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The Factors that Influence the Flood Hydrograph

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The Factors that Influence the Flood Hydrograph


In this essay I aim to find out the ways in which they affect the
flood hydrograph, with particular reference to rural and urbanised
drainage basins of Tokyo.

A drainage basin is an area of the land's surface from which a river
receives its supply of water. An imaginary line can mark the edge of a
drainage basin. This is called the watershed. The other main features
of a drainage basin are shown in figure 1.

The drainage basin relies on the atmosphere for its inputs of water,
whilst water passes through the drainage basin leaves the system
either to return to the atmosphere or to become an input into the
coastal and ocean systems. A single drainage basin is one part of the
whole hydrological cycle, but the hydrological processes taking place
within it are most likely as those operating at the global scale.
Figure 2 shows the hydrological processes taking place in a drainage
basin, with its outputs, inputs, stores and processes. (On separate
sheet). ...

... middle of paper ...

...ndy soils have large pore spaces allowing rapid infiltration, so
rainfall is soaked up quickly. Clay soils have small pore spaces
slowing down infiltration and increasing the risk of flooding. If the
soil has been compacted flooding is also more likely. Permeable rocks
allow water to pass through reducing the flood risk.

Flood hydrographs for rivers in urban areas are different to those for
rivers in rural areas. They have a shorter lag time and a higher peak
discharge; the rising and recession limbs are steeper.

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