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Reading Approaches of Bottom-up and Top-down

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Reading Approaches of Bottom-up and Top-down


The main two approaches to reading, top-down and bottom-up have
produced a great debate towards which is the best approach to teach
children to read. Top down reading is also known as the whole
language approach in which the meaning of the text relies upon the
reader’s background knowledge and his/her use of prediction to
anticipate the meaning of the text.
(http://www.sedl.org/reading/topics/balanced.html [23.10.01]). The
bottom-up approach to reading involves the use of phonics and the
decoding of text, word by word after which meaning and understanding
will follow (http://www.sedl.org/reading/topics/balanced.html
[23.10.01]). Phonics is referred to a method of teaching children to
read by relating certain letters or sequences of letters with certain
sounds (R.L. Trusk, 1997, p.168). Phonics involves mastering the
alphabetic principle by learning the grapheme-phoneme correspondence
rules (rules of relating letters or groups of letters to sounds). A
grapheme is a sm...


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...frehan.html

http://www.coreknowledge.org/ckproto2/about/nwsltr/phonicsNwsltr.htm

http://www.cpa.ca/posppr.html

http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~ncsall/fob/1997/eskey.htm

http://www.halcyon.org/wholelan.html

http://www.sabes.org/f02abrah.htm

http://www.sedl.org/reading/topics/balanced.html

http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy…acyTerms/WhatIs

http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy…acyTerms/WhatIs

AtopDownReadingModel.htm

http://www.superkids.com/aweb/pages/features/reading/phonics.shtml

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