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Essay on The Contributions of Ancient Civilizations to History

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What contributions did near eastern civilizations make to history? New ideas and inventions of Pre History man were important, but how they evolved and led to new and more complex ideas and inventions is imperative to history. Over time these advancements brought people into a more efficient living environment, making for higher population and spread of cultural, political, economic, and social ideals over large geographical areas.

What we know about the people before written records is limited to what artifacts and artwork we find. Pre History man used crude tools made of primarily stone. During the Upper Paleolithic era, beginning about 40,000 B.C., people refined these tools by using polished stone. New tools like fishhooks and sewing needles were made out of bone and wood during this time.

During the Neolithic revolution around 11,000 B.C., people made the first semi-permanent settlements. Storing Grain in pits made it possible to survive without moving in the winter months. Around 6,000 B.C. Agriculture was becoming widely used as a primary means of survival. The first evidence of domesticated cattle was also found in this time frame. Primitive civilizations such as Jericho were growing at this time and a series of long distance trade routes were established. This was a step towards the first urban-based civilizations, as a significant number of people were becoming full time in a non-agricultural trade.

The first primary civilization was located in Southern Mesopotamia, known as Sumer. The Sumerians invented the first writing known as Cuneiform. We are left with tens of thousands of written records on many aspects of the Sumerians, the most notable of these being the Epic of Gilgamesh. This is an a...


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...control with the Chaldeans, the deciding factor would be the Persians. They would unite the Near East from Greece to Egypt all the way to Mesopotamia. They set a standard currency and measurement system and expanded trade to and communication to unknown proportions. The Persian religion was Zoroastrianism, which resembles Judaism and Christianity, and was a universal religion before Christianity and Islam.

From Pre-History to the Persians people went from nomadic hunting and gathering people to complex and organized civilizations. Through this time small ideas like the stone knife turned into the iron sword that modernized warfare. Small idea on a greater deity helped establish great civilizations, but also helped them fall when internal problems arose or warfare broke out. Some of these changes have had a lasting effect and still affect the world today.



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