Healthy Eating often means making only small changes in the meals we
eat, eating a little more of some items and al little less of others.
There are eight guidelines to a balanced diet and they are:
1 Enjoy your food
2 Eat a variety of different foods.
3 Eat the right amount to stay a healthy weight.
4 Eat plenty of foods rich in starch and fibre.
5 Don’t eat too much fat.
6 Don’t eat sugary foods too often.
7 Look after the vitamins and minerals in your food.
8 If you drink alcohol, keep within sensible limits.
The balance to a good health
is based on five commonly accepted food
Bread, potatoes and other cereals have the main nutrients of
carbohydrate (starch) and
Fibre. These should be present in every meal as they give us most of
our food energy.
E.g. wholemeal bread, whole grain rice, pasta and all grains.
Milk and diary foods contain the main nutrients of calcium, protein
and B-group vitamins. You should eat this in moderate amounts and
choose them in the lower-fat versions. These help us to have healthy
teeth and bones.
e.g. Milk, cheese and yoghurt
Fatty and sugary foods contain some vitamins and essential fatty acids
but also a lot of fat, sugar and salt. Eat these foods infrequently or
in small amounts. These are concentrated high energy-giving foods.
E.g. margarine, butter, cooking oils and low-fat spread, oily salad
dressing and cream.
Meat, fish and alternatives contain the main nutrients iron and
protein. These foods are good for growth, bodybuilding and repair of
tissue. These should be eaten moderately and you should choose lower
fat versions whenever you can.
1 e.g. meat, poultry and fish
Fruit and vegetables contain mainly vitamin C, carotenes, iron,
calcium and fibre. You should eat lots of fruit and vegetables and try
eat five portions a day. They help your general health and the
prevention of specific disorders.
E.g. any frozen, tinned or fresh fruit and vegetables will do.
Proteins- are made of building blocks called amino acids. These amino
acids are made of the elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and
sometimes sulphur. For our body to function to properly we need to the
correct balance of amino acids.
Protein is in every cell of our body it is needed for growth and
repair of body tissue, muscles and blood cells. You need to eat the
right amount of protein by eating a varied diet.
A child should have the right amount of protein. If the chid does not
eat enough protein they should try meals like beans on toast, cooked
pasta and fish. They should also drink glasses of milk.
Fats- are made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. In the
study of ‘fats’ it is made up of both fats and oils. Most fats contain
a mixture of saturated, mono-saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty
acids including trans-fatty acids.
Fat supplies us with a concentrated source of energy. Fat should
supply no more than 35 per cent of our food energy. A child should
avoid to many fatty foods as too many leads to health problems later
on in life.
Carbohydrates- there are two types of carbohydrates:
1 Starches, which are found in bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, pulses
and breakfast cereals.
2 Sugars, which give food its sweet taste and were found in fruits,
soft drinks, table sugar, sweets and cakes.
[IMAGE]Carbohydrates are mainly used to provide energy. We should
increase the amount of starchy, fibre rich foods we eat.
Vitamins and Minerals-are called micro-nutrients since they are needed
in smaller quantities than the macro-nutrients. Vitamins are essential
for life. They are needed in small amounts to keep us in good health.
Fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds are good sources of
anti-oxidant vitamins. Different types of minerals are used in the
human body to help bones, skin and tissue and are necessary for many
body processes. A poor intake of minerals can lead to health problems.
Evaluation- I’ve found out that for a child to lead a healthy
life-style, which means they need a balanced diet
. A balanced diet has
all the nutritional needs of a child, which include proteins,
carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. All these in the right
proportion are needed to help a child grow. I think that if a child
has bad diet early on in life it can lead to health problems later on
in life such as things like obesity and tooth decay. If they start off
with a healthy life style at an early age they should live a healthy
life-style later on in life.
For my Broad area of research I’ve decided to do Healthy Eating
child. At the beginning of the study my child was 3 years 8 months and
by the end of the study she will be around 5 years old. Through this
time I will be able to see the different and new foods she has been
introduced with and see how she reacts to them and also see if she has
problems with foods. I will also be able to write about the
nutritional needs of a child and be able to advise the parents on what
Natalie should be eating.
After investigating healthy eating of children my focused area of
research will be based on making food look attractive for children. I
will investigate which packaging attracts the children and which is
the cheapest and has the best nutritional needs for a child. I will
introduce Natalie to new foods using different shapes and patterns and
see how she reacts.
A child needs a good balanced diet starting form a young age or this
can lead to problems later on in life. Children could have problems
such as obesity, heart disease and tooth decay.
If a child does not eat a balanced diet it could leave them to become
over weight or obese. If a child learns early on to eat a balanced
diet they will get into good eating habits and avoid becoming over
weight or obese. A child should avoid the bad habits such as fizzy
drinks and crisps these could make a child obese and they contain a
poor nutritional need for a child. They should also avoid Fats
especially animal fats.
The following are some of the reasons why children become overweight:
1 Too much food is eaten for the body’s energy needs
2 Too little exercise is taken
3 Eating becomes a comfort to compensate for a real imagined loss of
If a child does not changing their eating habits, when they get older
it can lead to problems later on in life like heart disease.
