Essay The Era of 'Designer Drugs': The Human Genome Project

No Works Cited
Length: 2139 words (6.1 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Yellow      
Open Document

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Ari Patrinos and Francis Collins combined forces in order to make the completion of the Human Genome Project possible with the fifteen year time frame. Ari Patrinos supervised the United States Department of Energy’s Human Genome Research. Francis Collins regulated the National Institute of Health National Human Genome Research Institute.
Besides the United States Department of Energy and the National Institute of Health, several universities across the United States were involved in the Project, along with various other countries. Although numerous other countries contributed to the global Project, research in the United Kingdom, China, France, Japan, and Germany played a more significant role.
In 1953, three significant people in modern genetics made a great discovery. With the finding of DNA’s double helix structure, researchers were now able to fully understand DNA. DNA’s double helix structure allowed other life sciences to be further explored. This structure was discovered by James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins.
The Sanger Centre in the United Kingdom contributed greatly to the human genome project. Thirty three percent of the work in progress genome was produced by the Centre. The other sixty percent was to be produced by the universities and research labs involved in the Project in the United States. While ninety percent of the still developing outline human genome was to be released by the year 2000, the outline was not officially published until February of 2001.
After discovering the location of three significant disease genes, Francis Collins became director of the National Institute of Health. These disease genes include those accountable for: Huntington’s disease, cystic fibro...

... middle of paper ...

...articular disease and design a prevention strategy for that disease.
Although much of pharmacogenetics is still in research, the genome sequence has encouraged the current practice in medicine. For example, HIV-positive individuals are tested to clarify vulnerability to the antiretroviral drug Abacabir. Abacabir reduces the quantity of HIV in the blood and the patient’s likelihood of acquiring AIDS. Another example of the use of pharmacogenetics in medicine is the testing of individuals to ascertain the genetic alteration of thiopurine S-methyltransferase, or TPMT. The recommended dosage of azathioprine, which is used to improve severe rheumatoid arthritis, is determined by the patient’s TPMT genetic variation. If unconverted azathioprine fabricates in the bone marrow, it can eradicate maturing white blood cells and can leave a patient susceptible to infection.

Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

This essay is 100% guaranteed.

Title Length Color Rating  
Evolution, Immortality, and Humanity Essays - Our ancient ancestors in the Neolithic Era only lived for an average of 20 years, an age now considered to be only the beginning of adulthood. As human technology becomes more sophisticated and knowledge of the ourselves and of nature expands, humans develop longer lifespans and the general quality of life improves. In fact, we have more than tripled the lifespan of our ancestors while retaining much of the same biological fitness. Humans have withdrawn from natural selection because technologies (not the evolution of the body) allow humans to adapt to the ever-changing natural world....   [tags: Genomics, Genome]
:: 10 Works Cited
2431 words
(6.9 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Uses of the Human Genome Research Project Essay - So what is a human genome and why is the government researching it. The Human genome is the sequence of roughly 20,000 genes that make up human Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), or the building blocks that tell cells what to do. The government project named Human Genome Project (HGP) started in 1990’s, and is trying to unravel the 3 billion chemical base pairs in a DNA strand ( DNA is made up of phosphates, sugars and amino acids, Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine(C) and Guanine (G)....   [tags: Human Genome Project]
:: 8 Works Cited
1702 words
(4.9 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay about Morality And The Human Genome Project - Morality and the Human Genome Project      Does the Human Genome Project affect the moral standards of society. Can the information produced by it become a beneficial asset or a moral evil. For example, in a genetic race or class distinction the use of the X chromosome markers can be used for the identification of a persons ethnicity or class (Murphy,34). A seemingly harmless collection of information from the advancement of the Human Genome Project. But, lets assume this information is used to explore ways to deny entry into countries, determine social class, or even who gets preferential treatment....   [tags: Science Human Genome Ethics Essays]
:: 2 Works Cited
1359 words
(3.9 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
The Human Genome Project Essay - The Human Genome Project Now more than ever it is not uncommon to hear of scientific barriers being crossed. This is seen through, "a scientific research effort . . . currently under way which is unlike anything ever before attempted. International in its scope, it is enormously expensive and, if successful, could lead to our ultimate control of human disease, aging, and death. It is nothing short of a revolution against the way science has traditionally progressed"1 . This statement of Thomas Lee refers to a massive scientific undertaking known as the human genome project, an endeavor that aims to discover each and every intricacy of human genetics....   [tags: Genome Science biology Essays]
:: 10 Works Cited
2348 words
(6.7 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
The Human Genome Project Essay - ... This is then stitched together using computer programs to have the final copy of the fully sequenced genome. There are many other methods out there to decipher the genome but this is the most common method of usage.this method can also be known as the Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR). PCR is a laboratory technique that uses primers to amplify a specific area and then copies the sequence a billion times over. Another method worth mentioning is the combined use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Gel Electrophoresis....   [tags: genetic discrimination]
:: 5 Works Cited
1453 words
(4.2 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Technology and the Human Genome Project Essay - Technology and the Human Genome Project Technology is changing the way the world works in profound ways at an unprecedented rate. As we speak, scientists in labs around the world are decoding the remaining portion of the genome map. One day (even now), with the information compiled in GenBank, scientists can discover new drugs, new methods of gene therapy, and other preventive measures which will vastly improve the quality of life (NCBI ¶1). David Smith, previously a director of the Department of Energy, said, "These are exciting and challenging times for biological researchers....   [tags: Essays Papers]
:: 6 Works Cited
713 words
(2 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
The Human Genome Project Essay - The Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project is a long-term project by international scientist to develop detailed genetic and physical maps of the human genome. Researchers are engaged in locating and identifying all of its genes and establishing the sequence of the genes and all other components of the genome. This monstrous task has the potential to dramatically increase our understanding of human evolution and variation, and perhaps most importantly…human disease. The success of the Human Genome Project also poses potential societal problems....   [tags: Genetics Science Biology Essays]
:: 7 Works Cited
1374 words
(3.9 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
The Human Genome Project Essay - The Human Genome Project "Today we are learning the language in which God created life . . . humankind is on the verge of gaining immense new power to heal. Genome science will have a real impact on all our lives, and even more on the lives of our children. It will revolutionise the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of most, if not all, human diseases." - Bill Clinton, June 2002. The Human Genome Project came into existence in the late 1980's as scientist from around the world aimed to map where every human gene is found on our chromosomes....   [tags: Papers] 866 words
(2.5 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
The Human Genome Project Essay - The Human Genome Project Begun formally in 1990, the U.S. Human Genome Project is a 13-year effort coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. The project originally was planned to last 15 years, but rapid technological advances have accelerated the expected completion date to 2003. Project goals are to * identify all the approximate 30,000 genes in human DNA, * determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, * store this information in databases, * improve tools for data analysis, * transfer related technologies to the private sector, and * address the ethi...   [tags: Papers] 954 words
(2.7 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
The Human Genome Project Essay - The Human Genome Project   With technology increasing daily in our modern society, we have to wonder what will come of all of the recent studies and large-scale research projects that have involved genetics. After recently reading two articles, I have been able to formulate some of my own predictions of what’s to come. In Lisa Sowle Cahill’s article, “The genome project: more than a medical milestone” she tells us in a concise manner, the history of the Human Genome Project. “The Human Genome (H.G....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
:: 2 Works Cited
631 words
(1.8 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]