Preview
Preview

Classical Management Theory Essay

:: 10 Works Cited
Length: 1964 words (5.6 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Aqua      
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Classical Management Theory


Early Management Theories
Early Theories of Organizations emerged mainly for military and Catholic Church. The metaphor of the machine was dominant, where organizations are viewed as machines. Therefore, the organizational application was, since workers behave predictably (as machines do rarely deviate from the norm), management knows what to expect, and workers operating outside expectations are replaced.

Classical Management Theories
There are three well-established theories of classical management: Taylor?s Theory of Scientific Management, Fayol?s Administrative Theory, Weber?s Theory of Bureaucracy. Although these schools, or theories, developed historical sequence, later ideas have not replaced earlier ones. Instead, each new school has tended to complement or coexist with previous ones.

Taylor?s Theory of Scientific Management, U.S.A

Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) ?The Father of Scientific Management?.
Scientific Management theory arose from the need to increase productivity in the U.S.A. especially, where skilled labor was in short supply at the beginning of the twentieth century. The only way to expand productivity was to raise the efficiency of workers.

Taylor devised four principles for scientific management theory, which were:
1. The development of a true science of management,
2. The scientific selection and training of workers,
3. Proper remuneration for fast and high-quality work
4. Equal division of work and responsibility between worker and manager

Limitations of The Theory of Scientific Management:
Although it maximized efficiency and productivity but its main limitation was ignoring human aspects of employment. This is manifested in the following:
? Some workers and unions opposed this theory because they feared that working harder or faster would exhaust whatever work was available, causing layoffs.
? Objection to the "speed up" conditions that placed undue pressures on employees to perform at faster levels, some managers exploited both workers and customers.
? Reducing worker?s role to a rigid adherence to compulsory methods and procedures.
? The increased fragmentation of work due to its emphasis on divisional labor .
? Economically based approach to the motivation of employees .
? It put planning and control of workplace activities only in the hands of managers.
...


... middle of paper ...


...Late 1980's: renewed interest in organizational climate and groups
Late 1980's: rise of participatory management techniques known by such terms as
Total Quality Management (TQM), Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI).
1986: first ruling by U.S. Supreme Court on subject of sexual harassment
Late 1980's: work stress received increasing attention in I/O research, theory, and practice Balancing work and family lives received increasing attention.


References:

- Organisation and Management of Health Care, April 2002, Version 2.0 , Main Contributor: Katie Enock, Public Health Specialist, Harrow Primary Care Trust www.healthknowledge.org.uk
- Henri Rayol Industrial and General Administration, J.A.Caubrough, trans.(Geneva International Management Institute, 1930)
- http://www.northstar.k12.ak.us/schools/ryn/projects/inventors/taylor/taylor.html
- http://www.survey-software-solutions.com/walonick/organizational-theory.htm
- http://www.glass-time.com/gainsharing/Motivation.html
- http://www.mtsu.edu/~pmccarth/io_hist.htm
- http://home.eclions.net/mbobic/Version17.htm
- http://www.lib.uwo.ca/business/fayol.html
- http://www2.pfeiffer.edu/~lridener/DSS/Weber/WEBRPER.HTML


Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper








This essay is 100% guaranteed.


