‘Neither ethnicity nor mother tongue
nor even identities can be treated as
things, commodities, that one can
choose and discard like an old coat at will’
~Tove Skutnabb-Kangas (qtd in Fishman 55)
Broadly speaking, “language policy” in the United States is thought of as a covert policy. Schiffman (2000) writes of the challenges of researching this field, given that issues of language are usually addressed subordinately to other issues. In Schiffman’s view, it is a fallacy to assume that the U.S. government is neutral in regard to issues of language simply because the U.S. does not have an official language; in actuality, the strength of this “covert” policy lies in how the government deals with issues of language in conjunction with, for example, education and immigration policies (Schiffman 211). Despite America’s history of immigration and linguistic diversity, the only overt piece of legislation passed whose purpose was to protect a specific language’s use was the Native American Languages Act of 1990 (Schiffman 263), which stated that protecting Native American languages was the “policy” of the United States government.
From the 19th century onward, English, then, has served as a “de facto” language of the United States, although no laws in addition to the previously mentioned act have been enacted to protect the rights of speakers of languages other than English. Many researchers have pointed out how the federal government did not intervene in issues of language, because the right to speak a language was considered a natural extension of living in a democratic society, and therefore did not have to be protected under the law (as cited in Bey...
... middle of paper ...
...;!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]-->
“Steve.” Personal Interview. 28 April, 2003.
<!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]-->
“Gold Mountain Dreams,” and “Between Two Worlds.” Becoming American: The Chinese Experience. Narr. Bill Moyers. Producer Thomas Lennon. PBS. 25-26 March 2003.
Jen, Gish. Mona in the Promised Land. New York: Vintage, 1997.
<!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]-->
Piller, Ingrid. “Passing for a Native Speaker: Identity and Success in Second Language Learning.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 6.2 (2002): 179-206.
Spolsky, Bernard. Sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press, 1997.
Tong, Yuk Yue, et al. “Language Use as a Carrier of Social Identity.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 23.2 (1999): 281-296. <!--[endif]--> <!--[endif]-->
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- In the current landscape of culture in the U.S.A. many ethnic minorities find it difficult to give up their native languages to speak the English language, because they feel that they are losing a part of their culture. However, what they should realize is that by accepting the English language into their lives they are not losing a part of their culture, they are gaining a new identity for themselves and their culture. The most common reason for ethnic minorities’ fear of giving up their languages is fear that they are losing a part of their heritage and identity.... [tags: Minorities, Culture, USA, ]
910 words (2.6 pages)
- “Children begin to develop a sense of identity as individuals and as members of groups from their earliest interactions with others” (Trumbull and Pacheco 9). People start to develop their cultural identities as a young child, unknowingly, by their interactions with other people. Though, what is a person’s cultural identity. According to one source, cultural identity can be described as “one of the most basic type of identity is ethnic identity, which entails an awareness of one’s membership in a social group that has a common culture” (Trumbull and Pacheco 9).... [tags: Culture, Multiculturalism, Humanities, Linguistics]
971 words (2.8 pages)
- This paper will discuss how Sporting Heritage engenders national and group identities. The topics related too in this paper, are the types of identity represented by sporting Heritage, as sporting heritage has the ability to represent groups and entire nations across the world. Sport is a fundamental part of British and world culture and is an important aspect of modern life. This topic is relevant to recent trends within modern interest as it touches upon numerous essential museum issues, for instance questions related to sport having not always being perceived as real heritage by academics and furthermore the recent inclusion of sport in academic discussion, due to until fairly recently sp... [tags: Sporting Heritage Essays]
3387 words (9.7 pages)
- Introduction The purpose of this paper is to cause the writer to reflect on the past and discover what incidents developed the writer’s ethnic identity. Ethnic identity is an essential aspect of the self that connects people of common heritage with a particular ethnic group, and is an important component of social development (Brown, Spatzier, & Tobin, 2010). Ethnic Identity is part of our self-concept and how we view ourselves and our relation to the groups we belong to. Before one can truly relate to people of different ethnicity than their own they need to understand their own ethnicity and how they came to identify with that group ethically.... [tags: Ethnic group, Race, Ethnic groups, Ethnicity]
900 words (2.6 pages)
- It seems necessary to begin this essay by discussing the differences between a nation and a state before one can analyze what Collier meant when he declared, “leaders must build a nation before they can build a state” (Collier, 2009, pg. 52). A nation represents a collection of people that are united by the sharing of similar cultures, decent, history, and/or languages within a particular region. In contrast, a state represents a region that is considered to have an organized political structure beneath a single government.... [tags: Nation, Ethnic group, Race, Ethnicity]
736 words (2.1 pages)
- The Multi-Lingual Policy in Swiss Schools and the Swiss Identity Switzerland has a largely immigrant population. It is made up of people of many different nationalities who speak many different languages. It is divided into four language regions for German, French, Italian and Romansh-speaking people. Pupils are taught at least three languages. They are required to learn English, their own ethnic language and at least another language of the federation. The official teaching language depends on the official language of the region.... [tags: Papers]
662 words (1.9 pages)
- Personal Identity Research Paper Racially, ethnically, and culturally, I classify myself as a white, Irish-Italian- American, woman. My mother was born in Belfast, Northern Ireland and my paternal grandparents are from Sicily, Italy. I imagine being first generation Irish and second generation Italian makes me relate more with my ethnicity. My maternal grandfather impacted my development of my ethnic and cultural identity. He instilled a pride and an understanding of my Irish roots. Specifically, he brought me over to Belfast to learn and experience the culture.... [tags: Race, Family, Grandparent, Ethnic group]
901 words (2.6 pages)
- Teachers and administrators that strive to increase motivation and academic success in their students have to become of aware that their student body is becoming more diverse and so many aspects of the school’s culture must be changed. Many schools have alienated their students that come from different ethnic backgrounds by failing to make that connection between self-identity and school identity. There are many different strategies that can be implemented by school staff to make these changes and increase motivation and academic success in their students, but it comes with hard work and dedication.... [tags: Ethnic Essays]
1118 words (3.2 pages)
- The unprecedented increase in the rate of international migration have prompted many social scientists to look at studying the many aspects of culture that interact with the whole immigration process, and the many changes that occur not only to the immigrant groups but to the members of the host community. A review of studies on attitudinal, cultural and/or behavioural change as a result of the immigration and adaptation processes has identified three constructs that have received much attention among researchers.... [tags: Cultural Identity,international immigration]
1515 words (4.3 pages)
- “Kya chahin hain?” asked the man standing behind the register. “Mujhey ye coffee chaaheeye,” I replied. Without any confusion, he made my beverage and handed it to me. I praised myself quietly about my improved conversational skills in Hindi. When I first arrived in India, I would either mistakenly mix in Gujarati words or mispronounce words in Hindi. I never really noticed my “American” accent until I came abroad. More astonishing than my improvement in Hindi, was the fact that I chose to come to this café despite my past reluctance.... [tags: Hindi, language, travel, Heritage,]
877 words (2.5 pages)
- The Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson
- The Himba of Southwestern Africa and the Implications of the Nation State
- 20th Century Latin American Literature
- Inuit Land Rights, Whaling Jurisdiction, and Education
- Education and Racism in the United States and Namibia
- Understanding the Great Commission by the Grace of God and the Help of a Cloud of Witnesses