Compare and Contrast Pancreas Releated Disorders


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Diabetes is a disorder of the pancreas. Lacking of insulin or your pancreas does not produce insulin at all. There are two types of diabetes, Type 1 meaning Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) and Type 2 - noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).
The risk factors for Type 1 are Genetics and family history. Diabetes might run in the family is a risk factor, that’s including their mother, father, sisters and brothers and the whole family should be screened for diabetes. “Another risk factor is Diseases of the pancreas. Injury or diseases of the pancreas can inhibit its ability to produce insulin and lead to type 1 Diabetes. Another risk factor would be Infection or illness. A range of relatively rare infections and illnesses can damage the pancreas and cause type 1 Diabetes.” (WebMD, 2005-2008, http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/risk-factors-for-diabetes).
The risk factor for Type 2 would be Obesity or being overweight meaning that they lack of exercise, and unhealthy or poor nutrition. “Diabetes has long been linked to obesity and being overweight.” (WebMD, 2005-2008, http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/risk-factors-for-diabetes)

Discuss pathophysiology of Type I and Type II DM
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, a triggering event, possibly a viral infection leading to production of autoantibodies that kills the bodies beta cells, that would decline in and an ultimate lack of insulin secretion.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease caused by one or more of the following factors: impaired insulin production, inappropriate hepatic glucose production, or peripheral insulin receptor insensitivity.
Identify and compare the signs and symptoms of Type I and Type II DM
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus sign and symptoms would be Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia (also known are the 3P’s for DM), Weight loss, Fatigue, increase infections, Rapid Onset, and its controlled by Insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sign and symptoms would be the 3P’s which are Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, Obesity, Fatigue, increase infection, Gradual Onset, and its controlled by antidabetic drugs, Insulin, healthy diet and exercise.

Compare and contrast signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia: cool, clammy skin, Diaphoresis, Anxiety, Irritability, confusion, blurred vision, shaky, tachycardia, sweating, dizziness, headache, Hunger, fatigue, General weakness, and seizures.
Hyperglycemia: Hot, dry skin, dehydration, Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, No diaphoresis, Alert to coma, Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, Kussmaul respiration (deep and labored breathing), fruit breath, fatigue, general weakness, blurry vision, and Slow-wound healing.

Compare and contrast diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA) with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state(HHS)
DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) – Sudden onset due to infection, decrease insulin, stressors. Kussmaul respiration, fruity breath, nausea, abdominal pain.

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Blood Sugar greater than 300 mg/dL. pH less than 7.35, ketones.
HHS (Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State) – Gradual onset due to infection, decrease fluid intake, stressors. Altered CNS function with neurological sign and symptoms. Blood Sugar greater than 600 mg/dL. pH greater than 7.4, osmolarity greater than 320 mOsm/L.

Discuss diabetic complications: heart disease, stroke, neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, erectile dysfunction, vascular problems, sounds, renal disease
Cardiovascular Disease: Most common complication of diabetes mellitus. Pt with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at greater risk for MI, women greater risk than men. Risk factors: obesity, HTN, dyslipidemia, sedentary lifestyle, smoking. MI the leading cause of death among clients with diabetes.
Cerebrovascular Disease: Diabetes damages cerebrovascular (brain) arterial circulation and is a risk factor for stroke. Risk factors: Hypertention, hyperlipidemia, nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease, alcohol and tobacco abuse, along with diabetes further increase the risk for stroke.



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