Preview
Preview

History of Anthropology in the United States Essay

:: 7 Works Cited
Length: 1802 words (5.1 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Blue      
Open Document
Need writing help? Check your paper »



- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

During the 20th century, anthropology has developed following influential people such as Boas. The four subfields existed for a long time as separate fields, but with the direction of examining human culture within the United States, it became important to be holistic. Each subfield contributed greatly as no one field can study the entire breadth or depth of culture and behavior. However, there are forces that are contributing to each field going in its own direction that can lead to a break-up in the future. First, the emphasis on the profession have lead others to concentrate and specialized in their own perspective. Each field also has an increased difficulty to be well versed in all four subfields when there are alliances to other disciplines that relate more specifically to their specialization. Finally, there always seems to be a divide between the science and humanities which has lead to a constant tension within anthropology, which sits on the border.
One reason for the creation of the four-field approach in anthropology is the study of Native Americans, which were seen as disappearing (Darnell 2002:1). John Powell, as an example, has been studying Native Americans through ethnological and linguistic means, and later created a Division of Mound Exploration (Patterson 2001:37, 39). Powell was also influenced by Spencer’s and Darwin’s evolutionism as he studied Native Americans, and then influenced a large part of professional anthropology through publications of field investigations and researchers from different fields (Patterson 2001:40). However, the actual development of anthropology as a four field approach comes during Boas’s time and when anthropology became a profession.
Anthropology became a professio...


... middle of paper ...


..., Bloomington.

Little, Michael A.
2010 Franz Boas’s Place in American Physical Anthropology and Its Institutions. In Histories of American Physical Anthropology in the Twentieth Century, edited by Michael Little and Kenneth Kennedy. Lexington Books, Lanham, MD.

Little, Michael A., and Kenneth A.R. Kennedy
2010 Introduction to the History of American Physical Anthropology. In Histories of American Physical Anthropology in the Twentieth Century, edited by Michael Little and Kenneth Kennedy. Lexington Books, Lanham, MD.

Moore, Jerry
2012 Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists. 4th ed. Altamira Press, Lanham, MD.

Patterson, Thomas
2001 A Social History of Anthropology in the United States. Berg, Oxford.

Trigger, Bruce
2006 A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »







This essay is 100% guaranteed.


