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Animal Experimentation Issues and Alternatives Essay examples

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1. INTRODUCTION
Currently, Animals experimentation is becoming a controversial topic. As millions of creatures have been tested to benefit human life. A simple definition of this procedure is observing scientific laboratory examinations on live animals. There are many campaigns around the world which reject these tests and request the alternatives. They believe that this kind of experimentation is harmful for people as much as it is cruel to animals while others argue these experiments are substantial for humans live as they are used in important medical research. In this project I will present different areas of this hotly debated issue with an important clarification of the history of animals testing and the common use of it with outlining both negative and positive aspects of them. Then, I will offer possible alternatives to these experiments .
2. HISTORY OF ANIMAL TESTING
Animal experiments history can be referred to ancient Greeks and Romans writings. The first experiments on living animals were performed by a Greek scientist called Erasistratus in 18th century. During the18th and 19thcenturies these tests transferred from being relatively uncommon to a scientific mainstream. In Russia, the development of embryos was discovered by the Zoologist Christian Pander In 1817, which led to same discovery in human embryos. Additionally, in 1912, dogs were used to study rejoining severed nerves by a French surgeon called Alexis Carrel. This was the first step in organ transplantation.
In 1921, Frederick Banting caused the revolution of diabetes medicines by improving the pancreatic ducts of dogs, and discovered that the isolation of pancreatic secretion can keep dogs with diabetes alive. He followed ...


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.... London and New York: Zed books ltd.
Guerrini, A. 2003. Experimenting with Humans and Animals: from Galen to Animals Rights. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Orlans, F. 1993. In the name of Science: Issue in responsible Animal Experimentation. Oxford: Oxford University press.
Smyth, D. 1978. Alternatives to Animal Experiments. London: Scolar press in association with the Research Defence Society.
Society of Toxicology Organisation. 2008. Animal in Research: The Importance of Animals in the Science of Toxicology[online]. Virginia. Available from: http//: toxicology. org/ ai/ air/ ATR_Final.pdf. [Accessed 20 June 2010].
Feldman, E.2010. Alfred Taubman Medical Research Institute: stem cells offer hope toconquer ALS[online]. Michigan. Available from:. http://www.med.umich.edu/taubmaninstitute/Scholars/feldman.htm. [ Accessed 16 June 2010]


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