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Chemistry of LSD and Route of Access Essay

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Chemistry of LSD and Route of Access


Classification

Pharmacologically, the commonly abused hallucinogenic substances
may be divided into two major groups. The indolealkylamines,
including d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and
dimethyltryptamine (DMT) bear a structural resemblance to the
neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). The
phenylethylamines, including mescaline and the
phenylisopropylamines such as 2, 5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine
(DOM, "STP"), are structurally related to dopamine,
norepinephrine, and the amphetamines (Gelenberg, Bassuk,
Schoonover 1991).

Doses

Usual doses range from about 25 micrograms to more than 300
micrograms. LSD is known to posses a low level of toxicity; the
effective dose is about 50 micrograms while the lethal dose is
about 14,000 micrograms. These figures provide a therapeutic
ratio of 280, making the drug a remarkably nonlethal compound
(Julien 2001).

Pharmacology

d-Lysergic acid diethylamide is a synthetic hallucinogen derived
from an extract of the ergot fungus. The drug is colorless,
odorless, and tasteless. It is usually ingested as part of a
pill or dissolved on a piece of paper (Gelenberg, Bassuk,
Schoonover 1991).

LSD is often added to other substances, such as the back of
stamps, or sugar cubes, which can be handled more easily (Julien
2001).

Following oral administration, the drug is well absorbed from
the gastrointestinal tract and distributed to body tissues. Only
small amounts are detected in the brain, however (Gelenberg,
Bassuk, Schoonover 1991).

It also crosses the placenta. The largest amounts of LSD in the
body are found in the liver, where the drug is metabolized
be...


... middle of paper ...


...emoved from the reaction mixture and can be re-employed
in other conversions (Making LSD in the Laboratory, 2005).

References

Gelenberg, A.J., & Bassuk, E.L., & Schoonover, S.C. (1991). The
Practitioner's Guide to Psychoactive Drugs. 3rd. Ed. (pp. 288,
290). New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Julien, R. M. (2001). A Primer of Drug Action. (p. 234). New
York: Worth Publishers.

Stockley. (2002). Stockley's Drug Interactions. (pp. 906-907).
Great Britain: The Bath Press.

Strang, M. (2004). LSD and Psilocybin- Serotonergic
Hallucinogens: Route of access, brain metabolism, and
neurochemical effects. February 24 2005, from The Shroomery.
http://www.shroomery.org/index/par/25277.

(2005). Making LSD in the Laboratory. February 28 2005, from
Temple of the Screaming Electron.
http://www.totse.com/en/drugs/psychedelics/lablsd.html


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