The Human Genome Project Essay

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The Human Genome Project
The complete human genome sequence was announced in April 2003, two
years ahead of schedule and almost three years after the first working
draft was achieved. The sequencing information from the project was
made fully and freely available at every stage, but much further work
remains to be done to identify the thousands of genes and their

The Human Genome Project is a international scientific mutual aid to
gain a basic understanding of the whole genetic blueprint of a human

This genetic information is initiate in each cell of the body, encoded
in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The structure of a DNA molecule
resembles a ladder formed of sugars and phosphates, and four
nucleotide bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine
(G). The coding information in the DNA is given by the order of the
nucleotide bases, and each gene possesses a unique sequence of base
pairs. Scientists use these base sequences to locate the position of
genes on chromosomes and to construct a map of the entire human

The project was intended to identify all the Gene in the nucleus of a
human cell; to launch, by a process known as mapping, where those
genes are located on the Chromosome in the nucleus, also there is
another process known as sequencing, the order of the chemical bases
in the DNA, which unravelled the genetic information.

The ultimate goal of genomic mapping and sequencing is to associate
specific human qualities and inherited diseases with particular genes
at precise locations on the chromosomes. The successful completion of
the genome project n...

... middle of paper ...

...tion, and are passed on in subsequent
generations. These multiple forms constitute “polymorphisms” at each
particular site in the DNA. Polymorphisms involving alteration of just
a single nucleotide are thus called “single nucleotide polymorphisms”
or “SNPs”. Some polymorphisms are of particular importance: those that
affect the function or expression of genes, for example, cause
functional differences between individuals. A functional sequence
difference may alter the risk of a person acquiring a disease, their
susceptibility to infection, their ability to metabolized a drug, or
their reaction to an environmental factor. As the Human Genome Project
extends its focus to catalogue these differences, publicly available
DNA sequence information will have ever increasing utility and
precision for human biology and medicine.

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