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General term to describe Deseases together Essay

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPD is a general term that used to describe all these diseases together; chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic asthma and bronchiolar disease. These diseases can cause obstruction in lungs, shortness of breath associated with cough, sputum production and wheeze. Emphysema cause Irreversible damage to the alveoli, this can reduce the surface are of lung this affects the processes of gas exchange and decreasing blood O₂ level. Reducing oxygen level in the blood lead to shortness in breath. Chronic bronchitis produces mucus and sticky sputum more than normal. Also obstruction of airflow is produced as a result of airway damage related with smoking and dusts. Chronic asthma in COPD no longer responds to bronchodilators such as ipratropium, salbutamol and terbutaline. . (Goldcopd, 2013) (John et al. 2009)
Exacerbation of COPD
Exacerbation can defined as an event in the natural course of the disease distinguished by alter in the patient’s baseline dyspnoea and sputum that is beyond normal day to day variations, this is acute onset and might guarantee a change in regular medication in a patient with underlying COPD. (Goldcopd, 2013) simple definition of COPD exacerbation is worseness in COPD symptoms suddenly may last for few days. The main two causes of Exacerbation of COPD are viral and bacterial lung infection, also studies have found other causes such as smoking or inappropriate use of an inhaler or lack of a pulmonary rehabilitation program and not sticking to a drug therapy are all lead to COPD exacerbation (Deborah, L.2012) (John et al. 2009)
Treatment of Exacerbation of COPD
Before talking about treatment it is preferred to define the medications that were used by the patient, may h...


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... international and validation study journal university of Iowa department of family medicine .thorax 2003:58-377-2 [Online] Available at: http://www.healthcare.uiowa.edu/familymedicine/fpinfo/curb65 [accessed 29th March 2014]
Melissa, I., Hunter, M. D., Dana, E. and King, M.D. (2001) journal of American Family Physician.
Management Of acute Exacerbation and Chronic Stable Disease, Volume 64, number 4, [Online] Available at: www.aafp.org/afp [accessed 27th March 2014]
Tutor’s hand-out. For Mph117 IPL (2014) treatment of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus .University of Sunderland: Unpublished
Bibliography
Katzung, B, G. (2006) Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 10th ed. California: the Department of Cellular & Molecular Pharmacology, University of California

Rang, H.P., Dale, Maureen, M. (2007) Range& Dale Pharmacology. 6th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone



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