Preview
Preview

Childlessness among the Elderly: Effects of Social Ties Essay

:: 12 Works Cited
Length: 2006 words (5.7 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Aqua      
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Introduction
Aging has become a worldwide issue as attentions to health status of older populations increase. As people age, they face different situations that lead them to the current point, satisfaction and health or vise versa. Researchers have conducted and identified various reasons affecting the health of elders. For example, childlessness, marital status, unemployment, and poor social integration are all recognized risk factors that influence the quality of life of older populations. Childlessness has raised a great concern since 1990, as one in every five elders aged over 65 report not having children (Zhang & Hayward, 2001). Another research has also argued, due to the high prevalence of delayed marriage, high divorce rates, and voluntary childlessness nowadays, numbers of childless elders are expected to increase over the next few decades (Zhang & Hayward, 2001). Zhang and Hayward (2001) also state that around 25% of older populations suffering from loneliness due to spouseless and childlessness in the near future is anticipated (Zhang & Hayward, 2001). Family, the basic component of one’s life, has always been considered as the primary source of well-being among older persons as it provides informal cares such as physical, emotional, and financial supports (Zhang & Hayward, 2001). In addition, presence of children or children in-law correlates with a better understanding and experiences of security, immortality, success, companionship, and affection among the elderly parents compared to older persons without children. Childless elders are often found to have limited social networks and passive engagement in social activities (Zhang & Hayward, 2001). However, effects of childlessness among older population are inconsis...


... middle of paper ...


...998). Loneliness and depression in middle and old age: Are the childless more vulnerable? Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 53B, S302–S312.
Mair, C. A. (2010). Social Ties and Depression: An Intersectional Examination of Black and White Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 29(6), 667-696.
Plotnick, R. D. (2009). Childlessness and the Economic Well-being of Older Americans. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 64B(6), 767-776.
Wenger, G. C., Scott, A. & Patterson N. (2000). How important is parenthood? Childlessness and support in old age in England. Ageing and Society, 20, 161-182.
Zhang, Z., & Hayward, M. D. (2001). Childlessness and the Psychological Well-Being of Older Persons. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56(5), S311-S320.



Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper








This essay is 100% guaranteed.


