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Facts about the Global Trends Essay

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Facts about the Global Trends

In this essay I will aim to answer the question, “Where, When & Why
did the first states form?” This is an important question as the
development of the states, is the turning point in civilisation from
chiefdoms into a society, which is very similar to the one, which we
live in today.

The state can be defined many ways by different organisations;
political theorists, historians, archaeologists and anthropologists
all use different definitions. I will define the state as having a
centralised government with, an elite ruling class of powerful
families and rulers, a bureaucracy of government and ruling officials,
an armed group which maintain a legitimate monopoly on force to impose
decisions, and maintain law and order. There must also be economic
specialists, full time crafts people, like artists and poets. Also by
definition a state has an urban centred settlement pattern, as it
could be described simply as an overgrown chiefdom.

There are two basic philosophical views for why the primary states
developed. One was of social needs, which states that a central
government was necessary, as the rulers i.e. the elite, of the early
states were naturally problem solvers, and the manager elites are
“system serving”. The second theory is that central government
developed to protect the interests of the ruling class.

In 4000bc civilisation was organised into a mixture of chiefdoms and
society. The earliest states developed around 3500bc. These states
tended to develop around rivers, as this was an area where fertility
was high and so agriculture was unproblematic. As populations
concentrate around the...


... middle of paper ...


...tes, at similar times. But without a single origin for the
development of the state, no single reason can be made, for why states
develop, whether it is physicality or organisational structure.

I believe that the development of the state, is a natural progression
from that of chiefdoms, as populations increase, organisation must
also increase, in order to maintain the population, and so as a direct
affect of this public resources will increase also, and as trade and
communication increase amongst developing states, ideas will be
exchanged and so, states will grow exponentially.


Bibliography

http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/ant100/pdf/OriginsofCitiesStates1.pdf

Dark K R. The Waves of Time, 1998, first edition, London.

www.wikipedia.co.uk - references to Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, Peru,
China, The Indus Valley.


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