New England Colonies


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New England Colonies
Motivation
• By and large, the people who settled in the New England Colonies wanted to keep their family unit together and practice their own religion.
• They were used to doing many things themselves and not depending on other people for much.
• Some of these people came to New England to make money, but they were not the majority.

Economy

• The New England Colonies were largely farming and fishing communities.
• The people made their own clothes and shoes.
• They grew much of their own food. Crops like corn and wheat grew in large numbers, and much was shipped to England.
• Foods that didn't grow in America were shipped from England.
• Boston was the major New England port.
• The farms were almost always self-sufficient farms.
• Fishing off of the Great Banks of Canada was an important part of the economy.
• Lumbering and ship building made use of the forests of New England.
• Commerce and shipping were very important

The Mayflower

• Plymouth, England
• 102 Passengers on the Mayflower
• The Puritans were seeking new life of religious freedom in America
• All the passengers were called Pilgrims
• Among their advisors was Captain John Smith
• It took 66 days to reach New England, and the journey was very hard for the people who weren’t used to sailing

Massachusetts

• Before they even set foot on shore, they wrote an agreement called the ‘Mayflower Compact’ that would set the rules to guide them through the early, hard times of establishing a new community
• This was signed on November 21, 1620, which served as the official constitution of the colony for many years
• Massachusetts was founded by a group of English colonists
• The Puritans came to Massachusetts in 1628
• The relationship between the native On September 16, 1620 the ship ‘Mayflower’ set off for tribes and the colonists in New England was always strained, but generally didn’t result in much bloodshed

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• The colony was one of the most important that ever settled in this country.
• Its leaders were not only of the best character, but were wealthy, wise, and farseeing.
• A large number arrived in 1630, and founded Boston, Cambridge, Lynn, and other towns.
• Although they suffered many privations, they were not as harsh as those of Plymouth, and the colony prospered.
• During the ten years succeeding 1630, 20,000 people settled in Massachusetts, and in 1692 the two colonies united under the name of Massachusetts.
• It would seem that since these people had fled to America to escape religious persecution, they would have been tolerant of the views of those among them, 
but such unhappily was not the case.
• The most important part of their work was the building of churches and the establishment of religious instruction. The minister was the most important man in the colony, and no one was, allowed to vote unless a member of the church.
• A reproof in church was considered the most disgraceful penalty that could be visited upon a wrong-doer.
• The sermons were two, three, and sometimes four hours long, and the business of one of the officers was to watch those overcome by drowsiness and wake them up, sometimes quite sharply.

Rhode Island

• In the 1630s, Puritans leaders in Massachusetts forced all the people who did not practice their faith to leave the colony
• They formed three settlements, Portsmouth, Newport and Warwick
• In 1647, England joined these settlements together as the Rhode Island Colony
• Most colonists in the Rhode Island Colony were farmers
• Many owned large plantations along Narragansett Bay, where slaves raised crops and cared for cattle
• In 1774, Rhode Island was the first colony to prohibit the import of slaves
• This colony was the first to guarantee all its citizens freedom of worship.
• The colony was founded on separation of church and state.
• Rhode Island is known for its fierce independence.

Connecticut

• The native Americans gave Connecticut its name from the native American word quinatucquet which means beside the long tile river
• The Connecticut River is 360 miles long
• The first Europeans we saw landing on Connecticut shores were Dutch traders who sailed up the Connecticut River around the year 1614, and landed near Hartford. By the year 1633, they had purchased land from the Pequot tribe and made a permanent settlement.
• In 1636, one of the most famous early Connecticut settlers, the reverend Thomas had traveled from Massachusetts with a group of colonists. They founded the town of Hartford which soon became an important center of government and trade.
• It was in the town of Wethersfield that they planted the first crop.
• By 1637, trouble began between the settlers and the Pequot Indians
• The Indians take the land they had purchased from the Mohegan's
• In that year, captain john mason led the colonists to victory over the Pequot's
• By 1660, the colonists had become uneasy about their legal standing with England. The colonies were still under English rule then, but there were many disagreements about claims
• Governor John Winthrop went to England in 1662 to talk to Kind Charles II. He returned with a royal charter.
• This document is important because it gave the colony a legal basis and the approval of the king.
• The colony continued to grow peacefully

New Hampshire

• In 1622 Captain John Mason and Sir Ferdinand Gorges obtained from the Council of Plymouth a grant of land partly in Maine and partly in New Hampshire
• They called this land Laconia. In spring of 1623, they sent two small parties of emigrants to settle it.
• New Hampshire derives it name from the Hampshire county in England and was first called such in 1629
• In 1641 the settlements of New Hampshire formed a coalition with Massachusetts, whose protection they enjoyed for forty years
• In 1680, the territory was separated from that colony by order of the king
• New Hampshire was made a royal province, and therefore had a government appointed by the crown

Vocabulary
• Dissented- disagrees with the beliefs or practices of the Anglicans
• Persecuted- treated harshly
• Puritans- the Protestants who wanted to reform the Anglican Church
• Separatists- people who wanted to leave and set up their own churches
• Pilgrims- the separatists considered themselves Pilgrims because their journey had religious purposes
• Mayflower Compact- a compact that pledged the Pilgrims loyalty to England and declared their intention of forming a “civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation”
• Toleration- they criticized or persecuted people who held other religious views


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