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Holography

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Holography

While working to improve the resolution of an electron microscope, a brilliant man named Dennis Gabor had developed a theory on Holography. This dates back to the year of 1947. Dennis Gabor is a British/Hungarian scientist who created the word Holography from Greek terms. He used the word holos, meaning "whole," and gramma, meaning "message." Gabor characterized his work as "an experiment in serendipity" that was begun too soon. The next decade brought about frustration in Holography because light sources available at the time were not coherent.
In 1960 a breakthrough came forth. The invention of the laser had pure and intense light that was well suited for the making of holograms. Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks of the University of Michigan both had realized that Holography could be used as a 3-D visual medium in 1962. After reading Gabor's paper they decided to duplicate Gabor's technique. Gabor's technique was using the laser and an off axis technique borrowed from their work in the development of side reading radar. The outcome of this experiment was the first laser transmission hologram of 3-D objects. The transmission holograms that Leith and Upatnieks created produced images with clarity and realistic depth. The only issue was that they required laser light to view the holographic image.

The experimental work of both these men led to standardization of the equipment used to make holograms. Thousands of laboratories and studios today possess the necessary equipment. They are the following: A continuous wave laser, optical devices, such as, lens, mirrors, and beam splitters which is used to direct laser light, a film holder, and an isolation table on which exposures are made.
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...ernment agencies and others who are using holograms. Take a Connecticut drivers license for example, it now has a hologram on it. This way it is much harder to create fake identification driver licenses. The way technology has changed over the years is truly an amazing thing to see. If great minds keep existing in the world, imagine what we can have thirty or sixty years from now. Below you will see a diagram of a hologram with all its components. Dennis Gabor sure was an exceptional Hungarian physicist and if it weren't for him, we may not have holograms today.
















Bibliography:

I. Erbschloe, Michael and Vacca, John. Holograms and Holography. Charles River Publishing. New York 1999 Pgs. 1-676


II. Fournier, J.M. Holography: The first 50 Years. Springer Verlas Publishing. New York. March 2001 Pgs 1-202



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