Preview
Preview

History of Biology: Patent Medicines Containing Sulfa Essay

No Works Cited
Length: 1123 words (3.2 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Purple      
Open Document
Need writing help? Check your paper »



- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

History of Biology

An Essay on Patent Medicines Containing Sulfa
The first antibiotics ever discovered were sulfa drugs which contained chemicals known as sulfonamides and worked at the molecular level. They were first used during the 1930s triggering an astounding revolution in medicine (NIH, 2012). These drugs virtually treated a range of bacterial infections that had the possibility of being fatal such as streptococcal infections (notably scarlet fever, erysipelas, and puerperal sepsis), pneumonia, and meningitis. During the mid-1930s (especially 1936) Pneumonia was incredibly fatal accounting for approximately 8% of total deaths (Jayachandran, 2008). Following their discovery, there was a huge spike in the production and sales of the drugs with over 10 to 15 million people being treated with them in 1940 alone (Hecht, 1984). The drug gained a cult following among people and was called “the miracle of miracles” it saved millions of lives from Winston Churchill to Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s son (Hager, 2006)
As most bacteria do over time, a resistance to sulfa drugs was developed replacing them with penicillin. However, sulfa drugs are still utilized to treat a variety of bacterial infections. They work by binding and inhibiting a specific enzyme called dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) which is crucial for the synthesis of the essential nutrient folate (NIH, 2012). Despite its miracles, sulfa patented medicines also had their downfalls.
Dr. James Stephenson, a country doctor in Oklahoma, noticed an alarming rate of fatalities around his region in 1937. The suspected culprits for the fatalities ranged from kidney failure to poison.Upon reading an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association that highlighted ...


... middle of paper ...


...n of a medicine if deemed to be deleterious to ones’ health Massengill ultimately denied all claims of certain error that the toxic agent was diethylene glyocol (Hager, 2006).

Literature Cited
Hager, Thomas. (2006).The Demon under the Microscope: From Battlefield Hospitals to Nazi Labs, One Doctor's Heroic Search for the World's First Miracle Drug. New York: Three Rivers Press. 209-35. Print.

Hecht. Annabel. (1984). “Sulfa; Yesterday's Hero is Still Taking Bows.” FDA Consumer

Jayachandran, S. et. Al.(2008). Modern Medicine and the 20th Century Decline in Mortality: New Evidence on the Impact of Sulfa Drugs. California Center for Population Research. UCLA: California Center for Population Research. Retrieved from: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7vh9m2q8
National Institutes for Health. (2012). How Sulfa Drugs Work. Retrieved from
http://www.nih.gov/




Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »







This essay is 100% guaranteed.


