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The Effects of Climate Change in the World Essay

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Introduction
Analyzing the possible effects of climate change still remains a major enigma for both ecologists and environmentalists alike. It is known that extreme hot weather anomalies are becoming more and more prevalent as shown by temperature outliers greater than 3σ now occur in almost 10% of the world’s surface as compared to less than 1% during 1951-1981 (Hansen et al. 2012). Since 1880 the combined land and ocean temperature has increased by about 0.85°C. Additionally the concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O in the atmosphere have increased by 40%, 150%, and 20% respectively since the pre-industrial era. The total radiance forcing for 2011 relative to 1750 is 2.29. This positive integer means that current atmospheric conditions are leading to an uptake of solar energy that is virtually trapped in our climate system. CO2 emissions alone account for an Rf of 1.68. If these conditions of unregulated emissions continue to occur by the end of the 21st century the global surface temperature change is likely to exceed 1.5°C (Stocker et al.2013).
So what effects do these weather anomalies have on ecosystems and food webs? How will species and individuals adapt to this climate change? These are all questions we will address based on past literature by ecologists who have studied species interactions in stable environments. We will hypothesize the affects climate change will have on the ecological aspects of individual behavior, population interactions, food webs, and biodiversity.
Individuals
While we can think of ecosystems as a collection of organisms, individuals within these groups each have their own role in maintaining and preserving this system. These roles are determined by their physiological traits, behaviors, diets, ...


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...., Stainton, M. P., Parker, B. R., Paterson, M. J., . . . Kasian, S. E. (2008). From the Cover: Eutrophication of lakes cannot be controlled by reducing nitrogen input: Results of a 37-year whole-ecosystem experiment. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences, 105(32), 11254-11258.
Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.). (2013). IPCC:Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Swei, A., Ostfeld, R., Lane, R., & Briggs, C. (2011). Impact of the experimental removal of lizards on Lyme disease risk. Proc. R. Soc. B, 278, 2970–2978. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2402



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