Title Length Color Rating  
Development of Anthropology as a Discipline in the United States Essays - Development of Anthropology as a Discipline in the United States I. Early History of Anthropology in the United States 1870-1900 “The roots of anthropology lie in the eye-witness accounts of travelers who have journeyed to lands on the margins of state-based societies and described their cultures and in the efforts of individuals who have analyzed the information collected. In the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, a number of anthropologists recognized that the practice of anthropology was intimately linked to commerce and colonial expansion.” (Patterson 1) There were essentially three “schools” of anthropological thinking by the First World War and after....   [tags: Anthropology History Essays]
:: 3 Works Cited
1567 words
(4.5 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Applied Anthropology: Domains of Application Essay - What is applied anthropology and how can it be applied to almost every facet of society. The answer is obvious when we look at what the field of anthropology encompasses. Anthropology, as defined by the American Anthropological Association is, “the study of humans, past and present.” In the United States, anthropologists are educated in one of the four areas, sociocultural anthropology, biological/physical anthropology, archaeology, and linguistics. Active within these four subfields is Applied Anthropology, which is the application of the method and theory of an anthropological subfield to the analysis and solution of real world situations and practical problems....   [tags: Physical Anthropology]
:: 7 Works Cited
1518 words
(4.3 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay on Gender and Education: The Sambia and United States - As a child going through public education, from kindergarten to my senior year of high school, I noticed an undeniable trend with my instructors. In elementary school (six years) I had all female teachers, 11 in total. Once I got to middle school (three years), I had a few male but most female instructors: 3 male, 19 female. And then in high school (I only attended two years of before enrolling in college), I had more male teachers than I did female: 10 male, 7 female. This trend continued into college where I have an equal distribution of male and female instructors....   [tags: Education]
:: 8 Works Cited
1849 words
(5.3 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Medical Anthropology Essay examples - Medical Anthropology Introduction and Description: My topic, Medical Anthropology, is a field of study that uses culture, religion, education, economics/infrastructure, history, and the environment as a means to evaluate and understand "cross-cultural perspectives, components, and interpretations of the concept of health" (Society for Medical Anthropology, pg. 1). To further introduce Medical Anthropology, I will reiterate highlights of my previous presentations. Early on in Turkey, I asked each person in our program the following question: "I would like you to tell me about health and what it means to you?" The answers to this question varied widely, making it difficult to define a glo...   [tags: Medicine Culture Environment Essays] 3837 words
(11 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Gender Differences throughout History Essay example - ... She provides a springboard for further investigation. The study of gender and its historical analysis has, itself, evolved. Linda Kerber in her essay Seperate Spheres, Female Worlds, Woman’s Place: The Rhetoric of Women’s History argues that the metaphor of a separate women’s sphere which she traces back to the Victorian era and to de Tocqueville’s analysis of America—and which may, indeed, have been useful at one point, in order to doth the coil of male dominance and oppression—has outlived it’s usefulness and become inherently problematic....   [tags: roles, evolve, women, history] 844 words
(2.4 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Comparing How Various Anthropologists Discovered Anthropology as a Career - Comparing How Various Anthropologists Discovered Anthropology as a Career Anthropologists have reasons for entering a field of work just like any other person has reasons for Choosing science over music or medicine over business. The reason a person may enter a particular career can be from stumbling upon a field that they knew little. Once discovering it they have ambitions of being the best they can be. It could also stem from a desire as a child to know more about a specific subject. Reasons may be distinct or similar to another person's in the same field....   [tags: Compare Contrast Comparison Essays]
:: 13 Works Cited
2273 words
(6.5 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay about History of the Navajo Tribe - INTRODUCTION According to the history of the Navajo Tribe, the Holy People lived in the underworld and helped by guiding the First Man and First Woman to earth (McCoy 1988). The Holy People are said to be attracted to songs, dances, and chants during the ceremony along with the creation of Sandpainting. The Sandpainting is used in the healing process of the ceremony to draw a picture that tells a story of the Holy People. The Navajo culture have amazed so many people to how beautifully constructed the rituals are performed....   [tags: Anthropology, Culture, Native Americans] 2251 words
(6.4 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Culture is a Gift to Humans Essay - Anthropology shows culture to us as a gift to human beings because without culture we would not exist. As described in our first reading culture is observational. As a result, anthropologists study ethnographic fieldwork. “Whether in a jungle village in Peru or on the streets on New York, anthropologists go to where people live and ‘does fieldwork.’ ” This means participating in activities and asking questions, eating strange foods, interviewing informants, and learning a new language. Above all, anthropologists are observers of culture....   [tags: culture, anthropology, ] 1538 words
(4.4 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay about The History of Earth's Mass Extinctions - The History of Earth's Mass Extinctions The four billion year history of earth has witnessed five mass extinctions, and some scientists believe that we are on the verge of the sixth.1[1] If we are in the midst of the next mass extinction, we are in the very early stages of an evolving, and escalating process. The most recent, or fifth mass of the extinctions occurred 65 million years ago at the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. Images of an asteroid colliding with the planet, decimating the dinosaur population have been in circulation since the early 80’s.2[2] Being the most recent mass extinction, thousands of scientists around the world have investigated it, and el...   [tags: Anthropology Essays Paleontology Papers]
:: 7 Works Cited
1621 words
(4.6 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay Erosion: Destruction and Renewal - Nothing in this world lasts forever. Everything at some point must come to an end. Very rarely is this end an abrupt, immediate change. More often, it is a slow, gradual, breakdown. Little by little, nature chips away, each blow building on the last until, like a Jenga tower, everything falls and collapses. Given sufficient time and energy, everything grinds away into nothing more than dust and memories. Erosion will grind down the tallest of mountain peaks, into low, flat plains. Nothing in life can exist eternally; it must be broken down....   [tags: History Anthropology]
:: 3 Works Cited
906 words
(2.6 pages)
Better Essays [preview]