Title Length Color Rating  
Classical Management Theory Essay - Classical Management Theory Early Management Theories Early Theories of Organizations emerged mainly for military and Catholic Church. The metaphor of the machine was dominant, where organizations are viewed as machines. Therefore, the organizational application was, since workers behave predictably (as machines do rarely deviate from the norm), management knows what to expect, and workers operating outside expectations are replaced. Classical Management Theories There are three well-established theories of classical management: Taylor?s Theory of Scientific Management, Fayol?s Administrative Theory, Weber?s Theory of Bureaucracy....   [tags: Classical Management Theories Essays]
:: 10 Works Cited
1964 words
(5.6 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Classical Management Theory Essay - The dawn of the Industrial revolution in the late 19th century resulted in increased mechanisation and industrialisation, giving rise to the era of the Classical Management. The theory was inclined towards providing workers the tools necessary for maximising their efficiency and output. Characterized by an autocratic style of leadership, communication flow was predominantly downward unidirectional, written and strictly pertaining to work. This style of communication worked well and still works reasonably fine in organisations that witness few or no changes; however the theory has been criticised for creating an "assembly-line" atmosphere and for perceiving organisations through the lens of...   [tags: Leader Attributes, Human Communication]
:: 17 Works Cited
2213 words
(6.3 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
The Neo-Classical Organizational Theory Essay - There are various organizational theories that attempt to evaluate the behavior of people in organizations, whether as a group or individually. The neo classical theory focuses on the needs of the workers and puts a premium on empowering employees in an effort to maximize their production (Colorado State University-Global Campus, 2010). Research by Sultana and Manivannan (2009) concludes that workers with institutional knowledge are a company’s most important company assets. A company needs to do what it can to retain these valuable assets, and neo classical thinking helped to spawn a new emphasis on job satisfaction and the social aspect of the workplace....   [tags: empowering employees to maximize production]
:: 6 Works Cited
515 words
(1.5 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay about Classical Management Theories - Successful management requires an understanding of the fundamental concepts of effective management techniques and principles. In order to gain such insight, and manage effectively and efficiently, managers must develop an awareness of past management principles, models and theories. From the turn of the 20th Century, the need for a formal management theory was growing evident; organisations required a system to guide managers in an attempt to improve productivity and efficiency of workers. This urgency for a theory saw the development of six major management approaches, the focus of this essay will be on two of the classical management theories; the scientific management theory and the huma...   [tags: Business Management] 1529 words
(4.4 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay on Theories of Classical Management - ... He believe in so called “Division of labour”-worker can do best and process can be run smoothly if worker assigned to a limited number of specific task. He argued best result will out come if the employee appointed for a specific task and monitor them closely. Taylor found out that lack of employee initiative in the work place was the major issue of inefficient work in the organisation. He believes that the organisation emphasis more on external job rather than focusing on internal process of the production line, giving less priority to the external process created negative impact on organisation such as waste of time, human effort and materials....   [tags: performance, bureaucracy, employees] 557 words
(1.6 pages)
Research Papers [preview]
Essay on Classical Organization Theory - Classical Organization Theory The classical school of organization theory dominated administrations from the early 1900’s well into the 1930’s, and it is still relevant today in many of the contemporary organization theories. Shafritz states that classical organization theory was the first theory of its kind, and serves as the foundation of other schools organization theory (Shafritz, Ott, & Jang, 2011, p. 32). Classical organization theory includes scientific management approach, bureaucratic approach, and administrative management approach....   [tags: machinery, workforce]
:: 2 Works Cited
1570 words
(4.5 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
The Classical Model Theory of Public Administration Essay - The classical model of Public administration so far has been influenced by two major figures, Max Weber and Frederic Taylor. The classical model emphasized on how the superior role in bureaucratic system is indispensable. As Weber stated, "a system of control in which policy is set at the top and carried out through a series of offices with each manager and worker reporting to one superior and held to account by that person”(Weber: Pfiffner 2004 p. 1). While Frederick Taylor, who also has contributed to the classical model theory, had stated that to meet good accountability, management must make a tight control over its organization and planning process....   [tags: Max Weber, Frederick Taylor]
:: 15 Works Cited
1857 words
(5.3 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
A Comparison of Classical Management Theorists and Contingency Theorists - A Comparison of Classical Management Theorists and Contingency Theorists The management field is characterised by a wide variety of theories, schools and directions. This essay examines the classical and contingency schools of thought -- the approaches to organization that have had the greatest impact on management today. Firstly the essay delineates and criticises the important theories propounded by classical writers. The essay continues with an account of the contingency school, and finally evaluates its impacts on managerial thought....   [tags: Business Management Studies Managing]
:: 15 Works Cited
2637 words
(7.5 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay about Taylor’s Scientific Management - The innovation of the world today is towards its deal of materialistic presence of flow of nature. This era of modernization and innovation of the world as at its present view of today has given a chance and has helped to promote organizations whom seek to improve their businesses through efficiency and effectiveness with the help of the classical management theory which is Taylor’s management. Before getting into the depths about Taylor’s Management, let’s get a glimpse about the idea of management....   [tags: Taylor’s Management Theory]
:: 18 Works Cited
2348 words
(6.7 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Management Techniques Essay example - A review of current managerial techniques and adaptations reveals that little is known in regards to management variance within small to large organizations (Moates & Kulonda, 2000). In order to critically evaluate if ‘Managerial jobs are the same in both large and small organizations’, a comparison of Fayol’s fourteen principles of management (Cole, 1984, p. 13-14) is carried out between the supervisors and middle management of small and large organizations, classified as having under 50 employees, or over, respectively....   [tags: Business Management] 1684 words
(4.8 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]