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Employee Motivation

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Motivation is one of the best ways to build a good management in an organization. Hobson and Kini (2002) defined motivation as “The set of processes that arouse (-drive behind behavior), direct (-directed behavior), and maintain (-maintaining the behavior in meeting the goal) human behavior toward attaining goal” (Kini and Hobson 2002, p. 607). It simply means that by motivation, people are motivated to do their work at their maximum capability. This may help the organization to achieve their goal and their objectives. Therefore, managers have responsibility to make sure that employees are at their high level of motivation so that they can work at their high level of performance (Wood et al. 2006). According to Bates (2009), sense of purpose is necessary. It is because if people have no purpose, it might difficult for them to have motivation. While if they know and understand what matters that they are doing, it could motivate them and increase their passion and creativity (Bates 2009).
Frey and Osterloh (2000) found that there are two types of motivation, which are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation defined as a motivation that is “valued for its own sake and appears to be self-sustained” (Frey and Osterloh 2000, p. 539). In other words, intrinsic motivation is a motivation that motivates people to do some activity based on individual’s need and satisfaction. For example, students maybe motivated to study harder and get the best score in class because they want to make their parents proud of them. Everyone has different needs or purpose, thus there are different motivation for different people. Whereas extrinsic motivation is a motivation that can satisfy people’s needs indirectly, such as...

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...el of performances. Thus, they would have motivation to put extra effort to achieve the high performances and get promoted.
The second theory is equity theory. Wood et al. (2006) defined equity theory as a theory of motivation that includes social comparison between different individuals behavior. Moreover, inequity happens when people feel that the rewards they received from their performances are unequal to the rewards that others have received. When people feel that they received relatively smaller proportion than the others, they would feel negative inequity. While if people feel that they received bigger proportion than the others, they might feel positive inequity. Therefore, people tend to be more motivated to perform job if they felt positive inequity and they are more likely reduce their performances if they felt negative inequity (Wood et al 2006).

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