The first teeth in a baby develop before they are born, so children
need to learn how to care for their teeth from an early age. Tooth
decay is on the rise some factors that effect the likelihood of tooth
decay in a child are as following:
1 Giving drinks with added sugar, honey or fruit juices in bottle.
2 Using feeding bottles or teats for a long time.
3 Giving large amounts of sugary foods and drinks frequently
throughout the day.
4 Poor dental hygiene, I.e. not brushing teeth.
Research has shown that 26% of children who took sugary drinks to bed
with them such as juice or squash had tooth decay.
After eating a sticky film named plaque clings to the teeth. If the
food or drink contains sugar, the bacteria in plaque use the sugar as
fuel and produce acid as a by-product of their metabolism. This acid
can dissolve tooth enamel, causing dental caries (holes, cavities). If
a child eats a lot of sugary foods, the greater the chances of tooth
decay. If plaque invades the spaces between the teeth and gums, other
bacteria can infect the gums. Gingivitis is a gum disease. As it
progresses, pockets of infection cause the gum to shrink and bacteria
harm the supporting bones. The teeth become loose and may fall out
Packaging of food.
What is the Function of Packaging?
Packaging Helps to:
1 Reduce Foods waste by protecting food from damage-e.g. Eggs in
2 Increase the life of a food-e.g. Putting food in a can, gas-flushed
3 Give information on contents and shelf life
4 Make food easier to handle, transport and store
5 Improve hygiene since food cannot be touched by hand.
How does television advertising affect the eating habits of children?
Results of research have shown us that television advertising does
have an influence on children, it effected their behavior as to what
they have seen, for instance a tango advert in 1992 showed somebody
slapping someone else, children then went round slapping children in
the playground as they thought it was acceptable as they had seen it
I think that research study also can prove that television advertising
can have affects on children’s eating habits, if children’s behavior
can be affected by what they are seeing in the adverts then their
eating habits must influenced by what they see in adverts.
Background research summary
This background research was found on the food advertising web site,
so this is a valid website and the research will be valid. The
research I have found shows that there is research for and against
whether television advertising affects the eating habits of children.
This research proves that television advertising affects children's
eating habits. They have found out that in the last few years, public
debate has risen because of the advertising of confectionary, snack
food and soft drinks. People have expressed that during children's
television programmes advertising should be banned altogether. This
has been expressed on the basis 'that children are particularly
venerable to advertising and virtually powerless against its
influence'- something of the same basis was said by professor Phillip
James in a report to the UK department of health in October 1997.
In July 1994 the Advertising Association by Dr Peter Stratton, of
psychology business limited, Leeds, conducted research. This research
was to do with the effect of advertising on parents and children's
dietary choices. The overall conclusion to this research was that
parents did not believe that advertising is a major influence on their
children's diet and do not believe that children are continually
pestering them for specific foods as a result of advertising.
Advertising agencies have many powers of persuasion in the adverts on
the television. Children can connect between seeing the product
advertised on the television and when they go shopping with their
parents they recognize the products in the shop and then persuade
their parents to buy the product.
The methods of persuasion that are used are the following:
· Brand Names
Brand names are used in adverts so that people recognized one product
from another. Brand names get reputations, so when the name of the
product is heard people make associations with the product whether it
is good quality or not.
· Brand Image
The brand image is also important; if the name isn't appealing no body
will be attracted to it. If the package of the product isn't
attractive or eye-catching attention won't be drawn to the product so
watchers of the advert wont be attracted to it.
· Persuasive Writing
Advertisers use the words in their products that children associate
positive thoughts with. These words that are used conjure up an image
in the child's head of what the product is like, this picture will be
a positive picture because of the words used.
· Persuasion by colour
Advertisers also use colour in adverts to catch the attention of
children. Colours can also play on our emotions. Colour is used in the
packaging of the product to catch the children's attention, as
children love bright colorful objects, if the product had no colour to
it then it would not be noticed, so the product would not be bought.
· Musical Themes and Jingles
Music is used in adverts as it can also play or appeal to our
emotions. The theme music to an advert is usually very short, but the
music is played over and over again, repetition is used a lot. This is
a method used a lot as when things are heard over and over again
children remember this and also associates the music with what is
All of these methods of persuasion are found in most adverts, this is
how children are drawn to the attention of the new products, and so
they can ask their parents to buy them for them. So when children are
watching food adverts they are very venerable and the persuasion in
the adverts will make them want to eat that product especially since
young children won't understand the consequences if the foods
At a young age children are very vunreable and can be influenced
greatly. With children being easily influenced music, colour and
characters etc. that are used by advertisers, influences children's
eating habits. This is because children recognise the character used
i.e. Ronald McDonald for the McDonalds adverts, and the music jingle.
When children hear or see this, they would associate it with the
product they have seen on the advert when they go shopping and ask
their parents to buy it for them.
Persuading children can be done very easily at such a young age even
though most adverts shown during children's programs are to persuade
to buy a toy it still affects children’s eating habits. It is a fact
during children’s television programmes fatty and sugary foods are
much more heavily promoted than fruit or vegetables.
If children are being influenced at a young age, which will affect
there eating habits it could lead to problems later on in life such as
obesity, tooth decay and arthritis. Parents should be more aware of
the adverts their child is watching because of the health problems and
also because it will reduce stress for the parent as the child won't
be nagging as much for an unhealthy food product.