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Lung Cancer and Smoking Essay

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A. LUNG CANCER:
Definition:
According to the National Cancer Institute (2009), lung cancer refers to the uncontrolled and abnormal proliferation of lung tissue, usually in the cells lining air passages1. It occurs when there is an excessive growth of the cells found in the lungs leading to a variety of clinical symptoms.
Classification:
The International Classification of Disease, ICD-10 classifies lung cancer under C34 as malignant neoplasm of the bronchus and lung2. When reporting routine statistics, tumours of the lung and bronchus are grouped together with those of the trachea C333.
Pathology and Clinical Features:
Lung cancer occurs mostly in adults between 45 and 75 years of age and about 80 – 90 percent of all cases have tobacco smoking as the major aetiological factor4-6. The likelihood of developing lung cancer is higher in those who commence smoking at a young age, and also in heavy smokers compared to light smokers5. Other risk factors include exposure to radon gas, asbestos, uranium and pitchblende miners, chromium and nickel refiners, welders, and workers exposed to halogenated ethers 5.
There are basically two types of lung cancer, the small cell tumour and non-small cell tumour which can be differentiated microscopically. Major clinical features of lung cancer include cough (80%), haemoptysis (70%), dyspnoea (60%) and chest pain (40%). Others include recurrent or slowly resolving pneumonia, weight loss, anaemia, anorexia and enlarged lymph nodes 7.
Epidemiology:
Lung cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed in the UK (excluding non-melanoma-skin cancers) and it is more common in men than women (Figure 1.0). Lung cancer accounted for about 39,000(Figure 1.3) of all UK cancer cases diagnosed in...


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...arch/articlesBySubject/displaystory.cfm?subjectid=349008&story_id=E1_TPSGGQRP. Accessed 11/28/2009.
22. Why People Smoke Available at: http://healthliteracy.worlded.org/docs/tobacco/Unit3/1why_people_smoke.html. Accessed 11/29/2009.
23. Walker MS, Vidrine DJ, Gritz ER, Larsen RJ, Yan Y, Govindan R, et al. Smoking relapse during the first year after treatment for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; Dec; 15(12):2370-7.
24. Britain gives up smoking - Times Online Available at: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article730913.ece. Accessed 11/28/2009.
25. Get Help Quitting Smoking – NHS Stop Smoking Campaign – Stopping Smoking Available at: http://www.canstopsmoking.com/. Accessed 11/29/2009,
26. Smoking and Lung Cancer Associations Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/576699. Accessed 11/28/2009



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