Title Length Color Rating  
Childlessness among the Elderly: Effects of Social Ties Essay - Introduction Aging has become a worldwide issue as attentions to health status of older populations increase. As people age, they face different situations that lead them to the current point, satisfaction and health or vise versa. Researchers have conducted and identified various reasons affecting the health of elders. For example, childlessness, marital status, unemployment, and poor social integration are all recognized risk factors that influence the quality of life of older populations. Childlessness has raised a great concern since 1990, as one in every five elders aged over 65 report not having children (Zhang & Hayward, 2001)....   [tags: Gender, race, health]
:: 12 Works Cited
2006 words
(5.7 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Facebook and Social Networking Essay - Facebook is rapidly attracting multitudes of visitors every month instigating a shift in communication. This change consequently presents that societies are choosing to become part of the popular Facebook culture for various reasons, such as its renowned opportunities for keeping in touch with current social circles, reunifying long lost family and friends and broadening prospects of finding new companions. Facebook removes some of the barriers that may limit our regularity of communication with people, upholding the geographic differences, social class, busy lifestyles and economic factors that may usually discourage us from regular contact....   [tags: Social Capital, Social Network]
:: 6 Works Cited
945 words
(2.7 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Social Development in the Global South Essay - ... Under an autocratic regime, the repression or weakness of the left, contributes to the lack of universal provision of social entitlements. According to their analysis, “authoritarianism had negative effects on education spending” (H&S 7) while democracy had a strong direct effect on poverty and inequality through investments on education. While democracy to them seems to be the most important factor influencing the provision and expansion of social entitlements, they however, made it clear that ‘long-term’ democracies are better off at providing social benefits (H&S 241) ....   [tags: causes of social entitlements]
:: 2 Works Cited
1950 words
(5.6 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Obesity among Latino Women Essay - Obesity among Hispanic Latino women between the ages of twenty and sixty-four years old is a current health disparity in the United States. Nutrition, physical activity and obesity are one of the twelve leading health indicators categorized as significant public health issues by Healthy People 2020. Obesity is classified as anyone who exceeds body mass index (BMI) of thirty. According to Women’s Health, three in four Latino women are overweight or obese ("Overweight and obesity," 2010). Compared to other ethnicities, Hispanic Latino women were 1.36 times more likely to be overweight/obese than non-Hispanic white women (Vahratian, 2009)....   [tags: nutrition, physical activity, health, diet]
:: 16 Works Cited
2657 words
(7.6 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Being Deported from Any Country Seems Like a Degrading Experience among Jamaicans - Being deported from any country seems like a degrading experience among Jamaicans, quite often a myriad of ills caused by deportees are highlighted, but how does the act of deportation affect the deportees. Many of whom migrated with their parents at a young age, spent their adolescent lives and later matured into adult-hood overseas. Having been schooled, socialized and naturalized in foreign cultures and ways of living, a fraction of the almost three thousand individuals expelled annually by those countries they called home arrive in Jamaica displaced and with vulnerabilities....   [tags: psychological effects and trauma] 1956 words
(5.6 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Essay about The Effects of Incarceration on the Family - Introduction According to Bowen’s (2013) family systems theory, individuals in a family unit are all interconnected and the system is comprised of interlocking connections (Bowen, 2013). Consequently, whenever an individual in a family system is experiencing a stressor or problem the other individuals in the system will be affected by the stressor and will experience a change in the family system (Bowen, 2013). Bowen (2013) suggests that this family system can be used to understand the dynamics of the family unit and explains that an individual’s behavior has a specific function in his or her own family system (Bowen, 2013)....   [tags: Social Issues, Bowen Theory, Gun Control]
:: 6 Works Cited
1192 words
(3.4 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
The Negative Effects of Instant Messaging in the Workplace Essay - As the tremendous evolution of technology has quickly changed people's lives, instant messaging (IM) today is considered as a set of communication technologies used for text-based communication between two or more people. Garrett and Danziger (2008) demonstrate that people who utilize IM at work are likely to be interrupted less than non users and concurrently use computers to do both work-related and personal communication more regularly than others. However, this essay argues negative impacts resulting in losing concentration from work, increasing the distance among people and devaluating social language used in real life....   [tags: Concentration, Distance, Social Language]
:: 5 Works Cited
681 words
(1.9 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Examining the Effects of Social Pressure on Content-Rating in Content-Sharing Websites. - Research background/motivation Content-sharing websites are websites that allow users to post content which they deem as useful or interesting. These posts are then rated by other users by either “up-voting” or “down-voting”. Posts which are highly-rated are automatically filtered out and placed in the most prominent section which is usually the front page, of the website. The value of such websites lies in the fact that it is able to aggregate some of the most interesting web content in a single place....   [tags: Technology ]
:: 4 Works Cited
1086 words
(3.1 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Human Nature Essay - As humans there are both similarities and differences among the different people and cultures in the world. Several aspects of human experience that are common to all people are kinship, security, and have their own highly regarded ideas and dreams. These are universal because common human nature is rooted in all humans that have been observed by anthropologists throughout the centuries. Several major kinds of differences between people are the argument between modernization and traditionalism; the division of power between classes, government, and the people; and bonds within the family unit; the perception of a woman’s role....   [tags: kinship, security, hope, ties that bind]
:: 13 Works Cited
2517 words
(7.2 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Mean Girls: Relational Aggression Among Middle School Girls Essay - Extensive research, endless stories and our personal histories have shown us the long-lasting impact on relational aggression amongst young girls in middle school. Regardless of the ways in which this aggression is played out in our schools, the adverse effects on adolescent girls are massive and damaging. Rather than consistently socializing these young women to believe that they are inherently different – more fragile, more emotional, ‘less than’, we as teachers need to be working at the grassroots level to show their commonality in the same struggles, and how building community with one another will not only save their lives but assist them in becoming successful global citizens....   [tags: socialization, schools, emotional, damage]
:: 3 Works Cited
871 words
(2.5 pages)
Better Essays [preview]