Preview
Preview

Essay on Ethics of the Nuremberg Code

No Works Cited
Length: 1060 words (3 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Purple      
Open Document
Need writing help? Check your paper »



- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

From 1946 to 1947, the Nuremberg War Crime Trials took place, withfifteen of twenty-three German physicians and research scientist-physicians found guilty of criminal human experimentation projects. The trial court attempted to establish a set of principles of human experimentation that could serve as a code of research ethics. The result was the Nuremberg Code, which attempted to provide a natural law-based set of universal ethical principles. Looking beyond the Nuremberg Code and applying it to modern medical research ethics, there are many challenges that it poses. Many have argued that the Code tries to provide for all unforeseen events, which restricts the researcher by requiring him to anticipate every situation, demanding the impossible. The most important contribution of the Code is the first principle, which says that voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. The subject involved should have legal capacity to give consent, should have free power of choice, as well as sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the experiment. This restricts that populations upon which some experiment may be conducted, since many do not have “legal capacity”. For instance, studies of mental illness and children’s diseases have been curtailed because neither of these populations has the legal capacity to give consent. Another group of people, prisoners, are never really able to give voluntary consent since they might be enticed by financial rewards, special treatment, and the hope of early release in exchange for participating in the human experimentation projects. British biostatitcian Sir Austin Bradford Hill also questioned whether it was important to inform a research subject who was receiving a placebo since it does...


... middle of paper ...


...n such that it was a physician’s duty or role to act in the best interest of their patient and safeguard the health of the people. It was a set of professional guidelines written by physicians for physicians as opposed to the Code, which was written by jurists for use in a legal trial. The Declaration of Helsinki was also a much longer document than the Nuremberg Code and thus laid out more principles and with less room for uncertainty.
The two sets of principles are just ethical principles and nothing more. Neither of them has any legally binding authority or means of enforcement. The adequate protection of human research subjects is not guaranteed under these codes, we just have to trust that they are being treated properly. The Code should be rewritten so that there is some enforcement of the principles instead of just hoping that doctors will behave ethically.


Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »







This essay is 100% guaranteed.


Title Length Color Rating  
The Nuremberg Code Essay - ... Discuss about “The Nuremberg Code” about the Germany Nazi conduct test about the twin experience was not necessary as the experiment require the twin to be destroy, in order to performance an autopsy to examine the actual death and the other uninfected twin then has to be killed. These experiment are extremely unnecessary, if there has been a different way to conduct these experience, the research could have used a plan or a death body person to conduct these experience or in other way to avoid killing each other to get the result of these experiment....   [tags: german nazi, twin experiment, pain] 1058 words
(3 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
10 Principles Regaarding Ethical Clinic and Set of Guidelines on Clinical Research - Nuremberg Code is a set of 10 sophisticate principles regarding ethical clinical research on human being (Grodin, 1994). It is mainly for protection of subjects’ human right (Shuster, 1997), such as compulsory of informed consent and the equal authority of subjects as the physician-researcher to end the experiment. 1.2 Helsinki Declaration (1964) Helsinki Declaration is a set of guidelines on clinical research for physician as their responsibility toward protection of their research subjects (Williams, 2008)....   [tags: nuremberg code, helsiniki declaration]
:: 13 Works Cited
1061 words
(3 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
The Tuskeee Study: Radically Changed the Views and Practice of Medicine and Ethics - The Tuskegee Study has radically changed the views and practice of medicine and ethics. The 40 year long study impacted 600 African American men and their families. It began as a scientific investigation of syphilis as it affected black men. Back in the 1930’s, it was thought to be true that black men were genetically different from white men and that black men’s bodies reacted differently to syphilis. The goal was to see what would happen to the men who had syphilis if they were left untreated (CDC, 2009)....   [tags: Medical Ethics]
:: 7 Works Cited
1005 words
(2.9 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Dunkin Donuts Code of Ethics Analysis Essay - A code of ethics is a formal document in which is used to assist members of an organization, to know what’s ‘right’ and what is ‘wrong’ in the work place and applying it to their decisions. A code of ethics is a written set of rules or guidelines to help the workers and management ‘conduct’ or direct their actions with its primary values and ethical standards. A code of ethics is important because without it, employees and management wouldn’t have guidelines and the establishment would resemble a crazy house....   [tags: ethics code, job guidelines, dunkin donuts] 1531 words
(4.4 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Code of Ethics Essay - A code of ethics is a set of written principles regarding conduct and behavior created by the organization to serve as a guide. The purpose of ethical codes is to give its employees, management, and any interested party a reference point that adheres to company policy, standards, and ethical beliefs. The code is made visible to the public to ensure professional integrity, quality, and to prevent misguided conduct. Regardless of the organization or governing body a code serves as a go-to guide because ethical issues can stem from anywhere at any given time....   [tags: Ethics] 1715 words
(4.9 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
The Oath of Office and Code of Ethics Essay - Abstract In today’s world there are many issues facing the criminal justice system. Some of these issues include police corruption, use of excessive and deadly force, pursuits, and deviance. The media influences public opinion and there is concern over the morality, and ethics of our public leaders. (DeShon, 2000) The criminal justice system has two neglected and important issues of integrity and truth; the oath of office and the code of ethics. (DeShon, 2000) In many agencies the impact these two issues have on our communities are not fully understood....   [tags: Ethics ]
:: 5 Works Cited
1300 words
(3.7 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on Code of Ethics Comparrison - In 2005, the American Counseling Association (ACA) published a document titled the ACA Code of Ethics which was designed to aid counselors in the ethical decision making process and, in response, “expand the capacity of people to grow and develop” (p. 3). The ACA Code of Ethics provides regulatory guidelines for all counselors to follow in ethical decision-making and practice. Of a more specific nature, the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC) has also published a document stating the ethical practices and procedures for the Christian counseling field....   [tags: Ethics ]
:: 3 Works Cited
1778 words
(5.1 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Code of Ethics Essay - The organization I work for is a Multi national corporation, for now we are a business unit of a publically traded company. This assignment came at a unique time as we the business unit I work in was just purchased by a private equity firm based in England. Our corporate headquarters is based in California and we have offices in South America, Europe and Asia. We are a unique organization as most of us work from home offices and rarely set foot in our offices, but visit our customer’s offices quite often....   [tags: Ethics, Business]
:: 7 Works Cited
2077 words
(5.9 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Code of Ethics Essay - This essay will discuss the following main statement; the adoption of a proposed new look Code of Ethics, based on the international Federation Accountants’ code, will ensure that New Zealand Charted Accountants meet their ethical responsibilities. Within this essay an adverse position will be taken towards the previous statement. The international Federation of Accountants (IFAC) states that, professional standards and the code of ethics form important benchmarks that should be met by practicing accountants....   [tags: Ethical Issues, Good Ethics] 1463 words
(4.2 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Essay on Code of Ethics - Ethics and values apply to our personal and professional lives. If you are able to understand and implement values and ethics in everyday practices, you will encourage one’s success in personal and professional careers. Ethics is a concept of one’s actions, which derives from principals of an individual doing what is right not wrong. Velasquez, Andre, Shanks, and Meyer (1987), define ethics as a “well based standard of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues”....   [tags: Ethics, values, social analysis, behavior] 1060 words
(3 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]