or death from disease....   [tags: essays research papers] 808 words
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The Pursuit of Happiness and the Union of Aristotle and Genesis - The Pursuit of Happiness and the Union of Aristotle and Genesis Two major schools of thought broadly influenced the development of the moral code of Western Civilization. The Judeo-Christian tradition gave us faith and God through the text of the Bible. The ancient Greeks gave us philosophical inquiry and "the Good" through the teachings of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. In his Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle proposes that "the Good" is the highest end of man’s actions. Happiness is "the Good" because it is the only end man pursues with no other end in mind....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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Aristotle Vs. Plato Learning Is Recollection - What alternative does Aristotle offer to Plato’s claim that learning is recollection. Where would Aristotle locate the mistake in Plato’s argument in The Phaedo. In his dialogues The Phaedo and Meno, Plato, through the form of Socrates, puts forth the idea that all learning is recollection. In The Phaedo, to prove that the soul is immortal, Socrates asserts the view that all learning is recollection and we simply need to be reminded of facts that our immortal souls are aware of. In Meno, Socrates attempts to show the truth of this belief by doing complex geometry with a nearby slave boy....   [tags: essays research papers] 649 words
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Aristotle's Knowledge Tree - In book VI of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, he identifies five intellectual virtues. These five virtues are sophia which is wisdom, episteme which is knowledge of empirical truth, phronesis which is practical wisdom, techne which is craft knowledge, and nous which is intuition. I believe that all these virtues are necessary for every person to live and must be applied to interact with other people. When a student is in school, many times they wonder why they have to learn certain things and take certain courses....   [tags: Philosophy] 458 words
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Plato Vs. Aristotle - Plato vs. Aristotle Plato and Aristotle, two philosophers in the 4th century, hold polar views on politics and philosophy in general. This fact is very cleverly illustrated by Raphael's "School of Athens" (1510-11; Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican), where Plato is portrayed looking up to the higher forms; and Aristotle is pointing down because he supports the natural sciences. In a discussion of politics, the stand point of each philosopher becomes an essential factor. It is not coincidental that Plato states in The Republic that Philosopher Rulers who possess knowledge of the good should be the governors in a city state....   [tags: essays research papers] 1899 words
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Intellectual Goodness in The Way of Reasons by Aristotle - Intellectual Goodness in The Way of Reasons by Aristotle In the reading “The Way of Reason” Aristotle tries to define the good that is within mankind. He moves through a variety of exercises that narrow down and simplify the ideas that man is inherently good and that his tendency for it is deliberate and pre-destined. He looks at different activities, then breaks them down and finds the part that leads toward the final happiness. He feels that if man is truly good within his soul that he will be happy....   [tags: Papers] 868 words
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The Soul According to Plato, Aristotle, and Augustine - The Soul According to Plato, Aristotle, and Augustine The soul can be defined as a perennial enigma that one may never understand. But many people rose to the challenge of effectively explaining just what the soul is about, along with outlining its desires. Three of these people are Plato, Aristotle, and Augustine. Even though all three had distinctive views, the similarities between their views are strikingly vivid. The soul indeed is an enigma to mankind and the only rational explanation of its being is yet to come and may never arrive....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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Aristotle and Heidegger Allowing Personal Accountability - Aristotle and Heidegger Allowing Personal Accountability A disquieting article recently appeared in The New York Times. The article chronicles the story of Larry W. Peterman, resident of Provo, Utah, owner of a successful adult video store, and defendant in a case in which he was charged with selling obscene material. During Peterman’s trial, the following information came to the fore, "As it turned out, people in Utah County, a place that often boasts of being the most conservative area in the nation, were disproportionately large consumers of the very videos that prosecutors had labeled obscene and illegal....   [tags: Philosophy Martin Heidegger Essays]
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Shakespeaerian Tragedies: The Link to Aristotle's Ideas - Shakespeaerian Tragedies: The Link to Aristotle's Ideas The central concern of tragedy has always been to explore the nature of evil in the world; both its existence and the nature of particular types of evil and their effect. If we are to find the meaning of Shakespeare's tragedies, we must examine how men looked at the problem of evil in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries....   [tags: Papers] 1795 words
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Aristotle's Tragic Hero in Shakespeare's Macbeth - Aristotle's Tragic Hero in Macbeth       Aristotle and Shakespeare lived ages apart, but Aristotle had a great affect on Shakespeare's plays. In Shakespeare’s tragic play, Macbeth, the character of Macbeth is consistent with Aristotle's definition of the tragic hero.   Aristotle's tragic hero is a man who is characterized by good and evil. He is a mixture of good characteristics and bad characteristics. For example, Macbeth was an honorable Thane of Glamis. He was a valiant fighter who had protected his country of Scotland well, but he wanted to be king....   [tags: Macbeth essays]
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Aristotles Definition of Nature - Aristotle’s Definition of Nature Nature, in its essence, is the cause/effect relationship offered to things with ascertainable objectivity, occurring without cause. From this we can logically state that the nature of something (something being an object with "thinghood", as humorously described in class) is its beginning, purpose and stereo-type. There are two debatable definitions of nature, which under scrutiny are seemingly very similar. On the left hand, we have nature described as "the first, inchoate, thing belonging to it"....   [tags: essays research papers] 391 words
