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Efficacy of Three Mouth Rinses in Reducing Dental Plaque and Gingivitis Essay

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Dental plaque formation is started by the deposition of a thin biofilm onto the tooth surface. In a healthy individual, when 1-2 layers of bacteria are present on the tooth surface, the individual’s immune mechanism can carry on with these microorganisms, and the subject can thus show a healthy gingiva. Therefore, disturbing dental plaque formation is of high priority. One approach in plaque control thus is to combine the use of antimicrobial agents with the mechanical methods.1 The rationale for the use of antiplaque agents as adjuncts to mechanical cleaning is based on two reasons. Firstly, dental plaque is the major etiological factor in gingivitis and various studies suggest that mechanical tooth cleaning methods are inadequate.2
The American Dental Association Council on Dental Therapeutics (CDT-1986) developed guidelines for the design of clinical trials. These guidelines require that clinical trials: be crossover or parallel-designed, study subjects should represent typical product users, active agent should be compared with a placebo or active control, dental plaque and gingivitis scoring be conducted at baseline, six months and an intermediate interval.3
The antiplaque agents (action through plaque effects) can be subdivided for possible modes of action against plaque: prevent bacterial attachment (antiadhesive); inhibit bacterial division (antimicrobial agents); remove plaque (“chemical tooth brush”); and alter plaque ecology. Of all, antimicrobial agents have had the most success, with little or no achievements in the other areas.4


To date, a wide variety of antimicrobial agents have been studied in respect to the control of supragingival plaque. These agents can be divided into bisguanides, quaternary ammonium comp...


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..., Afflitto J, Coleman EJ. The effect of triclosan on mediators of gingival inflammation. J Clin Periodontol 1995;22(6):480-484.
20. WHO. Oral Health Surveys, Basic Methods. 4th ed. 1997. p.7.
21. Lang NP, Hotz P, Graf H, Geering AH, Saxer UP, Sturzenberger OP, Meckel AH. Effects of supervised chlorhexidine mouth rinses in children. A longitudinal clinical trial. J Periodontal Res 1982;17(1):101-111.
22. Jenkins S, Addy M, Newcombe RJ. A dose-response study of triclosan mouthrinses on plaque regrowth. J Clin Periodontal 1993 Sep; 20(8):609-612.
23. Niklaus P, Lang, Brecx MC. Chlorhexidine digluconate- an agent for chemical plaque control and prevention of gingival inflammation. J Periodontal Res 1986; 21(Suppl. s16):74-89.
24. Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D. CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMJ 2010;340:c332.



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