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Europe and Western Asia cultures, Islamic World, and African Societies and Kingdoms

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This paper will cover and explain chapters 7, 8, and 9. Over the past chapters that have been covered, they have all touched on the main focus of these three chapters. Chapter 7 covers Europe and Western Asia cultures such as the Byzantine Empire. Chapter 8 deals with the Islamic world, which will go over their origins and the expansion of their religion. Chapter 9 focuses on African Societies and Kingdoms which will cover the different cultures and the importance of certain societies that had an impact throughout African history.
The Byzantine Empire survived the Germanic invaders while the Western parts of Rome Gradually succumbed to the attacks. The main reasons for their strength were military leadership and the fortification of their capital city. The military was led by General Priskos who defeated the Avars in 601 a.d. in a decisive victory. After a long war, Emperor Heraclius I finished by crushing the Persians in Iraq. Their fortification of the capital Constantinople was the most powerful defenses in the ancient world. Massive triple walls protected the city from any sea invasion. Within the walls cisterns provided water, and vast gardens and grazing areas supplied vegetation and meat. Because of the fortifications and provisions, the defenders could hold out much longer than any attacker.
One of the more important events in their history was the Law Code Emperor Justinian organized. They had used Roman law, but by the fourth century so many laws had been appointed that it had become unorganized and unusable. The emperor appointed a committee to organize the laws. The result of the organization was called the “Code”, which outmoded and clarified the law itself. Justinian reworking of the law system ...


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...cross the Indian Ocean. The introduction of Islam in the eight century had weakened Aksum’s commercial prosperity. The Muslims attacked and destroyed Adulis. Some Aksumites converted to Islam while many others found refuge in the mountains where they were isolated from outside contacts. Frumentius, a Syrian Christian trader, is credited for the introduction of Christianity into Ethiopia. After being kidnapped, he was taken to Aksum and appointed tutor to the future king, Ezana. Later he went to Egypt and was consecrated the first bishop of Aksum. Shortly after, the royal members of the court accepted Christianity and it became Ethiopian state religion. The introduction of Christianity led to the production of written documents which made Ethiopia the first black society that could be studied from written records.



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History of World Civilizations


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