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One of the Three Main Approaches in Counselling Psychology: Freud's Psychoanalysis

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Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian physician in 1900 he was both the medical doctor (neurologist) and philosopher, Fraud who was founder of the study of psychoanalysis also known as the study of the unconscious mind The Psychodynamic approach is deterministic free will. And free association this approach believes that people behaviour and feelings as adults are rooted in childhood experiences. Freud believed that much of peoples behaviour is determined by unconscious thoughts, memories etc. He compared the mind to an iceberg, with the tip of the iceberg being the conscious mind and the larger part as being the unconscious mind. Bernstein (1997)
Further key issues within Freudian, or psychoanalytic approach is include the structure of mental apparatus, that being the Id, Ego and Super Ego (McLeod, 2003), three connecting systems that constantly interact with one another in order to regulate the behaviour of the individual (Hough, 1998).
The Id is a container of primitive or innate instincts and impulses that Freud theorised as the ultimate motivation for human behaviour. There are said to be two core drives within the Id. Eros, which the life instinct is relating to love and sex, and Thanatos, the death instinct relating to aggression and hate. The Id is powered by the pleasure principle and is irrational (McLeod, 2003) (Feltham and Dryden, 2004).
The Ego is the decisive, rational part and conscious part of the mind that deals with external reality (McLeod, 2003). Freud supposed that the ego surfaced from the Id to arbitrate between the Id and the external world. (Feltham and Dryden, 2004), The Ego is logical, and incorporates problem solving abilities, memory and perception. Skills such as speaking, planning, negotiat...


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...ent is their own best authority the focus of PCT is client’s base their own feelings and thoughts, as opposed to judgement by the counsellor through diagnosis or categorisation PCT typically does not give advice or interpretations as Rogers believed that people are trustworthy with a great potential for self awareness and self-directed growth

In conclusion Psychoanalysis focuses on the past affecting the present and the therapist is detached and acts as a teacher. Therapy can last several years and so is expensive. However, person-centred therapy focuses on the present and the therapist is caring and warm. Therapy duration is decided by the client and they achieve their own insight. In addition, cognitive-behavioural therapy also focuses on the present, the therapist is a teacher and the therapist-client relationship isn’t important as in person-centred Therapy


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