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Essay about Indus Valley and the Beginnings of Agriculture

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The Indus Valley is located in northern India and is an important site concerning the early beginnings of agriculture in the old world. The geography, environment, and timeframe of the Indus Valley are distinct to the area and different from other sites of agricultural origin. Many plants and animals were domesticated in the Indus Valley, and due to the areas susceptibility to flooding, technological innovations had to take place. The Indus Valley is important to understanding the beginnings of agriculture and early civilization.
The Indus Valley is primarily known for the rise of a large civilization, and this took place in the not so distant past. The first settlers in the Harappan area established themselves near the Ravi River around 3300 BC in a small agricultural village ( Kenoyer 3). The date of 3300 BC means that agriculture in the Indus Valley first appeared a mere 3000 years ago. Though the first agricultural settlements may have been small, large cities eventually developed. Other archaeological records estimate the age early Indus Valley occupation at between 2175-1750 BC ( Fitzsimons 10). So through this information it can be concluded that the early Indus Valley had agricultural beginnings within the last 3500 years. The region lies in a lowland valley along the Indus river, the Himalaya mountains, along with other river tributaries feed the river causing severe flooding ( Fitzsimons 11). Due to the severe flooding in the Indus Valley technological innovations had to take place to combat the problem. “Against the menace of the river the men of this civilization built huge walls of brick surfaced with baked brick” ( Fitzsimons 11). Although little evidence of irrigation has been found, perhaps due to the close pro...


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...s, 16). It is important to understand the agriculture in the region was dependent upon growing and harvesting plants when the river was
So the Indus Valley is a once highly populated location of agricultural origin that was for the most part overcome by the elements. Agriculture first appeared in the area within the last 3000 years and though technological innovations were undertaken to try and control the geographic features of the region, they were for the most part unsuccessful. Plants and animals were domesticated in the region, examples including emmer and einkorn wheat and horses and sheep. The 3000 year old site of Harappa is important because when the river swelled it usually started here and created damage to agriculture further downstream. So the Indus Valley is a location of agricultural origin important to understanding the beginnings of agriculture.


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