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Oedipus Is Not a Tragic Hero - “Tragedy is an imitation of an action of high importance . . .” states Aristotle in his book Poetics (as cited in Kennedy & Gioia, 2010). Without a doubt, he observed and analyzed countless plays throughout his life and in Poetics, he writes a broad description of what a tragedy should contain (Kennedy & Gioia). Specifically, to Aristotle, tragedies require a “Tragic Hero.” What makes this literary character unique from the other heroes of literature. The most obvious and central difference is that the hero in question always experiences a disastrous reversal of fortune, which follows the recognition of a previously unknown truth (Kennedy & Gioia)....   [tags: Oedipus the King Essays]
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Aristotle's Perspective of Friendship in Homer's Iliad - An Aristotelian Examination of Friendship in Homer's Iliad It is strange to label any friendship a success or a failure; it is stranger still to call the friendship between Achilleus and Patroklos a failure, especially when it has long been celebrated as one of the greatest friendships in antiquity. After all, friendship is called a success when friends remain just that, and a failure when they part ways with diffidence. How else could we possibly judge friendship. I suggest, however, that the good of the friend is the end of true friendship, and that this principle can guide critical inquiry into the nature of friendship....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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How Aristotle Would View Odysseus - How Aristotle Would View Odysseus During the time of Aristotle, revenge was seen as something of honor. It was considered noble to try to restore your honor after someone intentionally caused you shame or harm. You were looked at as a coward if you did not try to sneak and plot your revenge. Revenge can either be sought after for ones own internal satisfaction, but in this book, it is usually required because of what others might think as far as ones reputation is concerned. During Aristotle’s time, if you were seeking revenge one had strict guidelines to follow to ensure that the one seeking revenge was doing it out of honor and integrity....   [tags: Papers] 1281 words
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Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex Fulfills All of the Requirements of a Tragedy - Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex Fulfills All of the Requirements of a Tragedy Throughout Poetics, Aristotle describes what traits a tragedy must have to be successful. To support these choices, he makes use of a small analysis of many tragedies, including many of Sophocles’ plays; Oedipus Rex is one of the plays mentioned in Aristotle’s Poetics. Some of these traits include a successful plot structure, recognition scenes, and a correct choice for its hero. In Oedipus Rex, Sophocles fulfills all of these requirements....   [tags: Oedipus the King Oedipus Rex]
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Self-Sufficient Happiness or Happiness Dependent on Other Influences - Aristotle’s theory and self-sufficiency Aristotle’s theories start by expressing happiness as the number one importance in life . The only way to obtain this absolute happiness is to be a good person and commit good actions. In Aristotle’s theory he expresses different avenues to achieve being a good person, some of which will be discussed later on. Along the way, Aristotle states “happiness, then, is something final and self-sufficient, and is the end of action.” This raises the question is happiness in Aristotle’s eyes, something that is obtained self-sufficiently or does happiness also require outside influences....   [tags: Aristotle, external goods, perspective]
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Aristotle’s Examination of the Lacedaemonian Constitution in his Work, Politics - ... Each family is composed of a man and a woman which makes the population roughly half males and half females. If a law is passed that is not in favor of the Spartan females, Aristotle argues that half the population would act out against the authority of the state. With half the state not in agreement with the authority of the state, there is not a unified, strong support for the Spartan army due to the disunity of the population. Aristotle uses this as one example of how laws within the Lacedaemonian Constitution actually weaken instead of strengthen the Spartan society, defeating the intention of the constitution....   [tags: women, procreation, elections] 1200 words
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Reconstruction of Aristotle's Argument from Physics Book 2, Chapter 8. - In this paper, I offer a reconstruction of Aristotle’s argument from Physics Book 2, chapter 8, 199a9. Aristotle in this chapter tries to make an analogy between nature and action to establish that both, nature and action, have an end. This argument developed as a respond to natural philosophers, who argue that the results of nature/natural processes occur just by accident but not for an end (198b16). Aristotle argues that events and results that come to be by chance only are present a few times....   [tags: the end of nature and action] 614 words
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How Aristotle Understands the Human Being through Virtue Ethics - How does Aristotle understand the human being through virtue ethics. In the first part I will explain his notions of the Telos which in his view equals happiness and the methods that he uses to determine what they are. In the second part I will explain his thinking towards knowledge and how it is based on sense perception, reason and reality. In the third part I will examine what Aristotle considers a being and where he distinguishes achievable human actions. In the fourth part I will demonstrate the four causes of his theory....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 822 words
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Tragic Heroes of The Iliad and Oedipus Rex Analysis - Calvin Coolidge once said, “Heroism is not only in the man, but in the occasion” (brainyquote.com). Heroes are among one of the most popular literary figures of all time. A Greek philosopher, Aristotle, wrote his notion of classic from of heroism called tragic heroism in his work entitled Poetics. In Poetics, Aristotle explains that there are certain qualities that a tragic hero has that can qualify him or her as tragically heroic. Two Grecian literary legends, Achilles from Homer’s Iliad and Sophocles’s Oedipus Rex, fit the description of an Aristotelian tragic hero....   [tags: Aristotelian tragic heroes]
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