The Crusades


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The First Crusade was from 1096 to 1099. They were Christian military

expeditions and religous wars proclaimed by the people. The purpose of the

Crusades was to gain and keep control over Palestine from the Muslims.

Palestine was also called the Holy Land because Jesus lived there. Alexius

Compenus was a new ruler that came into power in Byzantium in 1081.

Constentinople was in danger because the Seljuks threatened them, so Alexius

first called for help to Pope Urban ll who presented a ten-day meeting telling

people about Alexius's problem and that they needed to go to war with the

Turks, which led to the first Crusade.

The Crusades were organized mostly to recover or defend territories

that Christians strongly beleived belonged to them by right, such as "The Holy

Land." Palestine lay along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean sea, and Muslims

had taken control of it from the Christians. In the first Crusade, Christians

recaptured Palestine, but in the later Crusades, they fought to protect Palestine

or recover parts of it that had been lost to Muslim forces.

There is a traditional numbering scheme for the Crusades which

total 9 during the 11th and 13th centuries. Each Crusade has an important

event that took place during that time. During the first Crusade in March 1095,

ambassadors from the council of Piacenza called for others because they needed

help defending Byzantine against the Seljuk Turks. Later on, Pope Urban ll

asked the Christians to join a war against the Turks. He promised the people

who died would get released from their sins. The Crusade armies managed to

defeat the Turks at Dorylaeum and Antioch.


The second Crusade was from 1147 to 1149. After there was peace, the

Muslims took over Edessa. There was a new Crusade because Branard of

Clairvaux called for one. French and South German armies went to Jerusalem

but didn't win anything too big. On the other side of the Mediterranean, the

second Crusades met up with a group of Northern European Crusaders and

stopped in Portugal. They then allied with the Portugues, and got Lisbon back

from the muslims in 1147.

The third Crusade was from 1187 to 1192. In 1187 Sultan captured

Jerusalem again which led to the Battle of Hattin. Pope Gregory Vlll called for a

Crusade which was led by very important European leaders.

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The leaders were

Philip ll, Richard l, and Fredrick l. Fredrick ended up drowning in Clinica in 1190,

which left everything uneasy between the English and French. Before they

arrived in the Holy Land, Richard captured the Island of Caprus from

the Byzantines in 1191. This Island was used mostly as a Crusader base. After

reaching the port, Richard promised he would leave anyone unharmed if the city

of Acre surrendered. They surrenderd but he still killed everyone even

though he promised not to. As for Philip, he left in 1191, and the Crusaders captured

Acre from the muslims again. The Crusader army went south by the coast of the

Mediterranean sea and defeated Muslims near Arsuf, recaptured the port city of

Jaffa, and was close to Jerusalem. The Crusades was over even without taking

Jerusalem because Richard didnt think that he could hold it. He then left that year

and decided to make a treaty with Saladin, which let unarmed Christians pilgrims to make

pilgrimages to the Jerusalem. The third Crusade is somtimes called the Kings'

Crusade.

The Fourth Crusade was from 1202–1204. Pope Innocent lll wanted to
invade Jerusalem through Eygpt but the Crusaders didnt have the money to pay
for the fleet. Becuase of that, they didnt have enough money or time on their vessel
lease, the leaders went to Constantipople where they tried to place a Byzantine
removal on the throne. After all the confusion, the Crusaders captured the city in
1204, which ended the establishment of Eastern Latin Empire.

The Fifth Crusade was from 1217 to 1221. The church tried to set another

Crusade and the Fourth Lateran Council made a plan to save Jerusalem.

During the first phase of crusading, a crusading force from Austria and

Hungary joined together with the the Prince of Antinoch to

take back Jerusalem. In the second phase, crusader forces captured Pamietta in

Eygpt, but then attacked Clario under the demand of the papal legate, Pelagius, on

June, 1221. The Crusaders were turned back, and there were many losses

and soon surrenders. Al-Kamil (the powerful Sultan) wanted a eight-year peace agreement

with Europe.

The sixth Crusade was from 1228 to 1229. Emperor Frederick ll, had

always promised a Crusade but never acually did what he said he would. Since

he did that, Pope Gregory lX excluded him from his membership in 1228

(excommunicated). Even then, he sailed from Brindisi, landed in Palestine, and through

diplomacy he managed Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem to be delivered to the

Crusaders for ten years. In 1229, Frederick ll made a peace treaty with Al-Kamil, the ruler

of Eygpt. This treaty let the Christians rule most of Jerusalem, while the Muslims

got control of the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aksa mosque. The peace from

this treaty lasted for around ten years.

The seventh Crusade was from 1248 to 1254. The following year

Khwarezmian force sent by the later invaded Jerusalem. The Crusaders
were interested in the Battle at La Forbie in Gaza. The Crusaders were
outnumbered and were completely defeated in forty-eight hours. "This battle is

considered by many historians to have been the death knell to the Kingdom of

Outremer." Louis IX then organized a Crusade against Eygpt, but it had failed. He spent

most of the Crusade living in Court of the Crusader kingdom in Acre.

The eighth Crusade was in 1270. This Crusade was organized by Louis IX. He

sailed from Aigues-Mortes mostly to help the others of the Crusader States in Syria. The

Crusade, however, was moved to Tunis. Louis spent his time there for two months and

then died.
The ninth Crusade was from 1271-1272. Edward 1 of England, had accompanied
Louis on the Eight Crusade, but accomplised very little in Syria and retired after a truce.
The Crusaders were later threatened with the Egyptian Mamluks, and they hoped they
would get help from Franco-Mongol. The Mamluks eventually "made their good pledge to
cleanse the entire middle east of the infidel Franks." After Antioch, Tripoli, and Acre were
fallen, the Christians who werent allowed to leave the cities were killed or made into
slaves.
The Crusades happened during a terrible time where everything was solved in
fighting. This caused alot of lives to be killed and I dont think that claiming land or
fighting over land should be so harsh as the crusades.


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