Title Length Color Rating  
Essay on Pharamaceutical Industry Patent Assessment - Pharmaceutical Industry Patent Assessment Patents are a key element of Intellectual Property and provide a competitive edge to the pharmaceutical industry. The exclusive property rights provided by patents restrict competition in production and sales of medicine allowing companies to charge higher prices without concern for competition. The global standard of twenty years from the application date protecting the company’s significant research and testing investment. This is standard is important because it can take 10-15 years to develop a single product....   [tags: patent, rights, medicines, advancement] 1027 words
(2.9 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Combating Counterfeit Medicines to Protect Patient Safety Essay - The briefing presents background on global counterfeit medicines situation, taking into consideration that IAPO members may have varying levels of knowledge on the topic. It outlines three options to tackle issue and describes the drivers of and potential barriers to each, followed by a recommendation on which policy IAPO should support. I. Background and Problem Description A. Counterfeit Medicines A counterfeit medicine is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as "a medicine, which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabelled with respect to identity and/or source....   [tags: public health threat, iapo, counterfeit Medicines]
:: 15 Works Cited
2358 words
(6.7 pages)
Research Papers [preview]
Essay about Biotechnology in Malysia : Medicinal Patent - ... According to Alavi (2003), most of the medical patenting was not held by local manufacturers but were by foreign companies such as Smithkline Beecham, Glaxo, Wellcome and Roche (M) Sdn. Bhd instead. However, Universiti Putra Malaysia owns an intellectual property in medicine. An example is antioxidant rich nutraceutical formulation with application number PI20050102. This neutraceutical product compose of three antioxidants; tocopherols, tocotrienols and gamma oryzanol that improve antioxidant status and reducing the risk of coronary heart disease....   [tags: medical devices, drug patent] 1156 words
(3.3 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
The Discoveries of New Medicines back in 1800-1900 Essay - Nowadays, we are so indolent that we take for granted the medicine provided for us to cure our pain or illnesses and must feel privileged. When we date back to the 1800-1900, we will come to know that it wasn’t unusual for people to die with minor diseases, as there were no medicines invented for that certain type of disease. For decades, scientist and doctors worldwide have worked day and night in order to invent respective medicines and drugs that can help humankind to get rid of certain disease....   [tags: medicines, diseases, penicillin] 626 words
(1.8 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Homeopathic Remedies And Allopathic Medicines Essay - The Balancing Act: Homeopathic Remedies and Allopathic Medicine Modern medicine has eradicated diseases such as smallpox, polio, and malaria in many parts of the world, preventing many deaths. Yet, with many emerging alternative practices, the American society is slowly becoming more reliant on alternative medicines with little scientific evidence. However, one alternative practice, homeopathy, is slowly becoming accepted by many physicians. Now that homeopathy is sanctioned by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA), many physicians and scientists believe that this practice is as effective as allopathic medicine....   [tags: Compare&Contrast, Alternative Medicine] 1625 words
(4.6 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Patent Protection in Malaysia Essay - Patent protection in Malaysia is governed by the Patents Act 1983, and is obtainable by either or filing a direct national application or entering the national phase of a Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) application. There are two patent classifications that an applicant can choose upon application, the standard patent or design patent and the utility patent. With regards to Malaysian Patent Application Requirements, the applicant has to file the patent with the Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia (MyIPO), in Kuala Lumpur, or at the branch offices located in Sabah and Sarawak....   [tags: requirement, patent act, rights] 1307 words
(3.7 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Issues on Patent and Copyright Laws In China Essay - Issues on Patent and Copyright Laws In China This site contains information on China's patent and copyright law. It goes on to discuss some ethical issues about China's lack of law enforcement on intellectual property protection. History of Patent System China’s patent system can be traced back to the late Qing Dynasty when China began signing international treaties. For example, on August 18, 1903, China and the United States agreed on a treaty on navigation and commerce. The treaty provided for a “reciprocal patent-granting arrangement whereby citizens of one contracting party could apply for and secure patent rights for their inventions in the other contracting party.”1 After the...   [tags: China Patent Copyright Essays]
:: 4 Works Cited
2384 words
(6.8 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Practical Applications of Evolutionary Biology Essay - Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace's concept of natural selection and descent with modification helped shape the theory of evolution which holds as much weight as the theory of relativity per se. Evolutionary biology is the science devoted to understanding how populations change through time in response to modifications of their environment and how new species come into being by studying adaptation and diversity (Freeman and Herron 2004). Evolutionary biology has proved that all organisms have evolved from a common ancestor over the last 3.5 billion years....   [tags: Biology] 1498 words
(4.3 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay about Software Patent Law - Software Patent Law A patent can be defined as “a legal document granted by the government giving an inventor the exclusive right to make, use, and sell an invention for a specified number of years.” 1 These special rights are given to the inventor as a means of incentive to further advance technology. The origins of patents are unknown, though the distinction of the longest continuous patent system belongs to Great Britain. The British patent system originated in the 15th century, when the Crown first started dealing with the granting of privileges to manufacturers and traders....   [tags: Patent Laws Governmental Essays]
:: 29 Works Cited
4775 words
(13.6 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Biology Essay - Biology is the science of living systems. It is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge of the physical sciences and mathematics, although specialities may be oriented toward a group of organisms or a level of organization. BOTANY is concerned with plant life, ZOOLOGY with animal life, algology with ALGAE, MYCOLOGY with fungi, MICROBIOLOGY with microorganisms such as protozoa and bacteria, CYTOLOGY with CELLS, and so on. All biological specialties, however, are concerned with life and its characteristics....   [tags: Biology]
:: 4 Works Cited
2806 words
(8 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]