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Latin America Resources Essay

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I.
1.Miguel Angel Asturias- A Nobel Prize wining novelist and poet from Guatemala. Wrote about his experience under a dictatorship. Established small-town life and a clash of cultures as themes
2.Frida Kahlo- Started painting in 1925 when she was hospitalized. Married Diego Rivera. Was inspired by retablos, religious paintings. Was a champion of Mexican culture.
3.John F. Kennedy – Kennedy encouraged Latin American countries to undertake reforms to raise the standard of living for their people with the Alliance for Progress in 1961.
4.Luis Munoz Marin – Became Puerto Rico’s first elected governor in the 1950s. He supported a program to encourage tourism and develop industry on the island.
5.Gabriel Garcia Marquez- Nobel Prize winning author in Columbia. Wrote in a Style called magical realism. Most popular novel was One Hundred years of Solitude.
6.James Munroe – Issued the Munroe Doctrine in 1823 which disallowed colonization in the Americas
7.Pablo Neruda - Chile’s Nobel Prize winning poet who criticized the United States for using its power and wealth to carve up Panama.
8.Manuel Noriega – Panama’s president who was charged by the United States with drug trafficking in 1988.
9.Franklin D. Roosevelt – Announced the Good Neighbor Policy in 1933, which declared that “no state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another state.”
10.Theodore Roosevelt – President that offered Columbia $10 million for a strip of land in Panama to build a canal. Roosevelt encouraged rebels in Panama to rebel when Columbia rejected the offer. In 1903 when the Panama people received their independence, they granted US the 10 mile wide “canal zone.”

II.
1. Under the Platt Amendment, the United States claimed the right to intervene in Cuban affairs.
2. The United States gained Puerto Rico and Philippines from Spain.
3. Financial interests led the United States to intervene in Latin America. In the early 1900s, the Dominican Republic was unable to pay its debts to American banks. American forces also occupied Nicaragua and Haiti ,and intervened in the affairs of Honduras 6 times. In each case, they stepped in to protect American lives and property or to support a government that favored American interests.
4. The United States wanted to create a solid anti-communist bloc in the Americas. The United States’ primary concern was the communist country of ...


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...lopment and democracy. The OAS includes the United States, which has tended to dominated the organization.
11.retablos – religious paintings offered as thanks for escape from misfortune.
12.Sendero Luminoso – (Shining Path) Extreme left wing group that resorted to torture and murder in their on-going struggle to control the country of Peru.
13.Spanish-American War – As the United States industrialized, it extended its influence in the Caribbean and Central America. During the 1890s, Cuban patriots were battling for independence from Spain. In 1898, the United States declared war on Spain and joined the fighting. It promised that once peace was achieved it would “leave the government and control of Cuba to its people.” The Spanish American War ended in victory for the United States. Cuba did gain its independence, but the United States forced Cuba to include the Platt Amendment as part of its new constitution. Under the Platt Amendment the United States claimed the right to intervene in Cuban affairs. As a result the United States gained Puerto Rico and Philippines from Spain.
14.ultraismo – The belief that art should exist for its own sake, not for any social or political reasons.


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