The Forty Studies That Changed Psychology


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The Forty Studies That Changed Psychology

Eldridge Cleaver….a black American essayist, editor, and public enemy number one in the mist of McCarthyism present in the days of the protest movement.
Cleaver’s [Soul on Ice] personifies Leftism at its core, with its unique combination of sex and revolution that personified the New left image to the masses. Critic Horst Kruger describes this mixture by how it’s perceived in West Germany: “the era of Sex and Socialism. Eros is on the Left and beautiful is our youthful rebellion. Make love and carry the banner of Vietcong high.” {Painting Black Cardboard Figures, 1968) this emphasized Cleaver’s violent approach and skill quite evident in his writing. Cleaver discusses his infatuation with white women that was constantly imbedded within the root of the subjects mentioned in the book. In Soul on Ice Cleaver made negative references to African American women as “bitches” “amazons” and etc. “There’s softness about white women” he explained “but a nigger bitch seems to be full of steel….The white women is like a goddess …. I worship her. I love white women’s dirty drawers.” Cleavers fixation gave way to calling himself a self professed rapist that targeted white women that arose after “practicing” on his own kind. Cleaver solely believed that this was caused by madness as an act of revenge by the means of accumulated racial injustices. “After 400 years minus my balls, I have the right to proceed any white women I desire.” Cleaver’s reasoning on depravity, manipulation, and betrayal that manifested its self in America, but Cleaver’s insight on the Negro today by portraying oneself as obtaining a turbulent internal stance, Cleaver’s justifications defined by narrowing them to a profound sense of explanation to those who are not black, the book had not been subjected to pre conceived notions on approval or disapproval making this book even more authentic staying true to Cleaver’s inner most thoughts. Cleaver describes this period in American culture purely in accuracy to the grueling irony bestowed, to the form of the most voluntary truth. Cleaver successfully clarifies the distortion caused by hypocrisy that has altered are historical consciousness. Cleaver for warns America that after years of oppression “Gives shape to the time bomb ticking in the black man’s skull’’( Shane Stevens “Quest for Dignity” Progressive 1968).This bomb would soon explode due to traditional standards that Cleaver has definitely not conformed to.

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But yet he is desired by scholars and critics to teach something that resonate. Even though Cleaver has spent almost twelve years in California prisons for crimes raging in rape and assault with intent to kill .Cleaver was still much praised for his work in Soul on Ice which was the by- product his incarceration. He was also noted as the “Minister of Information” for the Black Panther movement (Professor on Ice, Times magazine 1968).Cleaver was then appointed as an unpaid lecturer guest in the Social Analysis 139X, a innovative course in which the matters of race relations in the University of California at Berkeley. He was to be one of twelve speakers. Once the knowing of Cleaver’s appearance to speak in front of Berkeley students emerged; who were perceived to be easily influenced by non conformity. Thus snow balling the experimental course into complete out rage. The first to oppose this gathering was State Schools Superintendent Max Rafferty, a Republican candidate for the U.S Senate. “Cleaver in certainly as well qualified to lecture on urban unrest as Attila the Hun would be qualified to lecture on international mass murder” said by Rafferty (Professor on Ice, Times magazine 1968).Governor Ronald Reagan, who was a member of the University of California regents had dealt with this dilemma at Berkeley before, Reagan compared the appearance to “asking that famous Bluebeard of Paris, the wife murderer, to be a marriage counselor.” This soon cultivated into an assembly to vote the censure university official by Cleaver’s appearance. After the board of regents settled to an agreement, Cleaver and fellow guest speakers had been enforced by the board to limit one lecture to each speaker. That fall 1968 students we’re predicted to cause havoc on campuses more than ever before. But the one institution deemed to be expected of leading the disturbance failed at the attempt to assemble in the University of California at Berkeley, the home of riots that took at the University about Mario Savio and his Free Speech Movement that had occurred four years ago. The week before the attempt their was a call for a campus wide strike that only yielded 20% of Berkeley’s 28,000 students (Professor on Ice Time Magazine 1968).The cause was the decision made by California regents that Black Panther Leader Eldridge Cleaver could not give ten lectures for a credit course on racism this violated decision engraved in the curriculum by faculty and staff since the 1920’s. To students, regents were believed to restrain students from being exposed to the Black Panther Movement. Before Cleaver had a chance to lecture in the Social Analysis 139X course; regents thoroughly diced Cleaver’s lectures that were to be presented. Concluded by regents that course could not be given full credit for. The faculty protested the regents’ solution made and demanded that the course would be given full credit for. Chancellor Roger Heyns supported the professors and allow Cleaver to give ten lectures this debate continued back and forth between regents on the conflict whether or not to give credit to the course. To students, the regents’ decision to withdrawal the Cleaver lesson was a political backlash in terms of interfering free speech and academic liberties. This amounted to the faculty only predicting the worse outcome then the disruption that of 1964.Thousands of determined students formed a meeting to organize a protest movement. But during the moment of collaborative actions amongst students soon disintegrated and became a clashing of interest over tactics on how to retrieve the course. Chancellor Heyns agreed to meet protesters on campus to elaborate on concern about regents’ anti sentiment to Cleaver. Heyns was told specifically by regents’ not to tolerate instability on campus grounds. But unfortunately Heyns had to coincide with campus regulations and call campus police to arrest 105 students that stayed in Sproul hall for ten hours. The oddity of this scenario resulted into students not resisting arrest and cop surprisingly being courteous. But with the extreme end of the student demonstrators that occupied Moses Hall, merely only damaged furniture an files. But this only infuriated Heyns. He ordered campus cops seize to 72 of the students that were held accountable for vandalism; the accused were automatically suspended. Chancellor’s approach was an success because he was able receive understanding between the more militant groups by negotiating firmly on views of extreme tactics, while maintaining tolerance for open protest. Heyns gained faculty support. That was considered an open door policy of reasoning with the student body in a civilized matter. Heyns approach also won regents’ over without insulting the majority of the student body. But this would not be the end of another radical uprising to occur.


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